A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting, or felting. The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres, a fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric used for a specific purpose. The word textile is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning woven, from textus, the word cloth derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for such as bags. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Textiles are used in traditional crafts such as sewing, quilting. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met, woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of self-powering nanosystems using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs. Textiles can be made from many materials and these materials come from four main sources, plant and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, in the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas, microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree
The Ulch are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East who speak a Tungusic language, Ulch. Over 90% of Ulchis live in Ulchsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, according to the 2010 Census there were 2,765 Ulchs in Russia. Anthropologically, no clear racial groups exist, some of them belong to the so-called Sakhalin-Amur group, like the Nivkhs
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Asian black bear
The Asian black bear, known as the moon bear, Asiatic black bear and white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life. It lives in the Himalayas, in the parts of the Indian subcontinent, northeastern China, the Russian Far East, the Honshū and Shikoku islands of Japan. It is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, mostly because of deforestation, the species is morphologically very similar to some prehistoric bears, and is thought by some scientists to be the ancestor of other extant bear species. Though largely herbivorous, Asian black bears can be aggressive toward humans. Asian black bears are black and have a light brown muzzle and they are white on the chin, and have a distinct white patch on the chest, which sometimes has the shape of a V. Their ears are bell shaped, proportionately longer than those of other bears, adults measure 70–100 cm at the shoulder, and 120–190 cm in length. Adult males weigh 60–200 kg with a weight of about 135 kg.
Adult females weigh 40–125 kg, and large ones up to 140 kg, Asian black bears are similar in general appearance to brown bears, but are more lightly built and are more slender limbed. The lips and nose are larger and more mobile than those of brown bears, the skulls of Asian black bears are relatively small, but massive, particularly in the lower jaw. Adult males have skulls measuring 311.7 to 328 mm in length and 199. 5–228 mm in width, while female skulls are 291. 6–315 mm long, the lateral slips of the temporal muscles are thicker and stronger in black bears. A black bear with broken hind legs can still climb effectively, in contrast to polar bears, Asian black bears have powerful upper bodies for climbing trees, and relatively weak hind legs which are shorter than those in brown bears and American black bears. They are the most bipedal of all bears, and have known to walk upright for over a quarter mile. The heel pads on the forefeet are larger than those of most other bear species. Their claws, which are used for climbing and digging, are slightly longer on the fore foot than the back.
On average, adult Asian black bears are slightly smaller than American black bears, though large males can exceed the size of several other bear species. The famed British sportsman known as the Old Shekarry wrote of how a black bear he shot in India probably weighed no less than 363 kg based on how many people it took to lift its body, the largest Asian black bear on record allegedly weighed 200 kg. Zoo-kept specimens can weigh up to 225 kg, although their senses are more acute than those of brown bears, their eyesight is poor, and their hearing range is moderate, the upper limit being 30 kHz. Biologically and morphologically, Asian black bears represent the beginning of the arboreal specialisations attained by sloth bears, Asian black bears have karyotypes nearly identical to those of the five other ursine bears, and, as is typical in the genus, they have 74 chromosomes
The Oroqen people are an ethnic group in northern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. As of the 2000 Census,44. 54% of the Oroqen lived in Inner Mongolia and 51. 52% along the Heilongjiang River in the province of Heilongjiang, the Oroqen Autonomous Banner is located in Inner Mongolia. The Oroqens are mainly hunters, and customarily use animal fur, many of them have given up hunting and adhered to laws that aimed to protect wildlife in the Peoples Republic of China. The government is said to have provided modern dwellings for those who have left behind the way of life. The Oroqen are represented in the Peoples Congress by their own delegate and are an ethnic minority. The Oroqen language is a Northern Tungusic language and their language is very similar to the Evenki language and it is believed that speakers of these two languages can understand 70% of the other language. Their language is unwritten, the majority of the Oroqen are capable of reading and writing Chinese.
The Oroqen are one of the oldest ethnic groups in northeast China, the endonym oroqen means people using reindeer. The ancestor of the Oroqen originally lived in the vast area south of the Outer Xingan Mountains and they once formed part of the ancient people known as the Shiwei. In the 17th century, following invasions by the Russian Empire, the Oroqen are exogamous, only marriages among members of different clans being permitted. The traditional dwelling is called a sierranju and is covered in the summer with birch bark and these dwellings have conical forms and are made out of 20 to 30 pine sticks. The dwellings are usually about six meters in diameter and five meters in height, in the centre a fire is placed that serves as a kitchen, as well as a source of lighting. Birch bark is an important raw material in the traditional culture alongside the furs and it serves for the preparation of containers of all types, from the manufacture of children cradles to boats. With respect to the herding of the Evenki and Nanai.
Until the early 1950s the main religion of the nomadic Oroqen was shamanism, in the summer of 1952 cadres of the Chinese communist party coerced the leaders of the Oroqen to give up their superstitions and abandon any religious practices. These tribal leaders and Zhao Li Ben, were powerful shamans, the special community ritual to send away the spirits and beg them not to return was held over three nights in Baiyinna and in Shibazhan. The last living shaman of the Oroqen, died at the age of 73 on 9 October 2000 and his life, initiatory illness, and training as a shaman are detailed in a published article, available online
The Sikhote-Alin is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, extending about 900 kilometres to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok. The highest summits are Tordoki Yani at 2,077 metres above sea level, Ko Mountain in Khabarovsk Krai, although Sikhote-Alin is a temperate zone, species typical of northern taiga coexist with tropical species, the Amur leopard, Siberian tiger, and the Asiatic black bear. The region holds very few wolves, due to competition with tigers, the oldest tree in the region is a millennium-old Japanese yew. The large Sikhote-Alin and Lazo wildlife refuges were set up in 1935 to preserve the regions unusual wildlife, on February 12,1947, one of the largest meteor showers in recent history occurred in the Sikhote-Alin mountains. The Sikhote-Alin meteorite exploded in the atmosphere as it fell, raining many tons of metal on a region about 1.3 square kilometres in area. Craters were formed by the meteors, the largest was 26 metres in diameter, the World Heritage site has a total area of 16,319 square kilometres, of which the terrestrial core zone of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik comprises 3,985 square kilometres.
The core zone can only be explored in a company of rangers
Primorsky Krai, informally known as Primorye, is the Russian name for a province of Russia. Primorsky means maritime in Russian, so in English translation it is known as the Maritime Province or Maritime Territory and its administrative center is in the city of Vladivostok. Today, Primorsky Krai has the largest economy in the Russian Far East, borders length — over 3,000 kilometers, including 1,350 kilometers of the sea borders. Highest peak — Anik Mountain,1,933 meters Railroads length —1,628 kilometers and it is stretched in the meridianal direction, the distance from its extreme northern point to its most southerly point being about 900 kilometers. Highlands dominate the territory of the krai, most of the territory is mountainous, and almost 80% of it is forested. The average elevation is about 500 meters, Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation, extending for the most part of the Krai. It consists of a number of ranges, the Partizansky, the Siny, the Kholodny. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye, the relatively accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa cave in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists.
There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area, most rivers in the Krai have rocky bottoms and limpid water. The largest among them is the Ussuri, with a length of 903 kilometers, the head of the Ussuri River originates 20 kilometers to the East of Oblachnaya Mountain. The vast Khanka Lowlands extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, a part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far East, Khanka Lake, is occupied by a forest-steppe. The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora, the fauna of Primorye is diverse. Among 690 species of birds inhabiting the territory of the former USSR,350 are found in Primorye, rich fisheries of salmon, Hucho taimen and marine fisheries of crab and other species make the aquatic and maritime environment a valuable resource for the region. However, the diversity of wildlife in Primorye is threatened by poaching. Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund, Wild Salmon Center, average annual temperature — near +1 °C in the north of the krai, +5.5 °C on the southern coast.
Average annual precipitation — 600–850 mm, the acquisition of Siberia by the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East brought the Russians into direct contact with China. The Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689 demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountains, including Primorye, to the Qing Empire. However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire in the half of the 19th century