Newport News, Virginia
Newport News is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 180,719. In 2013, the population was estimated to be 183,412, making it the fifth-most populous city in Virginia. Newport News is included in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is at the southeastern end of the Virginia Peninsula, on the northern shore of the James River extending southeast from Skiffe's Creek along many miles of waterfront to the river's mouth at Newport News Point on the harbor of Hampton Roads. The area now known as Newport News was once a part of Warwick County. Warwick County was one of the eight original shires of Virginia, formed by the House of Burgesses in the British Colony of Virginia by order of King Charles I in 1634; the county was composed of farms and undeveloped land until 250 years later. In 1881, fifteen years of explosive development began under the leadership of Collis P. Huntington, whose new Peninsula Extension of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway from Richmond opened up means of transportation along the Peninsula and provided a new pathway for the railroad to bring West Virginia bituminous coal to port for coastal shipping and worldwide export.
With the new railroad came a terminal and coal piers where the colliers were loaded. Within a few years and his associates built a large shipyard. In 1896, the new incorporated town of Newport News, which had replaced Denbigh as the county seat of Warwick County, had a population of 9,000. In 1958, by mutual consent by referendum, Newport News was consolidated with the former Warwick County, rejoining the two localities to their pre-1896 geographic size; the more known name of Newport News was selected as they formed what was Virginia's third largest independent city in population. With many residents employed at the expansive Newport News Shipbuilding, the joint U. S. Air Force-U. S. Army installation at Joint Base Langley–Eustis, other military bases and suppliers, the city's economy is connected to the military; the location on the harbor and along the James River facilitates a large boating industry which can take advantage of its many miles of waterfront. Newport News serves as a junction between the rails and the sea with the Newport News Marine Terminals located at the East End of the city.
Served by major east-west Interstate Highway 64, it is linked to others of the cities of Hampton Roads by the circumferential Hampton Roads Beltway, which crosses the harbor on two bridge-tunnels. Part of the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport is in the city limits; the original area near the mouth of the James River was first referred to as Newportes Newes as early as 1621. The source of the name "Newport News" is not known with certainty, though it is the oldest English city name in the Americas. Several versions are recorded, it is the subject of popular speculation locally; the best-known explanation holds that when an early group of Jamestown colonists left to return to England after the Starving Time during the winter of 1609–1610 aboard a ship of Captain Christopher Newport, they encountered another fleet of supply ships under the new Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr in the James River off Mulberry Island with reinforcements of men and supplies. The new governor ordered them to turn around, return to Jamestown.
Under this theory, the community was named for Newport's "good news". Another possibility is that the community may have derived its name from an old English word "news" meaning "new town". At least one source claims that the "New" arose from the original settlement's being rebuilt after a fire. Another source gave the original name as New Port Newce, named for a person with the name Newce and the town's place as a new seaport; the namesake, Sir William Newce, was an English soldier and settled in Ireland. There he had established Newcestown near County Cork, he was granted 2,500 acres of land. He died two days later, his brother, Capt. Thomas Newce, was given "600 acres at Kequatan, now called Elizabeth Cittie." A partner Daniel Gookin completed founding the settlement. In his 1897 two-volume work Old Virginia and her Neighbors, American historian John Fiske writes:... several old maps where the name is given as Newport Ness, being the mariner's way of saying Newport Point. The fact that the name appeared as "Newport's News" is verified by numerous early documents and maps, by local tradition.
The change to Newport News came about through usage. In 1866 it approved the current form. During the 17th century, shortly after founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, English settlers explored and began settling the areas adjacent to Hampton Roads. In 1610, Sir Thomas Gates "took possession" of a nearby Native American village, which became known as Kecoughtan. At that time, settlers began clearing land along the James River for plantations, including the present area of Newport News. In 1619, the area of Newport News was included in one of four huge corporations of the Virginia Company of London, it extended west all the way to Skiffe's Creek. Elizabeth Cittie included all of present-day South Hampton Roads. By 1634, the English colony of Virginia consisted of a population of 5,000 inhabitants, it was divided into eight shires of Virginia. The area of Newport News bec
A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle something that can be detrimental to cross otherwise. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, the funds available to build it. Most the earliest bridges were fallen trees and stepping stones, while Neolithic people built boardwalk bridges across marshland; the Arkadiko Bridge dating from the 13th century BC, in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence and use. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning; the word can be traced directly back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-.
The word for the card game of the same name has a different origin. Before the rise of humanity, ants have been making bridges by using their own to allow others to cross; the simplest type of a bridge is stepping stones, so this may have been one of the earliest types. Neolithic people built a form of boardwalk across marshes, of which the Sweet Track and the Post Track, are examples from England that are around 6000 years old. Undoubtedly ancient peoples would have used log bridges; some of the first man-made bridges with significant span were intentionally felled trees. Among the oldest timber bridges is the Holzbrücke Rapperswil-Hurden crossing upper Lake Zürich in Switzerland; the first wooden footbridge led across Lake Zürich, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD, when the Roman Empire built a 6-metre-wide wooden bridge. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a'new' wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 metres in length and 4 metres wide.
On April 6, 2001, the reconstructed wooden footbridge was opened, being the longest wooden bridge in Switzerland. The Arkadiko Bridge is one of four Mycenaean corbel arch bridges part of a former network of roads, designed to accommodate chariots, between the fort of Tiryns and town of Epidauros in the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in use. Several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese; the greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs; some stand today. An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, in Spain; the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, lime and volcanic rock. Brick and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era.
In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of bridges. A Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep; the bridge was swept away during a flood, repaired by Puspagupta, the chief architect of emperor Chandragupta I. The use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India. Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the Warring States period, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui dynasty; this bridge is historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, while the enormous Roman era Trajan's Bridge featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann, others. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716. A major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779, it used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn. With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. In Canada and the U. S. numerous timber Covered bridges were built in the late 1700s to the late 1800s, reminiscent of earlier designs in Germany and Switzerland. In years, some were made of stone or metal but the trusses were still made of wood. Hundreds of these structures still stand in North America.
They were brought to the attention of the general public in
South Hampton Roads
South Hampton Roads is a region located in the extreme southeastern portion of Virginia's Tidewater region in the United States with a total population of 1,191,937. It is part of the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA, which itself has a population of 1,724,876. Hampton Roads is the common name for the metropolitan area that surrounds the body of water of the same name; the land portion of Hampton Roads has been divided into two regions, South Hampton Roads on the south side and the Virginia Peninsula on the north side. As of the 2010 Census, the Hampton Roads MSA is the fifth largest metropolitan area by size in the southeastern United States, is the second-largest between Washington, D. C. and Atlanta, Georgia. South Hampton Roads is home to several United States military bases. Norfolk Naval Shipyard is located in Portsmouth, as are the Naval Medical Center, two historic and important facilities, as well as several smaller facilities; the shipyard was founded as the Gosport Shipyard on November 1, 1767, has the country's first dry dock.
The name was changed after the American Civil War. Across the Elizabeth River, at Sewell's Point near the mouth of Hampton Roads is the Norfolk Navy Base, the central hub of the United States Navy's Atlantic Fleet; the base was founded in 1917, is now the largest naval facility in the world. Virginia Beach is home to the U. S. Navy's Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek. NAS Oceana is the largest employer in Virginia Beach, both bases there, like the Norfolk Navy Base, are considered to be the largest of their respective kinds in the world. Furthermore, adjacent to Oceana is NAVSEA Dam Neck. Virginia Beach is the home of Joint Expeditionary Base East, operated by the United States Navy, located at Cape Henry. St. Julien's Creek Annex is a U. S. Navy facility in Chesapeake on the Southern Branch Elizabeth River, it began operations in 1849 and occupies 490 acres, including 407 acres of land, 14 acres of marsh, 69 acres of surface water. It is considered part of the Norfolk Navy Base. Chesapeake is home to U.
S. Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Fentress, an auxiliary landing facility for NAS Oceana; the decision to call the region "Hampton Roads" was a political one. The area was referred to as "Tidewater" for many years by the local residents; the local baseball team was called the Tidewater Tides for years but is now called the Norfolk Tides. When they first came to Tidewater, they adopted the local name to draw more fans. In Colonial times, in the first 150 years of the United States, much like Virginia as a whole, South Hampton Roads was in an constant state of change in terms of local government due to growth, as counties were divided and towns were formed as the population grew; some towns grew to become cities. Under the state constitutional changes in 1871, extant and future cities in Virginia became independent cities of the counties they had been located within. However, in the second half of the 20th century, an unprecedented wave of city-county-town local government consolidations took place in South Hampton Roads and on the Virginia Peninsula.
Nowhere else in Virginia have rural areas and more dense cities been combined in such a manner as these two areas. The changes resulted in the area having Virginia's cities with the largest land areas and the most farming over 30 years after the consolidations in some instances; the South Hampton Roads region includes five independent cities, three counties, five incorporated towns with a total population of 1,191,937 people. There were a number of political subdivisions which are now extinct due to growth and consolidation of local government. Chesapeake Norfolk Portsmouth Suffolk Virginia Beach Currituck County, NC Gates County, NC Isle of Wight County Isle of Wight County Town of Smithfield Town of Windsor Exclusive of towns which became cities and still have the same name, no less than 2 shires, 6 counties, 1 town, 2 entire cities no longer exist in the South Hampton Roads area. For search of genealogical and other historical records, it may be necessary to find these old names; the following is a listing of these 11 extinct shire, counties and cities, with the approximate dates they existed: Elizabeth River Shire Warrosquyoake Shire New Norfolk County Upper Norfolk County Lower Norfolk County Nansemond County Norfolk County Princess Anne County Town of Berkley South Norfolk City of Nansemond Generally surrounded by water, the South Hampton Roads region is accessed from the north by a network of highways, bridges and bridge-tunnels across the James and Elizabeth Rivers, the harbor of Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake Bay.
The area is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the State of North Carolina, on the west by several counties which are considered to be in the Southside Virginia region. Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803. Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harbor of the same name located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, it is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the north by the Chesapeake Bay, it shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. Norfolk is one of the oldest cities in Hampton Roads, is considered to be the historic, urban and cultural center of the region; the city has a long history as a strategic transportation point. The largest Navy base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk, is located in Norfolk along with one of NATO's two Strategic Command headquarters; the city has the corporate headquarters of Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads, Maersk Line, which manages the world's largest fleet of US-flag vessels.
As the city is bordered by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property, including beaches on the Chesapeake Bay. It is linked to its neighbors by an extensive network of interstate highways, bridges and three bridge-tunnel complexes, which are the only bridge-tunnels in the United States. In 1619 the Governor of the Virginia Colony, Sir George Yeardley, incorporated four jurisdictions, termed citties, for the developed portion of the colony; these formed the basis for colonial representative government in the newly minted House of Burgesses. What would become Norfolk was put under the Elizabeth Cittie incorporation. In 1634 King Charles I reorganized the colony into a system of shires; the former Elizabeth Cittie became Elizabeth City Shire. After persuading 105 people to settle in the colony, Adam Thoroughgood was granted a large land holding, through the head rights system, along the Lynnhaven River in 1636; when the South Hampton Roads portion of the shire was separated, Thoroughgood suggested the name of his birthplace for the newly formed New Norfolk County.
One year it was divided into two counties, Upper Norfolk and Lower Norfolk, chiefly on Thoroughgood's recommendation. This area of Virginia became known as the place of entrepreneurs, including men of the Virginia Company of London. Norfolk developed in the late-seventeenth century as a "Half Moone" fort was constructed and 50 acres were acquired from local natives of the Powhatan Confederacy in exchange for 10,000 pounds of tobacco; the House of Burgesses established the "Towne of Lower Norfolk County" in 1680. In 1691, a final county subdivision took place when Lower Norfolk County split to form Norfolk County and Princess Anne County. Norfolk was incorporated in 1705. In 1730, a tobacco inspection site was located here. According to the Tobacco Inspection Act, the inspection was "At Norfolk Town, upon the fort land, in the County of Norfolk. In 1736 George II granted it a royal charter as a borough. By 1775, Norfolk developed into what contemporary observers argued was the most prosperous city in Virginia.
It was an important port for exporting goods beyond. In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capital of Williamsburg, the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was soon driven into exile by the Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Woodford, his departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia. On New Year's Day, 1776, Lord Dunmore's fleet of three ships shelled the city of Norfolk for more than eight hours; the gunfire, combined with fires started by the British and spread by the Patriots, destroyed more than 800 buildings, constituting nearly two-thirds of the city. The Patriot forces destroyed the remaining buildings for strategic reasons the following month.
Only the walls of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church survived subsequent fires. A cannonball from the bombardment remains within the wall of Saint Paul's. Following recovery from the Revolutionary War's burning and her citizens struggled to rebuild. In 1804, another serious fire along the city's waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city suffered a serious economic setback. During the 1820s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas. Many moved further into Kentucky and Tennessee; such migration followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations. Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery and manumissions increased in the two decades following the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an 1832 resolution for gradual abolition in the state. However, by that time the increased demand fr
The Downtown Tunnel on Interstate 264 crosses the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in the South Hampton Roads area of Virginia, US. It links the independent City of Portsmouth with the independent City of Norfolk. In conjunction with the Berkley Bridge, the Downtown Tunnel connects to Interstate 464 to the City of Chesapeake and a continuation I-264 to the downtown and Waterside areas of Norfolk, on to Virginia Beach. Owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation, it is operated and maintained by Elizabeth River Crossings under a 58-year public–private partnership concession agreement. A toll-free facility, open road tolling was implemented on February 1, 2014 by VDOT to help finance repairs and expansion to the tunnel. In the mid-1940s, Virginia legislators wanted to replace the aging vehicle ferry system that transported its motorists over the waterways in the state. Authorized by a revenue bond act passed earlier by the General Assembly, the commission decided during the 1946-47 fiscal year to construct toll bridges to replace ferry crossings on the York River at Yorktown and the Rappahannock River at Grey’s Point and to acquire from private owners the ferries that carried vehicles across Hampton Roads between the Norfolk and Lower Peninsula areas.
Shortly thereafter in 1952, VDOT opened a two-lane tunnel. It was the first fixed crossing directly between Portsmouth and Norfolk across the Elizabeth River, predating the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel by five years, it was financed and built by the Elizabeth River Tunnel Commission with toll revenue bonds and was completed in 1952. Tolls at the time were 25 cents. In 1988 and 1989, during an expansion of I-264, the Downtown Tunnel was expanded to two tunnels, the nearby Berkley Bridge were rebuilt and expanded to eight lanes, connecting I-264 to I-464, just short of the tunnel entrance. Tolls were removed at that time. In 2004, VDOT sent out an informal request for information to private entities to gauge interest in pursuing a public-private partnership to help build the parallel Midtown Tunnel and extend the MLK Freeway to I-264. At the time, the project did not include any work at the Downtown Tunnel. Of the three companies that responded, two of the companies, one being the company that bid on the current project, referred to a study funded earlier in the year noting that the only possible way of making the project financially feasible was to toll the Downtown Tunnel as well as the Midtown Tunnel for construction costs.
VDOT began soliciting bids from private companies to partner with the state in executing the Elizabeth River Tunnels Project, which now included the rehabilitation of the Downtown Tunnel) through Virginia's Public Private Transportation Act. Elizabeth River Crossings, the company formed by interested party Skanska with additional capital by Australian investment company Macquarie Group, submitted their proposal to VDOT. After the lengthy review process required under the PPTA, then-Governor Bob McDonnell and VDOT executed the Comprehensive Agreement with ERC on December 5, 2011. Under the agreement, VDOT retains ownership and oversight of the tunnels, while ERC finances, builds and maintains the facilities for a 58-year concession period. Under the agreement, work on the Downtown Tunnel will consist of 15 different items that would bring the tunnels up to current NFPA 502 standards, work which includes: removing the suspended ceiling of the eastbound tunnel removing old lighting and replacing with energy-efficient LED lighting upgrading and improving the ventilation system with seven sets of jet fans, remove police booths and other cosmetic level rehab work.
Work on the westbound tunnel began on August 2013 with full weekend closures. After public outcry from the city of Portsmouth, these full weekend closures were changed to nightly closures. Rehabilitation work on the eastbound tunnel began on July 2014 with full weekend closures; the scheduled completion date of the Downtown Tunnel rehabilitation work is August 16, 2016. For every day that work should exceed this date, VDOT is entitled to $7,000 in damages
Elizabeth River (Virginia)
The Elizabeth River is a 6-mile-long tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads harbor at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. It is located along the southern side of the mouth of the James River, between the cities of Portsmouth and Norfolk. Forming the core of the Hampton Roads harbor, it is supported by its tributaries which depend upon it. Through its Southern Branch and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, the Elizabeth River is a gateway to points to the south for the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, an inland path from the ocean providing a more sheltered navigable waterway to Florida for commercial and recreational boating; the Elizabeth River was named by the Jamestown colonists in the early 17th century for Princess Elizabeth Stuart, She was the daughter of King James I of England and a sister of the King Charles I, his older brother, Henry Frederick, the ill-fated heir-apparent to the throne who died of typhoid fever as a teenager. When the settlers aboard the three tiny ships of Captain Christopher Newport's 1607 voyage first discovered the great harbor of Hampton Roads a few days after reaching land at Cape Henry, they were seeking a pathway to the west to reach the "Great Indies" and soon sailed upriver along the largest and most westerly river, which they named the James, passing by the areas closest to the ocean as they sought a protected haven from other European forces such as the Spanish.
Their settlement 35 miles inland at Jamestown was flawed in many other ways, but did meet the requirement of providing protection. Settlement along the Elizabeth River came a few years later. During the U. S. Revolutionary War, Lord Dunmore and the British Royal Army sailed up the Elizabeth River and landed in Norfolk; the British Royal Army and the U. S. Continental Army engaged at the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9, 1775. Upon British defeat, Lord Dunmore and his army withdrew onto four ships of the British Royal Navy, the Dunmore, the Liverpool, the Otter, the Kingfisher. Under the command of Lord Dunmore, these ships patrolled along Norfolk's Elizabeth River waterfront and on New Year's Day 1776, began shelling Norfolk in what would become known as the Burning of Norfolk. During the War of 1812, two harbor fortifications located on opposite banks of the Elizabeth River were occupied to prevent the British from attacking Norfolk or Portsmouth; these defensive positions were Fort Norfolk, located on the eastern bank in Norfolk, Fort Nelson, located on the western bank in Portsmouth.
Neither of these forts saw action during the War of 1812. However, the men stationed at Fort Norfolk reinforced Craney Island, located at the mouth of the Elizabeth River, took part in the Battle of Craney Island; the main branch of the estuary is 6 miles long and is 2 miles wide at its mouth. It is formed by three primary branches, all tidal, known as the Eastern and Western branches of the Elizabeth River, extending 7 to 14 miles into neighboring communities; the Western and Southern branches are fed by tributaries that originate within the Great Dismal Swamp. The Elizabeth River estuary and its tributaries provide significant military and commercial port facilities for Norfolk and Portsmouth, as well as a third major city, formed by the voluntary political consolidation in 1963 of the small independent city of South Norfolk with much larger Norfolk County, which had long surrounded the other two large and expanding cities; the three cities surround the Elizabeth River and most of the area served by its three main branches.
The Elizabeth River is the home of the oldest and largest naval shipyard in the United States, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Founded as The Gosport Shipyard in 1767, the shipyard is still in use today having survived both the American Revolutionary and Civil wars and fires set to the shipyard within each conflict; the river and its branches provide for both recreation activities. The Intracoastal Waterway connects to the greater Hampton Roads area through the Elizabeth River, they are of great importance to both commerce and the U. S. military considerations. The Elizabeth River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and faces significant environmental pollution challenges of its own that hamper recovery in the Bay; the Elizabeth River's history with various industrial sites, such as dry docks, Norfolk Naval Shipyard, processing plants, both sewage and storm water discharge contributed over time to the declining health of the river. In 1983, the EPA mentions the Elizabeth River was singled out as one of the most polluted bodies of water in the entire Bay watershed and as of 2011 remains one of the most polluted rivers on the United States east coast.
Sediment contamination has made "toxic hot spots" within the Elizabeth River. Notably, the Southern Branch of the river at Money Point had become a 35-acre biological dead-zone with a nearly lifeless river floor. Creosote from dumping and a major fire in 1963 played a major role in contaminating the river sediment there, which in some areas were as much as five feet thick; the Commonwealth of Virginia entered into an agreement in 1995 after the Chesapeake Bay Program identified the Elizabeth River system as a "Region of Concern" in 1993. By 2003 a report entitled "State of the River 2003" by the Elizabeth River Project had been published, highlighting the sediment contamination in the Southern Branch along with other toxins including those causing cancer in some fish after a monitoring the river between 1999 and 2001. Efforts began by 2003 bald eagles were returned to the watershed. 2008 saw the 3rd State Of The Elizabeth River r
Warwick County, Virginia
Warwick County was a county in Southeast Virginia, created from Warwick River Shire, one of eight created in the Virginia Colony in 1634. It became the City of Warwick on July 16, 1952. Located on the Virginia Peninsula on the northern bank of the James River between Hampton Roads and Jamestown, the area consisted of farms and small unincorporated villages until the arrival of the Peninsula Extension of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in 1881 and development led by industrialist Collis P. Huntington. With the railroad came the coal piers, several local stations in Warwick County for passenger service and shipping produce and seafood to markets, a branch link to the resorts and military facilities in neighboring Elizabeth City County at Old Point Comfort; the community at the southeastern edge on the harbor of Hampton Roads became Newport News in 1896, hosting the world's largest shipyard. At the outset of World War I, the U. S. Army facility which became Fort Eustis was established in the county.
After the war, Camp Patrick Henry, a former military facility, became the site of Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. After sparring over annexations and exploring various plans to refine and/or combine local governments, by mutual agreement, after existing for over 325 years, the former city of Warwick was politically consolidated with the younger city of Newport News on July 1, 1958; the better known name of "Newport News" was assumed for the combined entity, forming one of the contemporary cities of Hampton Roads. During the 17th century, shortly after establishment of the settlement at Jamestown in 1607, English settlers explored and began settling the areas adjacent to Hampton Roads. By 1634, the English colony of Virginia consisted of eight shires or counties with a total population of 5,000 inhabitants. Warwick River Shire took its name from Robert Rich, second Earl of Warwick and a prominent member of the Virginia Company, proprietor of Richneck Plantation. Warwick River Shire became Warwick County in 1643.
The first courthouse and jail were located at Warwick Towne, established in 1680. The colonial port was located at Deep Creek and the Warwick River on 50 acres of Samuel Mathews' land. Warwick County recorded 1,690 persons in the federal census of 1790, making it the third smallest county population-wise in Virginia. In 1809, Warwick Towne was abandoned, the county seat was moved to the area of Denbigh Plantation, near Stoney Run; the new county seat was at Denbigh. It served as clerk's office and jail. In 1884, a large courthouse was erected on the clerk retaining the old building. Both served until the merger with the city of Newport News in 1958. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, land agents began acquiring land in Warwick County for Collis P. Huntington, the railroad magnate, for "future enterprise". On the basis of these land purchases, the original city of Newport News was to be built at the southern end of the county. In 1880, Huntington formed the Old Dominion Land Company.
The following year, in 1881, it was announced that Newport News had been chosen as the Atlantic deep water terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Construction work on the C&O's Peninsula Extension began at Newport News Point in December 1880. A second crew began building east from Richmond in February 1881, they met 1.25 miles west of Williamsburg on October 1881, just three days before. The C&O provided the promised transportation by rail to the Yorktown Centennial on October 19. During the next few years, Huntington developed the southeastern area of the county extensively, notably building the new Hotel Warwick. In 1886, Huntington established Drydock Company; the boom community of Newport News became an independent city in 1896 by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, one of the few cities in Virginia to have never been incorporated as a town and it became Virginia's third largest city in population at one time. In 1918, Warwick County became the site of the military installation, Camp Abraham Eustis renamed Fort Eustis.
The U. S. Army base, hastily constructed during World War I near the mouth of the Warwick River, included Mulberry Island. Lee Hall, Virginia was the closest railroad station and handled a large volume of troop traffic during World War II when Camp Patrick Henry was established nearby. Camp Patrick Henry served as a troop staging ground during World War II under the control of the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation; the camp, founded in late 1942, was an 1,700-acre complex, built in virgin forest. At its peak, Camp Patrick Henry had a capacity of 35,000. After World War II, it closed and the land was redeveloped as a commercial airport, now known as Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Warwick, Virginia Newport News, Virginia Warwick County Courthouses List of former United States counties Former counties and towns of Virginia Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Virginia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 117–125. Chronological History of Warwick County Virginia Library of Virginia - Warwick River County