The Chery A1 is a supermini car produced by the Chinese manufacturer Chery from 2007 to 2015. It was available with a 1.3-litre Acteco SQR473F engine, that has double overhead camshafts and 4 valves per cylinder, giving a peak power output 61 kW and peak torque of 114 N⋅m. There are three trim levels available Standard and Luxury. Both Comfortable and Luxury include air conditioning, alloy wheels, ABS, EBD, CD/MP3 player, electric windows, power steering, trip computer, rear reverse radar and central locking; the Luxury model includes front three-point seat belts with emergency locking retractor. In Italy, it was assembled by the DR Motor Company from semi-knocked down kits and marketed under its own brand, as the DR2, it was introduced as the third model marketed by the Italian company. It is available with 15-inch alloy rims and Euro V-compliant engine, can be fitted with leather upholstery and an LPG kit. In Europe, it is marketed in Russia, Serbia and Turkey. In Australia, sales commenced in 2011, under the name of J1.
The initial release price was $11,990 AUD. This made it one of the cheapest new cars available in Australia, along with the Proton S16, Suzuki Alto and Geely MK, it was equipped with more features for the Australian market, including 14-inch alloy wheels, front fog lamps, two front airbags, a six-speaker CD player, air-conditioning, electric windows and side mirrors and a rear windscreen wiper along with a strengthened body and grill. Optional features were floor mats, reversing sensors, Bluetooth connectivity and headlight covers. Safety features such as ABS and EBD were included; because of this, the vehicle was never sold in the state of Victoria, which requires all new vehicles sold after 1 January 2011 to come with ESC. This requirement became Australia-wide as from 1 November 2013 banning the car along with some others, it does not have side airbags. With these shortfalls, the Chery J1 scored a three star result in Australian ANCAP tests, making it one of the equal least-safe vehicles sold in the country.
Indeed, ANCAP states that it "does not recommend purchasing vehicles with less than 4 stars". A defect in the seat frame necessitated a safety recall in August 2011
Chery Automobile Co. Ltd. trading as Chery and sometimes known by the pinyin transcription of its Chinese name, Qirui, is a Chinese automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhu, Anhui. It is a state-owned corporation. Chery's principal products are passenger cars, SUVs. Chery is the 10th-largest China-based automaker measured by 2012 output. Chery began the production of automobiles in 1999 and their export from China in 2001, it has been China's largest passenger car exporter since 2003, in 2011 exported around 25% of its total production. It operates a 50:50 joint venture with Kenon Holdings, formed in 2007 and sells a range of premium vehicles in emerging markets. In 2012, Jaguar Land Rover formed 50:50 joint venture Chery Jaguar Land Rover for the production of Jaguar and Land Rover cars in China with Chery. Chery has several vehicle assembly and component manufacturing facilities in mainland China, its vehicles are assembled in around 15 other countries—primarily in factories not owned by the company that use either complete or semicomplete knock-down kits.
It invests around 7 % of its total revenues in product development. Its QQ city car, considered to be the best-known Chery model, spawned a subbrand in its own right. In the early 2000s, Chery received criticism from General Motors for myriad alleged infringements of its intellectual property rights. An obvious example is the name'Chery', similar to GM's brand'Chevy'. Chery was founded in 1997 as a state-owned enterprise by a group of officials from Anhui province and began automobile production in 1999 using a chassis licensed from Volkswagen's SEAT Toledo. Called the Fengyun, Chery's first car sold nearly 30,000 units; the Wall Street Journal has described Chery's corporate culture as "an odd hybrid of Communist state enterprise and entrepreneurial start-up", entrepreneurial risk-taking is evident in its early history. Initial production was technically illegal as the company was only awarded a passenger car production license in 2003, so while its first product rolled off the line in December 1999, it could not be sold until 2001.
In that year, Chery solved the problem by piggybacking on a SAIC Motor license, which it did until 2003. The 20% ownership stake in Chery that SAIC once held was compensation for this early favor, but the ownership was soon sold due to rising tensions between Chery and another SAIC partner, General Motors. GM is not the only foreign partner of SAIC to have been exasperated with Chery. In the late 2000s, Chery began to seek a partnership with a foreign automaker, a hallmark of major Chinese car makers. Tie-ups with both Chrysler and Fiat fell through. In 2007, Chrysler planned a cooperation with Chery that would have seen the Chery A1 sold as a Dodge-brand car in the US and abroad; the plan would have increased the Chrysler small car stable, the two companies participated in a signing ceremony in late 2007. In early 2008, a similar deal was reached between Chrysler and Nissan and the Chrysler-Chery cooperation was abandoned. Around the time of the 2009 Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization, Chrysler discussed the possibility of an asset sale with Chery.
In 2007, Fiat and Chery signed a memorandum of understanding for the creation of a car-making joint venture. Intended to begin operations in 2009, it was to manufacture Fiat and Alfa Romeo-branded products for the Chinese market and be located in Maka Wuhu; the deal was put on hold in March 2009. As of 2012, Fiat produces in China with local partner GAC Group. Qoros, a car-making joint venture between Chery and Singapore-based Kenon Holdings, was established in 2007. In October 2009, Chery announced plans for an assembly plant in Turkey to be built in cooperation with the Turkish automaker Mermerler Otomotiv at a cost of $500 million; the plant is planned to have an initial capacity of 20,000 units per year, rising to 100,000 by 2017. As of 2012, the plant has yet to commence production; when it comes online, this production base will add to a handful of joint venture factories that Chery has in places like Argentina and Iran. These stand in contrast to a number of factories outside China that assemble Chery vehicles, but in which Chery does not have an ownership stake.
In 2009, Chery produced 508,500 units, at this time it had an annual production capacity around 650,000 units. More than 400,000 of its 2009 sales were sedans. Production capacity figures may consider vehicles as discrete. Chery became the seventh-most productive Chinese vehicle manufacturer in 2010 by selling nearly 700,000 units. Slipping sales marked 2011 and 2012; this decrease may be due to Chery's manufacturing mix being different from those of other, major Chinese automakers. An agreement with Tata Motors was struck in March 2012 to produce Jaguar Land Rover models in China. In 2013, a Tata executive stated that this deal was "still on track", some expect the planned production base to start output in 2014. In June 2012, plans to build a production base in Malaysia were announced, as of July 2012, this project is proceeding without a local partner; the planned f
Chery Arrizo 7
The Chery Arrizo 7 is a mid-size sedan produced by Chery. The Arrizo 7 was previewed by the Chery Alpha 7 concept; the production version was launched on the Chinese auto market in late 2013 with prices ranging from 78,900 to 126,900 yuan. The Chery Arrizo 7e is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle variant of the Arrizo 7 sedan. Being launched in the Chinese market in early 2016, the pricing of the Arrizo 7e starts from 179,900 yuan; the plug-in hybrid system consists of an electric motor with 75hp. The battery capacity is 9.3 kWh, producing a range of 50 kilometers on pure electric power and a 5 hours charging time. Fuel consumption is 2.2 liters per 100 kilometers. Top speed is 180 km/h with a total weight of 1590 kilograms. Official website Media related to Chery Arrizo 7 at Wikimedia Commons
Range Rover Evoque
The Land Rover Range Rover Evoque is a subcompact luxury crossover SUV produced by the British manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, a subsidiary of Tata Motors, under their Land Rover marque. The Evoque is similar to the Land Rover LRX concept vehicle, unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in January 2008, it has been produced since July 2011 in three- and five-door versions, with both two-wheel and four-wheel drive. The size of the LRX concept vehicle complemented a wide array of efficiency-improving technologies in the form of Land Rover’s e_Terrain technologies; these included biofuel compatibility, lightweight construction materials, technologies such as the removable carbon composite roof panels, regenerative brakes, a stop-start system, the ERAD parallel hybrid powertrain system. The ERAD system could propel the LRX to speeds up to 20 mph before the engine was started by an integrated starter generator as part of the stop-start system. ERAD was designed to reduce CO2 emissions by an average of 20% under the NEDC test cycle and was expected to offer another 10% reduction in extra-urban driving situations while optimising the off-road ability of the vehicle.
Land Rover aimed to achieve 120 g/km CO2 emissions and fuel economy of 60 mpg‑imp on the European combined cycle with an efficient 2.2-litre turbodiesel engine. The engine would become the only four-cylinder vehicle in the Range Rover lineup; the Terrain Response system was included offering sport and eco modes in addition to the existing grass, gravel and sand modes. Typical Land Rover design traits aim at improving off-road performance included a prominent driving position, hill descent control, useful approach and departure angles. A Land Rover first was an air intake system integrated into the roof that offered exceptional wading capabilities, though this feature did not make it to the production model. Land Rover's Range Rover styling was visually apparent in the form of the clamshell bonnet, the ‘floating’ roof, dual-pocket headlamps, raked roof line. Interior design improvements were another main focus of the LRX concept, though the interior of the production Evoque changed from the concept LRX.
Notable interior features in the LRX included ambient interior lighting that changed according to Terrain Response settings, vehicle data that were presented to the driver through a ‘floating’ three-dimensional LCD display. An aluminium centre console with an iPhone docking station stretched the length of the cabin, separating the four seats and the tailgate. Seats with open frameworks were used to give the impression of an airy interior, while creating useful under-seat and under-floor stowage areas. Electric motors folded the rear seats forward, providing enough room for two mountain bikes to be fitted upright, with front wheels removed and stored in dedicated slots in the floor; the car was launched as two distinct models: the five-door Evoque, the three-door Evoque Coupé, the Convertible Evoque. The Coupé model was discontinued after the 2017 model year, while the five-door and Convertible models remained in production; the production-model Evoque retained nearly identical bodywork from the LRX concept vehicle, including the cabin length panoramic sun roof.
No hybrid power train is being offered. All models are available in four trim levels — "Pure", "Prestige", "Pure Plus", "Dynamic". Land Rover markets the Pure as the minimalist version rather than the "base model", while the Prestige adds luxury options and the Dynamic focuses more on performance; the Evoque uses unibody rather than body on frame construction with a kerb weight of 1,670 kg and an aluminium hood/bonnet and roof, as well as a composite one-piece tailgate. The Evoque comes in 12 different body colours with three optional contrasting roof colours and five optional wheel choices, though Land Rover offers a "designers choice" of predetermined combinations on most models; the Dynamic model incorporates more aggressive bodywork including a different front fascia and lowered suspension. The Evoque can be equipped with five exterior cameras. Three engine options were available for the Evoque: two 2.2-litre turbodiesels producing either 150 PS, or 190 PS, a 2-litre 240 PS turbocharged petrol engine.
Land Rover revealed the Evoque with a 9-speed automatic transmission during the Geneva Motor Show. This new automatic transmission is developed by ZF Friedrichshafen. In addition, the 9-speed automatic transmission's first gear is specially designed for off-road conditions and adverse on road conditions. Further, first gear of a 9-speed automatic transmission is much lower than the first gear of a six-speed automatic. Land Rover did not reveal any further technical details about the new automatic transmission. Land Rover since have developed their own branded Ingenium engine to adhere to EU6 emissions regulations. Three 2-litre variants are available: eD4 150 PS turbodiesel two- wheel drive manual gearbox, or TD4 180 PS permanent four-wheel drive 9-speed automatic, a 2-litre Si4 240 PS turbocharged petrol permanent four-wheel drive 9-speed automatic; the manufacturer's fuel-economy estimates for the 2.2-litre diesel engine with manual transmission are 47.1 miles per imperial gallon urban and 56.5 miles per imperial gallon combined, with CO2 emissions of 133 g/km.
For the 2.0-litre petrol engine with automatic transmission, the figures are 23.7 miles per imperial gallon urban and 32.5
The Chery Tiggo is a series of crossover produced by the Chinese manufacturer Chery Automobile since 2005. The first model, Tiggo 3 was named Tiggo and was facelifted in September 2010 with the name changing to Tiggo 3; the larger Tiggo 5 was launched in November 2013. The following Chery Tiggo vehicles are available: Chery Tiggo 3x Chery Tiggo 5x Chery Tiggo 3 Chery Tiggo 5 Chery Tiggo 7 Chery Tiggo 8 Media related to Chery Tiggo at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
Qoros Auto Co. Ltd. is an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, China. Its principal activity is the design, development and sale of passenger cars sold under the Qoros marque. Qoros Automotive Company was registered as a joint venture company in Wuhu, Anhui Province, China in December 2007, it develops vehicles that are differentiated in their design and connected services and that exhibit international standards of quality. In December 2017, structure of shareholders of Qoros had a fundamental change, it ushered in a strategic investor Baoneng Group, who secured a 51 percent stake in Qoros for 6.6 billion RMB.. Accordingly, remained stake of Qoros belongs to an American company; the first production model, the Qoros 3, made its first public appearance at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2013 and went on sale in China in November 2013. Qoros is an invented word; the Q is intended to represent quality, the whole name to echo the Greek chorus, a collective voice in plays and music, reflecting the multinational nature of the company.
The company was established as a joint venture between Chery Automobile Co and Kenon Holding, a public corporation headquartered at Singapore. The establishment of the company took place during a peak time in the development of China's automotive industry, following the country's joining the World Trade Organization and amid a phase of rapid growth in vehicle production and sales. Qoros opened an office in Shanghai in September 2008. In October 2009, Qoros signed a cooperation agreement with Magna Steyr. In June 2010, Qoros relocated its production plant to Changshu Economic & Technological Development Zone following an in-depth appraisal. In October 2011, construction of the first prototype was completed. A formal unveiling ceremony was held at Jiangsu Province, China. Sales in China commenced in December 2013, by the first four months of 2014 the company had sold 1,490 Qoros 3 cars; the sedan is to be joined by a hatchback version in July 2014. By August 2014, Qoros had sold 2,540 cars. Qoros is not expected to make a profit in the early years, "as is usual for beginning companies."The total sales for 2014, the company's first year of operation, was under 7,000 cars, far below its planned capacity for 150,000 cars.
This led to a change in senior management, including the chairman Guo Qian replaced by Chery deputy president and Jaguar Land Rover board chairman Chen Anning. In February 2015, the company announced former General Motors' executive Phil Murtaugh. Murtaugh left the company after less than a year. Over 2015, Qoros sold 14,000 cars. In 2016, sales of Qoros cars increased by 70 percent; the company had planned to sell models in Europe, piloted sales in Slovakia, but in April 2017 it formally announced that it had no plans to sell cars in Europe for the foreseeable future. In December 2011, the company released an image of its first prototype, which made its first public appearance at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2013 with the Qoros 3 sedan pre-production model, together with the Qoros 3 Estate Concept and Qoros 3 Cross Hybrid Concept. In September 2013, the Qoros 3 achieved a five-star rating in the Euro NCAP crash tests, making it the first Chinese car to achieve such a rating, it received the highest score for safety of any car reviewed by Euro NCAP during 2013.
In November 2015, the Qoros 5 was launched at the Guangzhou motor show in China, with sales commencing in March 2016. The Qoros 5 is the second model of automobile from the Chinese manufacturer Qoros Auto, jointly owned by Kenon Holdings and China's Chery Automobile Company; the five-door CUV was launched at the Guangzhau Motor Show in November 2015. Sales commenced in China early March 2016. At the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, Qoros displayed a concept electric bicycle called the eBIQE; the Qoros 2 was first displayed at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show, a plug-in hybrid SUV. Company website