Kodakara is a big town in Thrissur district of Kerala state in South India. It is located on about 10 km north of Chalakudy. Administratively, Kodakara comes under Chalakudy Taluk, it is transforming into an Industrial town housing a large number of employees of the Apollo Tyres factory at Perambra -Thrissur to the south of town. The closest railway station is Irinjalakuda located 6 km from the center of town and the closest airport is Cochin International Airport located in Nedumbassery. Kodakara has a number of Higher Education Institutions: Sahrdaya College of Engineering & Technology Sahrdaya Institute of Management Studies Sahrdaya College of Advanced Studies - arts and science college under University of Calicut situated in Pulipparakunnu. Institute is managed by Irinjalakuda Diocesean Educational Trust; the Poonilarkavu Bhagavathy Temple and Kunnathrikkovil Subramanian Temple are the well known Hindu Temples in Kodakara. Kodakara is famous for Kodakara Shashti. Areswaram Temple is located near to Kodakara Panchayat.
There is a narrow opening in the rocks near this temple. One has to reach the broad end; this process is called Rebirth, which means one's sins are cleared. Thiriuthoor temple is a famous Krishna temple located in Kodakara Kandamkulangara Temple is a old temple which witnessed Tippu Sultan's adventures into Kerala, it is believed that this temple was plundered by Tippu and administrators of this temple hid treasures underneath in and around Temple. This temple is located in Kodakara in Vallappady Desam. St Joseph church is a forane church located at Kodakara with 16 nearby parishes coming under it; the feast of St. Joseph is celebrated on the first Sunday of May every year. THe feast of St. Sebastian is celebrated on the third sunday of January. Perambra Church is the oldest Church located in Kodakara revenue village. Kodakara Panchayat is part of Chalakudy. Poonilarkavu Devaswom
Vadakkunnathan Temple is an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva at city of Thrissur, of Kerala state in India. This temple is a classic example of the architectural style of Kerala and has monumental towers on all four sides and a kuttambalam. Mural paintings depicting various episodes from Mahabharata can be seen inside the temple.. The shrines and the Kuttambalam display vignettes carved in wood; the temple, along with the mural paintings, has been declared as a National Monument by India under the AMASR Act. According to popular local lore, this is the first temple built by Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu. Thekkinkadu maidan, encircling the Vadakkunnathan Temple, is the main venue of the Thrissur Pooram. In the year 2012 the Archaeological Survey of India has recommended 14 sites, including Vadakkumnathan Temple and palaces, from Kerala to include in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the story of the origin of the Vadakkunnathan Temple is narrated in Brahmanda Purana and there are references to it in some other works also.
Though there are differences between these accounts on the details, all agree on the central fact, that the temple was founded by Parashurama. Parashurama exterminated Kshatriyas twenty one times. In order to cleanse himself and balance his karma he performed a yajna at the end of which he gave away all the land to Brahmins as dakshina, he wanted to retire to some new land to perform tapasya and so he requested the Lord of the seas and oceans Varuna to throw up a new piece of land from the sea. According to another version, some sages approached him at the end of the yajna and requested him to give them some secluded land. Parashurama made the request to Varuna for their sake. Varuna gave him a winnow and asked him to hurl it into the sea, as he did a large territory of land was at once thrown up by the sea, it was known by the name "Surparaka", from the word, "Surpa" meaning winnow. According to some other accounts, Varuna asked Parashurama to hurl his axe into the sea. Parashurama now wanted to consecrate this new land.
So he went to Mount Kailash to his guru, Lord Shiva and requested him to take abode in Kerala and thereby bless the region. Shri Shiva accompanied by his wife Parvati, his sons Ganesha and Subrahmanya and his parashadas went along with Parashurama, to satisfy the desire of his disciple. Shiva stopped at a spot, now Thrissur, for his seat and he and his party disappeared and Parashurama saw a bright and radiant Shiva linga at the foot of a huge banyan tree; this place where Shiva first manifested his presence through the linga is in Smskrth known as the Sri Moola Sthana. For sometime, the linga remained at Sri Mula Sthana at the foot of a huge banyan tree; the ruler of Cochin Kingdom decided to shift the linga to a more convenient place and enclose it in a temple. Arrangements were soon made to reinstall the deity in the new place, but there was an initial difficulty. The linga could not be removed without cutting off a large part of the banyan tree. While cutting the branches of the tree, there was the danger of a piece of it falling on the idol and damaging it.
When the ruler and the others did not know what to do, the Yogatirippadu came forward with a solution. He lay over the deity so as to cover it and asked the men to cut the tree; the cutting to the wonder of all not a piece of the tree fell anywhere near the deity. The deity was moved with all due rituals and installed in the new place where it has remained till now. A temple was built according to the rules laid down in the Shastras; the temple was built at the time of Perumthachan from Parayi petta panthirukulam. It is said. According to Malayalam historian VVK Valath, the temple was a pre-Dravidian Kavu; the temple was influenced by Buddhism and Vaishnavism. In the early days, Paramekkavu Bhagavathi was inside the Vadakkunnathan temple, but Koodalmanikyam Temple, Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple and Ammathiruvadi Temple, Urakam is older than Vadakkunnathan temple, according to temple documents. It had influences from Buddhist temples and Jain temples; the Nambudiris who were looking after the temple affairs were called as Yogiatiripppads.
When Kerala Nambudiris gained control, the temple fell into their hands. The Yogiatiripppads were elected from Thrissur desam. Prior to Sakthan Thampuran's reign, the Yogiatiripppad system declined; the Maharaja of Cochin gained presiding authority over the temple. Adi Shankara is believed to have been born to Shivaguru and Aryamba of Kalady in answer to their prayers before Vadakkunnathan, as amsavatara of Shiva; the couple had observed bhajan for 41 days in the temple. Legend has it that Shiva appeared to both husband and wife in their dreams and offered them a choice, they could have either a mediocre son who would live a long life or an extraordinary son who would die early. Both Shivaguru and Aryamba chose the second option. In honour of Shiva, they named the son Shankara. According to legend, Adi Shankara attained videha mukti in the Vadakkunnathan temple. One tradition, expounded by Keraliya Shankaravijaya, places his place of death as the temple, he established four Mutts at Thrissur, famously known as Edayil Madhom, Naduvil Madhom, Thekke Madhom and Vadakke Madhom During the invasion of Tipu Sultan, the temple was not attacked by Tipu’s Army.
Though Tipu Sultan destroyed many temples in Thrissur district at that time, he never touched Vadakkunnathan Temple. B According to historical accounts when Tipu Sultan was marching towards the Travancore lines locally known as Nedumkotta, he had
Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Hindu god Guruvayurappan, located in the town of Guruvayur in Kerala, India. It is one of the most important places of worship for Hindus of Kerala and is referred to as Bhuloka Vaikunta, which translates to as "Holy Abode of Vishnu on Earth"; the presiding deity of the Guruvayur Temple is Vishnu, worshipped in the form of his avatar Krishna. The central icon is a four-armed standing Vishnu carrying the conch Panchajanya, the discus Sudarshana Chakra, the mace Kaumodaki and a lotus with a Holy basil garland; this image represents the majestic form of Vishnu as revealed to Krishna's parents Vasudeva and Devaki around the time of Krishna's birth. The temple is called "Dwarka of South India" due to Krishna's widespread presence, he is worshipped according to routines laid down by Adi Shankara and written formally in the Tantric way, the inter-religious spiritual movement that arose in medieval India, by Chennas Narayanan Nambudiri.
The Chennas Nambudiris are the hereditary tantris of the Guruvayur Temple. The temple routines are followed; the Thanthri is available full-time at the Temple to ensure this. The Melsanthi enters the sanctum sanctorum in the morning and does not drink anything up to the completion of "noon worships" at 12:30 PM; the temple is managed by a special Devaswom under the control of the Government of Kerala. The main festivals of this temple are the 10-day festival in the Malayalam month of Kumbham starting with flag hoisting on Pooyam star, Sri Krishna Janmashtami in the month of Chingam, Ekadasi in the shukla paksha in the month of Vrischikam, popularly called as Guruvayur Ekadasi and Vishu on the first day of the month of Medam, once a harvest festival; the sub-deities of this temple are Ganapathi and Bhagavathi, there are two sub-temples each, one for Ganapathi and the other for Nagadevata nearby the temple. According to legends, the deity worshipped here is more than 5000 years old. In the 14th century, "Kokasandesam", references to a place called.
As early as the 16th century many references to Kuruvayur are seen. In ancient Dravidian languages, "kuruvai" means "sea", hence the village on the Malabar Coast may be called Kuruvayur; the earliest temple records date back to the 17th century. The earliest mention of the many important Vishnu temples of Kerala are found in the songs of Alwars, Tamil saints, whose time-line is not fixed. Mamankam was a famous local event at Tirunavaya, on the bank of Bharatappuzha; the battles between the Kozhikode under Samoothiris and Valluvanad popularised Guruvayur Temple. Due to the prolonged battles, people across the riverbank started preferring Guruvayur; the Samoothiri of Kozhikode become a devotee and thus his subjects followed him. The central shrine, seen today is said to have been rebuilt in 1638 AD. "Viswabali" was performed to propitiate all the spirits and bad. By the end of the 16th century Guruvayur had become the most popular pilgrimage centre in Kerala. Mamankam was a famous event at Thirunavaya, on the bank of Bharathappuzha.
The war between the Zamorins and the Raja of Valluvanad of Thirunavaya in a way popularised Guruvayur temple. Due to the prolonged war people across the river bank started preferring Guruvayur; the Zamorin become a devotee and thus his subjects followed him completely. The central shrine which we see today is said to have been rebuilt in 1638 AD. Vishwabali was performed to propitiate all the spirits and bad. By the end of 16th century Guruvayur had become most popular pilgrimage centre in Kerala. In 1716 AD, the Dutch raided Guruvayur, they looted treasures, gold of the flag staff, set fire to the Western Gopuram. It was rebuilt in 1747 AD. In 1755AD, the Dutch in war with the Zamorin destroyed Trikkunavay temple and the Brahmins fled from there; the Zamorin become the trustee of both Guruvayur and Trikkunavay, their Melkoyma. In 1766 AD, Hyder Ali of Mysore captured Kozhikkode and Guruvayur, he fined 10,000 fanams to spare the temple. This fine was paid but due to insecurity pilgrims receded, the supply of rice was stopped and the tenants stopped annual dues.
On the request of the Malabar Governor, Shrnivasa Rao, Hyder Ali granted a Devadaya and the temple was saved from extinction. Again in 1789 AD Tippu Sultan invaded Zamorin’s province. Apprehending the destruction, the idol was hidden underground and the Utsava vigraha was taken to Ambalapuzha by Mallisseri Namboodiri and Kakkad othikkan. Tippu destroyed the smaller shrines and set fire to the Temple. Tippu lost to the Zamorin and the English in 1792 AD; the idol hidden underground and the Utsava vigraha were re-installed on 17 September 1792. But the daily poojas and routines were affected. Ullanad Panikkars rescued and looked after the temple from 1825 to 1900. Like Chempakasseri Nambudiri and Desavarma Nambudiri, Panikkars offered everything from service to property, thus with their help daily puja and annual festivals were once again restored. From 1859 to 1892, the Chuttambalam, the Vilakkumatam, the Koottambalam and Sasta shrine were renovated and roofed with copper sheeting. In 1900, Konti Menon, as a manager fixed the hours of worship and led the drive to keep the temple premises clean.
He reconstructed Pattayappura. In 1928, Kozhikode once again became the administrator of Guruvay
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Ollukara is a residential area in the City of Thrissur in Kerala state of India. Ollukkara is the Ward 15 of Thrissur Municipal Corporation, it is located close to Mannuthy. Thrissur Thrissur District List of Thrissur Corporation wards
Puzhakkal Puzhakkal Padam, is part of Puzhakkal block of Thrissur. A decade ago, Puzhakkal was a vast paddy field situated in the two sides of State Highway 69 going to Guruvayur; the place is named after Puzhakkal River. Now, it has become the most developed suburban area of Thrissur city. Many of the major nerve centres of Thrissur City, including the Thrissur Collectorate, Vilangan Hills, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, Government Law College, Kendriya Vidyalaya, District Industries Centre of Kerala Govt. Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises under Government of India and many more are in the block. Many major automotive companies have commercial spaces here, including Hero Motors, Tata Motors, Ford, Hyundai, Suzuki and more. A national-level tennis academy is attracting tennis players here. India's second largest and Kerala's largest international convention center, Lulu Convention Centre, is situated in Puzhakkal. Sobha Group's Sobha City Mall & Sobha City, Kerala's first and biggest integerated township is here with villas and high-rise luxury apartments, the only one of same in state having helipad facilities.
Boating services for tourism have started across river. KINFRA is setting up an industrial park in Puzhakkal; the park would be set up in 50 acres. And that the Industries Department would retain 10 acres in it; the enterprises to be set up include units for ornaments and diamond cutting. West fort Hitech hospital a specialty healthcare center is in here. A transit terminal Mobility hub to be set up on lines of Vyttila Mobility Hub to reduce traffic congestion was approved to be realized soon. Having a railway terminal at Amala Nagar just 3 km away, the suburb town may have major development scope in near future. Puzhakkal is famous for the "Dharmasastha temple" where the presiding deity is Lord Ayyappa; the temple gets a lot of visitors every year during the traditional sabarimala season between October and January. The St Mary's church in puzhakkal is another notable place of worship; the church has an affiliated school. With its lush green paddy fields and the 3 canals flowing through them as part of the Peechi irrigation project, puzhakkal is a place of scenic beauty.
Thrissur Thrissur District