click links in text for more info

Chester Dale

Chester Dale was an American banker and patron of the arts. Dale earned large sums from working for the New York Stock Exchange, allowing him to collect 19th and 20th-century French paintings. Although he considered establishing a private museum, he donated a part of his collection to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. in 1941. The rest of his collection was bequeathed to the National Gallery upon his death. Dale was born in 1883, started his financial career at the age of fifteen, as a runner for the New York Stock Exchange. In time, he acquired assets that included utilities and municipal bonds in the USA and Canada; when the National Gallery of Art opened, Dale lent the gallery 22 American pictures, within a few months, two rooms of French Impressionist paintings were established. Upon the request of painter George Bellows, Dale agreed to sit for an oil on canvas painting in 1922, depicting Dale holding a golf club. Both Dale and Bellows were semi-professional athletes in their younger years.

In 1962, the long term loans of major artists who worked in Paris from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th century were left to the gallery at the bequest of Dale. Included in the works that Dale bequeathed to the gallery were works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, Salvador Dalí, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. At the age of 27, he married Maud Murray, a painter and critic, who introduced him to the idea of collecting modern art; the National Gallery of Art obtained 88 paintings from Dale's personal residence, an apartment in the Plaza Hotel in New York, upon his death. The paintings were added to his 152 items on loan to the National Gallery of Art. There were 6 new galleries established on the main floor to house the additional acquisitions; the bequest included 240 paintings, 7 sculptures, 22 graphics, over 1200 sales catalogs, more than 1500 books. Additionally as part of the bequest, there were 3 fellowships established with a $500,000 endowment

EVA Lanxmeer

EVA lanxmeer is the name of an ecological neighbourhood built from 1994 to 2009 in the Dutch town of Culemborg in the Netherlands. It is an environmentally friendly housing development, it was initiated by Marleen Kaptein, looking for a more sustainable way of building housing in urban areas. The project was a strong partnership between future inhabitants and the city of Culemborg and other people, it incorporates many of the principles of high environmental quality and eco-towns, but its principal originality is the promotion of the constant participation of the inhabitants. Indeed, this neighbourhood was designed and conducted with representatives of future residents in a creative process, is regarded as a model in several areas, it has therefore become an international reference visited by architects, urbans planners, futurists or groups interested in sustainability, from European countries, sometimes the United States, etc.. In 1990, Marleen Kaptein believed that creating neighbourhoods with the inhabitants was both possible and necessary.

She gathered a group of people motivated to create the project. She thought. To do it, they needed land of more than 20ha. After that she created a foundation called the International Forum Mann and foundation structures to promote organic architecture and she gathered a group of friends which included various scientists and university intellectuals with the goal of creating a city or a district they would dream to live in. E. V. A. for the name of a group and a center made by to promote integration of Ecology in architecture and town. Lanxmeer is the name of the local place.

Stanza Stones Trail

The Stanza Stones Trail is a 47-mile walking route from Marsden to Ilkley, along the Pennine watershed in northern England, linking six poems by Simon Armitage which have been carved into stone. It is in West Yorkshire with some parts in Greater Manchester. Simon Armitage was commissioned by the Ilkley Literature Festival in 2010 to write a set of site-specific poems, the trail was created in 2012. Armitage wrote six poems on the theme of water in various forms: Beck, Mist, Puddle and Snow; these were carved by stone artist Pip Hall onto stones in the area of the Pennine watershed, placed in locations selected with the help of landscape architect Tom Lonsdale. They are linked by a walking route from Armitage's home town of Marsden to the site of the festival in Ilkley. Armitage has written that "those looking hard enough might stumble across a seventh Stanza Stone, a secret stone left in an unnamed location within the Watershed area, waiting to be discovered and read."A group of young writers worked with Armitage to create an anthology of poems linked to the Stanza Stones.

The project was criticised by a group of rock climbers who likened it to graffiti in unspoiled places. The walk is of 47 miles; the total ascent is 1,786 metres and the highest point is 467 metres. Some of the way is over rugged open moorland. A guide was produced by the Ilkley Literature Festival in 2012, describing the whole walk and a series of family-friendly short walks to each of the stones. An alternative Stanza Stones Walk, a 50-mile walking route linking the stones, has been published by Mike Melvin, who says that, while the original route is "a fine outing and one that will satisfy the desires of most people wishing to visit the Stanza Stones", his purpose was "to devise an upland walk linking the stones which did not stick to recognised footpaths or to existing well-known walking trails"; the six stones are located as follows, from south to north: The Snow Stone: Pule Hill, Marsden 53.594011°N 1.956117°W / 53.594011. Stanza Stones. Enitharmon Press. ISBN 978-1907587306. Retrieved 15 September 2019.

Describing the whole project

Easter Compton

Easter Compton is a village in the civil parish of Almondsbury, South Gloucestershire, England. It is situated at the bottom of a hill near Junction 17 of the M5 Motorway on the B4055; the village is only 1.5 miles away from the busy Mall shopping and leisure complex at Cribbs Causeway. There is a pub, a post office, Methodist chapel, bowling alley, a playing field, it is served by the church of Compton Greenfield, as well as the chapel in the village. The B4055 road leads to Pilning and Severn Beach; the National Cycle Network runs through the village on its way to the Severn Bridge by which it is possible to enter Wales on foot or bicycle. There are some walks locally which give great views of the surrounding countryside from the top of Spaniorum Hill Each year in June, the village holds a carnival; the main road through the village is closed and the carnival procession finishes on the playing field where the floats are judged and various entertainments and stalls are available. In 2006, due to insurance restrictions, the carnival drawn by lorries and vans provided by a local haulage firm, was restricted to non-motorised transport and the traditional throwing of water and flour was forbidden.

The village puts on a large fireworks display on 5 November to mark Guy Fawkes Night. Bristol Zoo is planning to open a large zoological and adventure park in woodland which it owns adjacent to Blackhorse Hill; the Wave: Bristol, a park with an artificial wave pool for surfing, is planned to open in 2016. Media related to Easter Compton at Wikimedia Commons Easter Compton Village Hall Easter Compton Methodist Church

Caroline Bonaparte

Maria Annunziata Carolina Murat, better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, a younger sister of Napoleon I of France. She was queen of Naples during the reign of her spouse there, regent of Naples during his absence four times: in 1812-13, 1813, 1814 and 1815. Caroline was born in Corsica, she was a younger sister of Joseph Bonaparte, Napoléon Bonaparte, Lucien Bonaparte, Elisa Bonaparte, Louis Bonaparte and Pauline Bonaparte. She was an older sister of Jérôme Bonaparte. In 1793, Caroline moved with her family to France during the French Revolution. Caroline was educated as a pupil at the school in St-Germain-en-Laye founded by Madame Jeanne Campan, she attended the school at the same time as Hortense, Joséphine's daughter and Caroline's brother Louis' wife. She fell in love with Joachim Murat, one of her brother's generals, they married on 20 January 1800. Caroline was seventeen years old. Napoleon did not wish to allow them to marry, his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais persuaded him to change his mind.

When Napoleon became Emperor and her sisters asked to be made Imperial princesses. Caroline became Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves on 15 March 1806 and Queen consort of Naples on 1 August 1808, when her husband was appointed to the equivalent positions by her brother. According to the terms of the appointment, she would keep the title queen after the death of her spouse; as queen, Caroline renovated the royal residences in Naples, had new gardens planned, encouraged the growing interest in furniture of Classical design, patronized the silk- and cotton industry and French artists in Naples, showed an interest in the archaeological discoveries of Pompeii and founded a school for girls. She was described as intensely jealous of her sister-in-law Joséphine and her children because she felt Napoleon favored them over his Bonaparte relatives, it was Caroline who arranged for Napoleon to take a mistress, Éléonore Denuelle, who duly gave birth to his first illegitimate child. This had the desired effect of establishing that Joséphine was infertile, as Napoleon showed he was capable of siring children, which resulted in his divorce from Josephine and remarriage.

In 1810, when Napoleon married his second Empress Consort Marie Louise of Austria, Caroline was responsible for escorting her to France. After meeting her at the border of Austria and her duchy, Caroline forced Marie-Louise to leave all her luggage and her pet dog, behind in Austria. Caroline devoted herself to the interests of her husband Joachim Murat, the King of Naples, where she was much involved in the affairs of the Kingdom; as queen of Naples, she functioned as the regent of Naples during the absence of Joachim on four occasions: during his participation in the war on Russia in 1812-1813, during his participation in the war in Germany in 1813, during the war against Napoleon in 1814, during the return of Napoleon to power in 1815. In 1814, she supported his decision to make a separate peace with the anti-Napoleonic allies, keeping his throne while Napoleon was deposed. During the Hundred Days of 1815, Joachim came out for Napoleon. During his absence, Caroline was left as regent of Naples.

Joachim was defeated and executed, Caroline fled to the Austrian Empire. Whilst in exile, she adopted the title'Countess of Lipona'. In 1830, she married Francesco Macdonald, Minister of War of the Kingdom of Naples in 1814 and 1815, she lived in Florence until her death in 1839. The couple had no children. Caroline was buried at the Chiesa di Ognissanti, in Florence. One of her great-great-great-grandsons was the American actor René Auberjonois, best known for voice acting Janos Audron in Legacy of Kain and portraying the character Odo on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Caroline and Joachim were the parents of four children: Achille Charles Louis Napoléon Murat, 2nd Prince Murat, m. Tallahassee, Florida, 12 July 1826 Catherine Daingerfield Willis, daughter of Colonel Byrd C. Willis and wife Mary Lewis, without issue. Venice, 27 October 1823 Guido Taddeo Pepoli, Marchese Pepoli, Conte di Castiglione, had one daughter. Bordentown, New Jersey, 18 August 1831 Caroline Georgina Fraser, daughter of Thomas Fraser and wife Anne Lauton, had issue.

Trieste, 25 October 1825 Giulio Conte Rasponi, had issue

Jacob De la Gardie

Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire, a Marshal from 1620 onward. He was Privy Councilor from 1613 onward, Governor of Swedish Estonia in 1619–1622, Governor-General of Livonia in 1622–1628, Lord High Constable from 1620, he introduced reforms based on the novel Dutch military doctrine into the Swedish army. He commanded the Swedish forces against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he served as one of the five regents jointly ruling Sweden during the minority of Queen Christina. Antoine Marie Jacob De la Gardie was born in Reval, Estonia, as a son of Pontus De la Gardie and Sofia Johansdotter Gyllenhielm, the illegitimate daughter of King John III of Sweden, his mother died giving birth, his father perished two years in Narva. From his age two onward, Jacob was raised in the Vääksy manor, Finland by his grandmother Karin Hansdotter, the mistress of King John III; as a young adult, De la Gardie was held prisoner in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for four years, together with Carl Gyllenhielm.

After being released, De la Gardie took part of the Dutch Revolt as a volunteer. In 1606 -- 1608, De la Gardie served under the Dutch general Maurice of Prince of Orange. Impressed with the Dutch way of waging war, De la Gardie began introducing Dutch methods into the Swedish army upon his return to the service of Sweden; the Tsardom of Russia had been experiencing the Time of Troubles since the death of Tsar Feodor I in 1598, causing widespread political instability and a violent succession crisis for the title of Tsar of Russia by usurpers known as the False Dmitris. In 1605, the Polish-Muscovite War started when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth unofficially invaded Russia in support of False Dmitry I against the unpopular crowned tsar Boris Godunov, seeking to exploit the country's weakness for their own gain. Godunov died in June 1605 and was replaced by False Dmitry I, whose popularity among the Russian populace declined during his reign, the Polish withdrew when he was murdered during an uprising in Moscow in May 1606.

Despite of this, Russia's instability continued to the near-total breakdown of order, prompting the Polish to invade again in 1607 in support of the new usurper, False Dmitry II. In 1609, the Tsar of Russia at the time, Vasili IV, approached King Charles IX of Sweden to form a military alliance against False Dmitry II and the Polish occupiers; the two signed the Treaty of Viborg, in which Russia ceded Kexholm County and the strategic Korela Fortress to Sweden in exchange for military support. This Russia's alliance formed in 1609 with Sweden, the main rival of Poland, led to King Sigismund III of Poland declaring war on Russia in response. In 1608–1613, De la Gardie as Sweden's Chief Commander in Finland commanded the Swedish war efforts in Russia. Thus, in accordance with the Swedish-Russian military alliance formed in 1609, he together with Evert Horn now took charge of providing an auxiliary corps to support the Russian forces commanded by Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky. Although the Swedish-Russian alliance was not ratified before July 1609 in the early spring of 1609 Sweden gathered for this mission to the city of Vyborg in Finland c. 5,000 soldiers, consisting of Finns.

A Swedish offensive heading towards Moscow – via Novgorod – began from Vyborg on 11 March 1609. The operation became known as De la Gardie campaign, it was a joint military campaign by the Tsardom of Russia and Sweden during the Polish-Russian War, a.k.a. Polish–Muscovite War or the Dimitriads, lasting from April 1609 to 4 June 1610. A combined Russo-Swedish army of about 10,000 soldiers set out from Novgorod in April 1609 and marched towards Moscow, defeating rebel forces and relieving the Siege of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra on their way; the De la Gardie campaign was successful against False Dmitry II, dispersing his court in Tushino, a former village and town to the north of Moscow, where Dmitry II maintained an alternative court, challenging the authority of Vasili IV. On 12 March 1610, the Russo-Swedish army conquered the city. In June 1610, De la Gardie and Prince Dmitry Shuisky – an uncle and rival of Skopin-Shuisky – departed from Moscow, in order to lift the Polish-Lithuanian Siege of Smolensk.

The campaign ended with most of De la Gardie's forces deflecting to the Polish hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski at the Battle of Klushino, causing a defeat to De la Gardie's alliance on 4 June 1610. After this, De la Gardie's remaining army returned to Vyborg during that summer. Not long thereafter, the Ingrian War in 1610–1617 between Sweden and Russia was initiated, during which De la Gardie played a significant role militarily. A new army was being formed for Jacob De la Gardie, again stationed in Vyborg, it this time included four foreign mercenary fighting units, in addition to Swedes. De la Gardie claimed that Sweden should take advantage of the ongoing turmoil in Russia known as the Times of Trouble, try to place Charles Philip, younger brother of the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, on the Russian throne. After some negotiating, these plans were abandoned due to lack of engagement from Gustavus Adolphus, due to uncertainty on the Russian side. In 1617, De la