Berkeley Springs, West Virginia
Berkeley Springs is a town in, the county seat of, Morgan County, West Virginia, United States, in the state's Eastern Panhandle. While the area was part of Virginia, the town was incorporated as Bath. Since 1802, it has been referred to by the name of its original Virginia post office, Berkeley Springs; the population of the town was 800. The town is located within MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley Springs is a sister city to Bath, England; the area contains mineral water springs that were frequented by Native Americans indigenous to the area for thousands of years. After settlement by Europeans, the mineral springs drew many visitors from urban areas. Notable colonial visitors to the area included James Rumsey. Berkeley Springs remained a popular resort area during the early years of the United States, it is the home of the Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting, the longest running and largest such event in the world. The area continues to be a popular resort area with tourism the main industry in the county and four full-service spas using the mineral water.
A historic building whose construction began in 1888, was built as a retreat for Rosa and Samuel Taylor Suit overlooking the town. It is called "Berkeley Castle". Berkeley Springs is a noted arts community with working artists accounting for 1% of the county population of 16,000. Since 1994, the town has been listed in all four editions of John Villani's "100 Best Art Towns in America". During colonial times in 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the team that surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Washington returned several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill, in hopes that the warm springs might improve his health; the springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area. While vacationing in the area in 1767, Washington made note of how busy the colonial town had become. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
With the advent of independence, An act for establishing a town at the Warm Springs in the county of Berkeley was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in December 1776. The town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city of Bath. George Washington, his family members and several of the colonial elite were among the town's first landowners; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Four acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." The area around the springs always was public land known as The Grove and overseen by a state-appointed group of Berkeley Springs trustees. This would become a historic park with its springs and bathhouses, made part of the West Virginia state park system in 1925. Nearby, Cacapon State Park was opened in 1933; the mountain that gives its name to the park has an elevation of 2,320 feet above sea level. Bath's population increased during and after, the Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities.
Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. In 1772, the springs were part of the newly formed Berkeley County, named after its colonial governor, Norborne Berkeley; the waters became known as Berkeley Springs because the existing protocol was to name springs after the colonial Virginia county in which they were located. The area had been called Warm Springs and Medicinal Springs among other names. Bath became known permanently to the world as Berkeley Springs in 1802 when the Virginia postal system was established in the new nation and there was a Bath, Virginia, in Bath County. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, in which 50 northwestern counties of Virginia decided to break away from Virginia during the American Civil War; the new state was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Berkeley Springs remained the conventional name used for the town, its Sister City is England.
Berkeley Springs is located at 39°37′32″N 78°13′37″W, in the Appalachian Mountains. The town lies in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia 26 miles NW of Martinsburg, West Virginia and 36 miles W of Hagerstown, Maryland. Berkeley Springs is the county seat of Morgan County. Morgan County makes up one of the western counties in the Eastern Panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the incorporated town of Bath has a total area of 0.34 square miles, all land. The main road through the town is U. S. Route 522. West Virginia Route 9 runs west through the town. There are two rivers in Morgan County; the Potomac makes up the northern border and the Cacapon River cuts through the center of the county connecting with the Potomac at Great Cacapon. The Cacapon and Sleepy Creek Mountains are the two most notable mountains in the county. Berkeley Springs is nestled in the extreme northern Shenandoah Valley at an elevation of 499 feet. Warm Spring Run cuts through the center of the town and connects with the Potomac River near the Hancock Station.
Sleepy Creek connects with the Potomac along River Road east of the town. As of the census of 2010, there were 624 people, 314 households, 158 families residing in the incorporated town of Bath; the population density was 1,835.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 416 housing units at an aver
Cherry Run is a 7.2-mile-long meandering stream that forms the northern section of the boundary between Morgan and Berkeley counties in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. While it is non-navigable, Cherry Run provides many pools of varying depths for fishing and swimming; as a tributary of the Potomac River, Cherry Run is part of the Potomac and Chesapeake Bay watersheds. Cherry Run is formed by mountain springs on the northern flanks of Third Hill Mountain south of Paines Knob. From its source, it acts as a natural boundary between Berkeley Counties. Cherry Run flows southeast through the Sleepy Creek Wildlife Management Area via a gap in Short Mountain, its direction shifts northeastward following along the eastern flanks of Short Mountain. Through Sleepy Hollow, Cherry Run is dammed to create Sleepy Hollow Lake. Further north, it is joined by three unnamed spring-fed streams. Cherry Run shifts eastward away from Short Mountain, running under West Virginia Route 9 and by the community of Holton.
From Holton, the stream curves northeast running parallel to the east of Sleepy Creek Road. Cherry Run meanders eastward to the south of the town of Cherry Run. After flowing under the bridges of Camp Hill Road and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Cherry Run empties into the Potomac River directly across from the community of Big Pool, Maryland; the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources owns a public access site with several concrete ramps for small boats at the mouth of Cherry Run for fishing. List of West Virginia rivers
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops is a historic industrial district in Martinsburg, West Virginia. It is significant both for its railroading architecture by Albert Fink and John Rudolph Niernsee and for its role in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, it consists of three contributing buildings, one of, the oldest covered roundhouse in the United States. The presence of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company in Martinsburg dates back to the late 1840s, when the first engine and machine shops were erected for the expanding company; the shops were designated a National Historic Landmark and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. They are now managed by a local authority as an event venue; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was founded on February 28, 1827. On May 21, 1842, the first steam locomotive arrived in Martinsburg and that same year, November 10, the first passenger train; the first roundhouse complex was constructed from 1848-1850. When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the region's social and government institutions were thrown in turmoil.
The Civil War decimated both the region and Martinsburg because of the railroad yards. On May 22, 1861, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson's troops stopped all trains going East at Martinsburg and Point of Rocks during the Great Train Raid of 1861. Once he determined that all of the trains that could be caught were in his trap, he blew up the bridges to the West and blew down the rocks on the tracks to the East, pirating of the B&O equipment began. In total, 42 locomotives and 386 cars were destroyed. 36-½ miles of track, 17 bridges, 102 miles of telegraph wire, the “Colonnade” Bridge and the B&O roundhouse and machine shops were destroyed. On October 19, 1862, the roundhouse complex was burned by Confederate troops under Colonel Jackson. In 1866, the B&O began reconstruction of the site. From 1866 to 1872, the present roundhouse complex was re-built. Other major buildings that were built at this time were the West Roundhouse, East Roundhouse, Bridge & Machine Shop, the Frog & Switch Shop. On July 16, 1877, the first nationwide strike, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, began when rail workers at Martinsburg started an action to protest pay cuts.
Their work and traffic stoppage soon spread across the country.1 The Martinsburg shops were used until March 14, 1988, when all local operations were transferred to other locations. On May 14, 1990, vandals set fire to wooden pallets in the East Roundhouse, nearly destroying the building. Only portions of the outer walls remain standing; the Berkeley County Commission purchased the historic railroad property in February 1999 for $150,000 from CSX Transportation Inc. The property was transferred to the Berkeley County Roundhouse Authority in April 2000; the roundhouse authority, a public, nonprofit corporation was established by an act of the West Virginia Legislature in 1999. Efforts to preserve and redevelop the historic railroad site, which dates to the 1840s, is ongoing, but the buildings are open for public tours and can be rented for special events. On July 31, 2003, the B&O Roundhouse was designated a National Historic Landmark and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
List of National Historic Landmarks in West Virginia List of railway roundhouses National Register of Historic Places listings in Berkeley County, West Virginia Media related to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops at Wikimedia Commons Berkeley County Roundhouse Authority - Preservation and rehabilitation agency Scale Drawings of East and West Roundhouses Historic American Engineering Record No. WV-1, "Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg Repair Shops, West Side of Tuscarora Creek Opposite East End of Race Street, Berkeley, WV", 11 photos, 4 data pages, 1 photo caption page
CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The railroad operates 21,000 route miles of track; the company operates as a subsidiary of CSX Corporation, a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida. CSX Corporation was formed on November 1, 1980, by combining the railroads of the former Chessie System with Seaboard Coast Line Industries; the name came about during merger talks between Chessie System and SCL called "Chessie" and "Seaboard". The company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions. At the same time a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. "CSC" was belonged to a trucking company in Virginia. "CSM" was taken. The lawyers decided to use "CSX", the name stuck. In the public announcement, it was said. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, X, which has no meaning."
However, an August 9, 2016, article on the Railway Age website stated that "... the'X' was for'Consolidated' ". The T had to be added to CSX when used as a reporting mark because reporting marks that end in X means that the car is owned by a leasing company or private car owner; the company introduced its current slogan, "How Tomorrow Moves", in 2008. The originator of SCL was the former Seaboard Air Line Railroad, which merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1967 to form the Seaboard Coast Line. In years, it merged with the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, as well as several smaller subsidiaries such as the Clinchfield Railroad, Atlanta & West Point Railroad, Monon Railroad and the Georgia Railroad. From the late 1960s onward these railroads were known collectively as the Family Lines. In 1982, they were merged into the Seaboard System Railroad; the origin of the Chessie System was the former Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, which had merged with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Western Maryland Railway.
Despite the merger in 1980, CSX Transportation never had its own identity as a common carrier railroad until 1986. In that year, Seaboard System changed its name to CSX Transportation. On April 30, 1987, the B&O merged into the C&O. With the Western Maryland having merged into the C&O, this left the C&O as the sole operating railroad under the Chessie System banner. On August 31, 1987, C&O/Chessie System merged into CSX Transportation, bringing all of the major CSX railroads under one banner. On June 23, 1997, CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchase and operate the assets of the 11,000-mile Conrail, created in 1976 by bringing together several ailing Northeastern railway systems into a government-owned corporation. On June 6, 1998, the STB approved the CSX–NS application and set August 22, 1998, as the effective date of its decision. CSX acquired 42 percent of Conrail's assets, NS received the remaining 58 percent.
As a result of the transaction, CSX's rail operations grew to include some 3,800 miles of the Conrail system. CSX began operating its trains on its portion of the Conrail network on June 1, 1999. CSX now serves much of the Eastern United States, with a few routes into nearby Canadian cities. In 2014, Canadian Pacific Railway approached CSX with an offer to merge the two companies, but CSX declined, in 2015 Canadian Pacific made an attempt to purchase and merge with Norfolk Southern, but NS declined to do so as well. In 2017, CSX announced. CSX added five new directors including Harrison and Mantle Ridge founder Paul Hilal. Mantle Ridge owns 4.9 percent of CSX. On December 14, 2017, CSX announced. Two days after the announcement, Harrison died, one day after being hospitalized for complications of an ongoing illness. CSX saw a 10% drop in its stock price, but turned around to hit a new 52-week high less than a month later. CSX operates the Juice Train which consists of Tropicana cars that carry fresh orange juice between Bradenton and the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey.
The train runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce, via the Florida East Coast Railway. In the 21st century, the Juice Train has been studied as a model of efficient rail transportation that can compete with trucks and other modes in the perishable-goods trade. All Tropicana trains are now added to Intermodal Trains such as Q188 and Q124. Coke Express trains run between Pittsburgh and Chicago, other places in the Rust Belt, carrying coke to industries steel mills. CSX runs daily trash trains Q702 and Q703 from The Bronx to Philadelphia and Petersburg, where they interchange with NS; these trains consist of 89-foot flatcars loaded with four containers of trash. Another pair of trains, Q710 and Q711, originate in Kearny, New Jersey, terminate in Russell, Kentucky. Another style of unit train is a local trash train, D765, that runs between the Maryland towns of Derwood and Dickerson; the train runs daily except on Sundays. Trash is carried from Montgomery County's Shady Grove Transfer Station to a was
A junction, in the context of rail transport, is a place at which two or more rail routes converge or diverge. This implies a physical connection between the tracks of the two routes, provided by points and signalling. Junctions are important for rail systems, their installation into a rail system can reduce route capacity, have a powerful impact upon on-time performance. In a simple case where two routes with one or two tracks each meet at a junction, a simple layout of tracks suffices to allow trains to transfer from one route to the other. More complicated junctions are needed to permit trains to travel in either direction after joining the new route, for example by providing a triangular track layout. In this latter case, the three points of the triangle may be given different names, for example using points of the compass as well as the name of the overall place. Rail transport operations refer to stations that lie on or near a railway junction as a junction station. In the UK it is customary for the junction to be named after the next station on the branch, e.g. Yeovil Junction is on the mainline railway south of Yeovil, the next destination on the branch is Yeovil Pen Mill.
Trains are built up and taken apart at such stations so that the same train can split up and go to multiple destinations. For goods trains, marshalling yards serve a similar purpose; the world's first railway junction was Newton Junction near Newton-le-Willows, England where, in 1831, two railways merged. The capacity of the junctions limits the capacity of a railway network more than the capacity of individual railway lines; this applies more. Measures to improve junctions are more useful than building new railway lines; the capacity of a railway junction can be increased with improved signalling measures, by building points suitable for higher speeds, or by turning level junctions into flying junctions. With more complicated junctions such construction can become expensive if space is restricted by tunnels, bridges or inner-city tracks; the installation of junctions into a rail system poses many challenges, including increased maintenance costs, problems in on-time performance. Rapid transit have a rail network design.
Passengers, not trains, move from one train station to another. Metro style rail systems have become popular because of their efficiency, high on-time performance. Another solution to removing junctions is to install a flying junction, where tracks are grade separation, so one track passes over/under one another. Rail terminology Interlocking Railway town Double junction Railroad switch
Western Maryland Railway
The Western Maryland Railway was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania. It was a coal hauling and freight railroad, with a small passenger train operation; the WM became a property of the Chessie System holding company in 1973, although it continued independent operations until May 1975 after which time many of its lines were abandoned in favor of parallel Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lines. In 1983 it was merged into the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, merged with the former Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad into the Chessie System in 1987, now renamed as CSX Transportation; the original main line began with the chartering of the Baltimore and Frederick Railroad in 1852, with the intent of building a rail line from Baltimore west to Washington County, Maryland. The Maryland General Assembly changed the name of the company to the Western Maryland Rail Road Company in 1853, construction began from Owings Mills in 1857. An existing Northern Central Railway branch line terminating at Owings Mills was used to connect into Baltimore.
The railroad was completed to Westminster in 1861 and Union Bridge in 1862. Further expansion was delayed because of the Civil War. Westward construction resumed in 1868 under Chief Engineer Joseph S. Gitt, the line was completed to Hagerstown in 1872; this section became the East Subdivision. The company's first major car shops were established at Union Bridge. In 1873 the WM built its own line from Owings Mills to Fulton Junction in Baltimore, obtained trackage rights from the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad for the remaining two miles of the route eastward to Union Station, it built a branch east of Union Station to Hillen Station, which opened in 1876 and became the company headquarters. The WM built a connection from Hagerstown to Williamsport, in order to access coal traffic from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Under the leadership of company president John Mifflin Hood, the railway made its first extension into Pennsylvania by leasing a line from Edgemont, Maryland, to Waynesboro and Shippensburg.
This line became the Lurgan Subdivision and was leased from the Baltimore and Cumberland Valley Railroad in 1881, was connected to the Harrisburg and Potomac Railroad in 1886. A second route into Pennsylvania, the Hanover Subdivision, was acquired by the WM when it gained control of the Baltimore and Hanover Railroad, the Gettysburg Railroad, in late 1886; this line connected to the WM main at Emory Grove, proceeded north to Hanover and Gettysburg southwest to connect again to the WM at Highfield, near the Pennsylvania border. A branch from Porters to York, Pennsylvania was completed in 1893; the WM established a connection with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1892 with the opening of the Potomac Valley Rail Road between Williamsport and Big Pool, Maryland. This connection brought a major increase in through-freight traffic. Construction of an extension from Hagerstown to Cumberland began in 1903 and completed in 1906; this became the West Subdivision. To service the expanded system, the WM built a major shop complex at Hagerstown in 1909, with a roundhouse, machine shops and related facilities.
Rail yards at Hagerstown were expanded. The Fuller Syndicate, led by George Gould, purchased a controlling interest in the WM in 1902 and made plans for westward expansion of the system. In 1904 the WM completed construction of a large marine terminal at Port Covington, on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, to support the Gould organization's expansion plans; the terminal facilities included coal and merchandise piers, overhead cranes, 11 rail yards, warehouses, a roundhouse, a turntable and a machine shop. In the 1920s rotary dumpers for coal and coke were installed, a large grain elevator. In 1907 the syndicate acquired several railroad companies, including the George's Creek and Cumberland Railroad, which had built a line west through the Cumberland Narrows, south to Lonaconing, Maryland. Using the portion of the line through the Narrows, the Connellsville Extension was built west from Cumberland to Connellsville, beginning in 1910, it was completed in 1912. At Connellsville the WM connected with the Lake Erie Railroad.
In 1915 the WM obtained trackage rights on a B&O line from Bowest Junction to Chiefton, West Virginia, which provided access to coal mines in the area west of Fairmont, West Virginia. The GC&C line provided the WM with access to mines in the Georges Creek Valley. In 1927 the WM abandoned some of the GC&C track and accessed additional mines in the area through trackage rights on the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1944 the WM purchased the C&P, formally merged the operations in 1953. Although never a giant, the Connellsville subdivision of WM handled through midwest fast freight traffic and coal from company-owned mines near Fairmont and Somerset, Pennsylvania. WM opened a passenger station in Cumberland and one in Hagerstown in 1913; the Cumberland station contained the offices for the Western Division. Today the building is called Canal Place, a facility operated by the National Park Service, includes the station for the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and a visitors center for the C&O Canal National Historic Park.
It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The Hagerstown station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway began as a narrow gauge line in 1880, its name and gauge changed in 1881 and in the ensuing years it opened a huge swath of timber and coal territory in th
Big Pool, Maryland
Big Pool is an unincorporated community in western Washington County, United States. Its population was 82 as of the 2010 census, it is between Clear Spring and Hancock, Maryland along U. S. Route 40 and is a part of the Hagerstown Metropolitan Area. To the south of Big Pool lies Fort Frederick State Park, a restored fort used during the French and Indian War. Nearby is the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, which lies near Ft. Frederick alongside the Potomac River. Big Pool is the name of a large body of water, part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal; this pool occurs at the 113 mile mark, it is on what the canallers called the 14 mile level. Fort Frederick State Park Official C & O Canal National Historical Park Service Site