Chertsey is a town in the Runnymede borough of Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Thames where it is met by a corollary, the Abbey River and a tributary, the River Bourne or Chertsey Bourne. It is within a narrow projection of the Greater London Urban Area, aside from the Thames bordered by Thorpe Park, junction 11 of the M25 London orbital motorway, the town of Addlestone and south-western semi-rural villages that were within Chertsey. Chertsey is centred 29 kilometres southwest of central London, has a branch line railway station and less than 1 mile north of its developed centre is the M3. Chertsey's built environment has the medieval tower and chancel roof of its Anglican church and 18th century listed buildings including the stone Chertsey Bridge, Botleys Mansion within a public-access park, many of the buildings along its two right-angled streets forming a church/museum/café/hotel/private housing and general high street respectively. A curfew bell is run at 8pm on weekdays from Michaelmas to Lady Day and is associated with the romantic local legend of Blanche Heriot, celebrated by a statue of the heroine at Chertsey Bridge.
Its green spaces include sports fields, the Thames Path National Trail, Chertsey Meads and a round knoll with remains of a prehistoric hill fort known as Eldebury Hill. The area has much expensive domestic property such as Pyrcroft House from the 18th century and the replacement of'Tara' from the late 20th century. Adjoining are the main areas of woodland and a few remaining agricultural and equestrian fields to the south-west and north; this place appears in the endowment charter of its abbey in the 7th century as Cirotisege or Cerotesege – that is, the island of Cirotis. Chertsey was one of the oldest market towns in England, its Church of England parish church dates to the 12th century and the farmhouse of the'Hardwick' in the elevated south-west is of 16th century construction. It grew to all sides but the north around Chertsey Abbey, founded in 666 A. D by Eorcenwald, Bishop of London on a donation by Frithwald. Accordingly, until the end of use of the hundreds, used in the feudal system until the establishment of Rural Districts and Urban District Councils, the name chosen for the wider Chertsey area hundred was Godley Hundred.
In the 9th century the Abbey and town were sacked by the Danes, leaving a mark today in the name of the neighbouring village and refounded as a subsidiary abbey from Abingdon Abbey by King Edgar in 964. Chertsey appears in the Domesday Book as Certesi, it was held by Chertsey Abbey and by Richard Sturmid from the abbey. Its Domesday assets were: 5 hides, 1 mill and 1 forge at the hall, 20 ploughs, 80 hectares of meadow, woodland worth 50 hogs, it rendered a larger than average sum for the book of manor and ecclesiastical parish entries, £22. The Abbey grew to become one of the largest Benedictine abbeys in England, supported by large fiefs in the northwest corner of Sussex and Surrey until it was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1536; the King took stone from the Abbey to construct his palace at Oatlands Palace. By the late 17th century, only some outer walls of the Abbey remained. During this period until at least 1911 a wider area was included in Chertsey: Ottershaw was an ecclesiastical district.
Today the history of the abbey is reflected in local place names and the surviving former fishponds that fill with water after heavy rain. The nearby Hardwick Court Farm, now much reduced in size and cut off from the town by the M25, has the successor to the abbey's large and well-supported 15th century tithe barn rebuilt in the 17th century; the eighteenth-century Chertsey Bridge provides an important cross-river link, Chertsey Lock is a short distance above it on the opposite side. On the south west corner of the bridge is a bronze statue of local heroine Blanche Heriot striking the bell by Sheila MitchellFRBS; the summit of St Ann's Hill in Chertsey was a vital viewing point for the Anglo-French Survey, which calculated the distance between the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Paris Observatory using trigonometry. A grid of triangles was measured all the way to the French coast. In the 18th century Chertsey Cricket Club was one of the strongest in the country and beat the rest of England by more than an innings in 1778.
The Duke of Dorset, was appointed Ambassador to France in 1784. He arranged to have the Chertsey cricket team travel to France in 1789 to introduce cricket to the French nobility. However, the team, on arriving at Dover, met the Ambassador returning from France at the outset of the French Revolution and the opportunity was missed; the original Chertsey railway station was built by the London and Southampton Railway and opened on 14 February 1848. The present station, across the level crossing from the site of the original one, was opened on 10 October 1866 by the London and South Western Railway; the Southern Railway completed electrification of the line on 3 January 1937. Samuel Lewis devotes one of his longest entries to small town in his 1848 topographical guide to England: Chertsey Regatta has been held on the river for over 150 years, in the non-Olympic regional sport of skiffing which has a club on this reach of river; the Olympic sport of rowing has an annual Burway Regatta above Chertsey Lock, an area of former flood meadow and golf course.
The Burway was in the m
Sheffield Cricket Club
The Sheffield Cricket Club was founded in the 18th century and soon began to play a key role in the development of cricket in northern England. It was the direct forerunner of Yorkshire County Cricket Club and some of the teams fielded by Sheffield were styled Yorkshire. Sheffield held first-class status, depending on the quality of their opponents, from 1827 to 1855; the earliest known references to cricket in Yorkshire are in 1751. These relate to local matches in Sheffield and to a game on or soon after Monday, 5 August at Stanwick, near Richmond, between the Duke of Cleveland’s XI and Earl of Northumberland’s XI, it is believed that Sheffield Cricket Club was founded soon after that date and it began to play matches against teams from other northern towns, including some inter-county fixtures. Sheffield became the main centre for cricket in Yorkshire. In September 1757, a match took place between Wirksworth and Sheffield at Brampton Moor, near Chesterfield; this is the earliest reference to cricket in Derbyshire.
William White's History & General Directory of the Borough of Sheffield has the following information: "In 1757 we find the Town Trustees attempting the abolition of brutal sports by paying 14s6d to the cricket players on Shrove Tuesday to entertain the populace and prevent the infamous practice of throwing at cocks". Mr White does not give the primary source from which he himself derived the information but it would be in parish or town records of some kind which may or may not still exist. On Tuesday, 7 July 1761, the Leeds Intelligencer announced a game to be played at Chapeltown the following Thursday and this is the first game known to have been played in the Leeds area. On Thursday, 5 September 1765, the London Chronicle reported a "great match" on Monday, 26 August: Leeds v Sheffield at Chapeltown Moor, near Leeds. Sheffield won "with great difficulty"; as this game was rated and was reported by a London newspaper, it shows that cricket was well established in Yorkshire only 14 years after it was first reported there.
In August 1771, the first of many matches between Sheffield and Nottingham was held. This one took place on the Forest Racecourse at Nottingham and is the earliest known reference to cricket in Nottinghamshire and to any team from the county; the result of the game is unknown because "of a dispute having arisen by one of the Sheffield players being jostled" and the reports mention a Sheffield player called Osguthorpe who "kept in batting for several hours together". This match may tentatively be regarded as the beginning of county-level cricket in the north of England; the Sheffield club was representative of its county in a similar fashion to Nottingham and Manchester. Although standards of play in the south were much higher than in the north at this time, the same scenario can be observed re the Hornchurch, Chertsey and Hambledon clubs in their respective counties. In 1772, the Daily Messenger carried reports of a match in Sheffield on Monday, 1 June, in which Sheffield defeated Nottingham.
The Sheffield club continued to play occasional first-class matches against other northern clubs. In September 1833 occurred the first use of "Yorkshire" as the team name instead of "Sheffield"; this was in the Yorkshire v Norfolk match at Sheffield which Yorkshire won by 120 runs. The great Fuller Pilch was still playing for Norfolk. Yorkshire was by now finding star players of its own the fast bowling all-rounder Tom Marsden. Although the Sheffield and Manchester clubs had met there was a significant development on 23, 24 & 25 July 1849 when the match was called Yorkshire versus Lancashire at Hyde Park; this was the first match to involve a Lancashire county team and therefore, the first "Roses Match". Yorkshire won by 5 wickets. In the winter of 1854, the club agreed to build a new ground on land near to Bramall Lane which they were to lease from the Duke of Norfolk for ninety-nine years; the first game played at Bramall Lane on 30 April 1855 between "The Eleven" and "The Twenty-two" resulted in the senior team losing by an innings and 28 runs.
On 7 March 1861, a Match Fund Committee to run Yorkshire county matches was established in Sheffield, which had by been the home of Yorkshire cricket for nearly 100 years. It was from this fund; this was an exact parallel with the foundation of Sussex County Cricket Club from a similar fund. On 8 January 1863, the formation of Yorkshire County Cricket Club was agreed at a meeting of the Sheffield Match Fund Committee in the Adelphi Hotel, Sheffield; the new club was based at Bramall Lane and played its first inter-county match against Surrey at The Oval on 4, 5 & 6 June 1863. It was a rain-affected draw, evenly balanced; the foundation of Yorkshire superseded Sheffield, which ceased to be a first-class team in its own right. For the history of Yorkshire cricket since the foundation of the county club, see: Yorkshire County Cricket Club Highest team total: 282 v Manchester, Botanical Gardens, Manchester, 1854 Lowest team total: 39 v Nottingham, The Forest New Ground, Nottingham, 1829 Highest individual innings: 125 by Tom Marsden v Nottingham, Nottingham, 1828 Best bowling: 7/38 by Henry Wright v Manchester, Hyde Park Ground, Sheffield, 1852 ACS.
A Guide to First-Class Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles. Nottingham: ACS. ACS. A Guide to Important Cricket Matches Played in the British Isles 1709 – 1863. Nottingham: ACS. Birley, Derek. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum. ISBN 1-85410-710-0. Bowen, Rowland. Cricket: A History of i
Kent county cricket teams
Kent county cricket teams have been traced back to the 17th century but the county's involvement in cricket goes back much further than that. Kent, jointly with Sussex, is accepted as the birthplace of the sport, it is believed that cricket was first played by children living on the Weald in Saxon or Norman times. The world's earliest known organised match was held in Kent c.1611 and the county has always been at the forefront of cricket's development through the growth of village cricket in the 17th century to representative matches in the 18th. A Kent team took part in the earliest known inter-county match, played on Dartford Brent in 1709. Several famous players and patrons were involved in Kent cricket from until the creation of the first county club in 1842. Among them were William Bedle, Robert Colchin and the 3rd Duke of Dorset. Kent were regarded as the strongest county team in the first half of the 18th century and were always one of the main challengers to the dominance of Hambledon in the second half.
County cricket ceased through the Napoleonic War and was resurrected in 1826 when Kent played Sussex. By the 1830s, Kent remained so until mid-century. Cricket is believed to have developed out of other bat-and-ball games and was first played in early medieval times to the south and south-east of London in the geographical areas of the North Downs, the South Downs and the Weald; the world's earliest known organised match took place in c. 1611, at Chevening. A court case described it as a "cricketing of the Weald and the Upland versus the Chalk Hill". Cricket became established in Kent and its neighbouring counties through the 17th century with the development of village cricket and it is possible that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1705, a newspaper recorded an 11-a-side match between West of Kent and Chatham at a place called "Maulden", which does not exist. Historians have surmised that the venue must have been either Malling. Four years the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent.
It is believed, as asserted by G. B. Buckley, that "inter-county matches" till about 1730 were inter-parish matches involving two villages on either side of a county boundary. Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century and its team at this time featured William Bedle, acknowledged to have been cricket's first great player; the 1709 match is the earliest known mention of Dartford Brent as a venue. The Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians considers Kent to be one of cricket's "major counties" throughout its entire history and rates all Kent county matches in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as many played by teams called East Kent or West Kent, as first-class; the ACS have explained that any match between a strong Kent eleven and another top-class team justifies the classification but caution is needed with nomenclature because of the different committees and sponsors who organised the games and would sometimes use team names other than "Kent". Dartford came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team became representative of Kent as a county playing against teams from Sussex.
Stead developed a keen rivalry with the Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, Sir William Gage. Their teams would name themselves either by their counties or as the patron's XI. There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead's team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as "the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex"; the 1728 proclamation of Kent's superiority is the first time that the concept of a "Champion County" can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by a "turned the scales" comment made by a reporter after Sussex defeated Kent in 1729. The 1729 report added that the "scale of victory had been on the Kentish side for some years past". In 1730, a newspaper referred to the "Kentish champions". In his cricket history, Harry Altham titled his third chapter, about cricket in the second quarter of the 18th century, as "Kent, The First Champions". Strong teams played under the name of Kent throughout the 18th century with several famous patrons including Stead, Robert Colchin, Lord John Sackville, his son John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann organising teams.
In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation of a non-international England team, loosely termed "All-England" or, more the Rest of England, to play against them. Kent at this time were led by Lord John Sackville and his team won the first All-England match on Bromley Common. In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times; the most famous encounter was the one on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground, commemorated in a poem by James Love and is the subject of the world's second oldest scorecard. It is the opening match in Scores and Biographies. Kent, whose team included both Colchin and Sackville, won the match by one wicket. Under the Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field a strong team through the last quarter of the 18th century and were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club. Dartford had played against a Hambledo
Hadlow Cricket Club
Hadlow Cricket Club was one of the early English cricket clubs, formed in the early to mid eighteenth century. Hadlow is a village in the Medway valley near Tonbridge in Kent. A cricket club at Hadlow was mentioned in contemporary sources during the 1747 English cricket season and was mentioned by F S Ashley-Cooper, to be "a famous parish for cricket"; the Penny London Post of 1 July that year announced a match to be played on Dartford Breach for two guineas a man by Hadlow against Dartford Cricket Club as "the deciding match". There was no report of the outcome and no reports have been found of the previous fixtures either; the importance of the Hadlow team was confirmed when an important match at the Artillery Ground in July 1747 between teams led by the star players Robert Colchin and William Hodsoll included on Hodsoll's side John Larkin and others from the parish of Hadlow in Kent. In the month, "Five of Hadlow" twice opposed "Five of Slindon", the Sussex club, famous for Richard Newland and its challenges to the rest of England.
In August the same year when a Kent side played against All-England at the Artillery Ground, its team included Larkin and a player called Jones of Hadlow. The last mention of the original Hadlow club is a match against Addington Cricket Club, another of the "great little clubs" of the pre-MCC era, in 1751. Cricket is still played at Hadlow; the modern club was first mentioned in 1819 and the present ground is located off Common Road, to the north of the village. The pavilion cost £ 42.10 s to build. The club fields teams in the Kent County Village League. Hadlow Cricket Club website
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
F. S. Ashley-Cooper
Frederick Samuel Ashley-Cooper was a cricket historian and statistician. According to Wisden, Ashley-Cooper wrote "103 books and pamphlets on the game... besides a large amount of matter including 40,000 biographical or obituary notices". For more than thirty years he was responsible for "Births and Deaths" and "Cricket Records" in Wisden. Frail and short-sighted, he never played cricket, watched, but his "total involvement in the game precluded every other interest", his most notable works were: Cricket Magazine reproducing notices of known matches played 1742 to 1751 Sussex Cricket and Cricketers Curiosities of First-Class Cricket 1730-1901 Nottinghamshire Cricket and Cricketers The Hambledon Cricket Chronicle 1772-1796 Cricket Highways and Byways Kent Cricket Matches 1719-1880 Variations in first-class cricket statistics Wynne-Thomas, P. F S Ashley-Cooper - A Biographical Sketch & Bibliography, Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians, 2003
Duppas Hill is a park and surrounding residential area in Waddon, near Croydon in Greater London. Duppas Hill has a long history of recreation, it is said that jousting took place there in medieval times and the story goes that Lord William de Warenne was treacherously slain there during a joust in 1286. Duppas Hill was a used by Croydon Cricket Club for cricket matches in the 18th century; the earliest known match took place in 1707. It is recorded in the 1730s as the home venue of Croydon and sometimes by Surrey teams. Duppas Hill was the site of the Croydon workhouse. In 1726 the Vestry of Croydon resolved to erect the town's first workhouse at a site on what was called "Dubber's Hill"; the establishment was governed by a committee of Trustees. In 1836 it became the Croydon Poor Law Union workhouse; the workhouse moved to a new building at Thornton Heath in 1866, but the infirmary remained in the Duppas Hill buildings until 1885 and the establishment of a new infirmary close to the new workhouse.
There has been a public park at Duppas Hill since 1865, when the Croydon Board of Health bought land from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for £2,000 to create Croydon's first recreation ground. It was laid out with a bandstand, pavilion and an ornate drinking fountain; the Board of Health had to deal with drinking booths and other problems. The Board had proposed enclosing it with iron posts and railings intending to turn the area into a park rather than a recreation ground for all to enjoy sports and games and in particular aimed to restrict horse-riding; some of the Board wanted to ban horse-riding on the public open space, others to ban grooms exercising horses but not the general public riding for pleasure. Sir Francis Head, a famous soldier who lived at Duppas Hall overlooking the park, chaired a large public meeting to prevent the enclosure, wrote letters and memoranda to the press and headed a memorial of 3,500 people protesting against enclosure, he argued that the horse riders protected defenceless ladies, but he was satisfied with notices forbidding people from exercising their horses, with Duppas Hill becoming the space for recreation it still is today.
The ground was used for public celebrations and firework displays. On the eve of the 1926 General Strike, it was the venue of a mass rally of trade unionists and workers. In World War II it hosted a baseball match between Canadian soldiers. Today the park is still a recreation ground, football and cricket are still played there. Part of the site was used as the Heath Clark school part of Croydon College, which has now been developed into housing; the road is a section of the Ewell to Orpington A232 road, preceded by Stafford Road to the west and succeeded by the Croydon Flyover to the east. It is a no-stopping Red Route for its entire length. List of Parks and Open Spaces in Croydon McInnes, Paula; the Croydon Workhouse. Croydon: Key Croydon/Croydon Society. ISBN 0-9512713-2-6. Hidden History in Croydon's Parks, Croydon Council History of Duppas Hill, Croydon Council