Interstate 95 in Pennsylvania
Interstate 95 is an Interstate highway running from Miami, north to Houlton, Maine. In the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, it runs 44.25 miles from the Delaware state line near Marcus Hook to the Delaware River–Turnpike Toll Bridge at the New Jersey state line. From the Delaware state line to exit 40, the route is known by many as the Delaware Expressway, but is named the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway. North of exit 40, I-95 runs along the easternmost portion of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. I-95 parallels its namesake Delaware River for its entire route through the city of Philadelphia and its suburbs, it is a major route through the city and the metropolitan Delaware Valley, providing access to locally important landmarks such as Philadelphia International Airport, the South Philadelphia Sports Complex, Talen Energy Stadium, Penn's Landing, Philadelphia Mills. Of the 15 states that Interstate 95 runs through, Pennsylvania is the only one that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. Plans for a limited-access route along the Delaware River in the Philadelphia area originated in the 1930s when both a parkway and elevated highway were proposed.
The Delaware Expressway was approved in 1945 as a toll road, to be part of the Pennsylvania Turnpike system until the project was turned to the Pennsylvania Department of Highways in 1956, with the expressway to be included in the Interstate Highway System as part of I-95. Construction on I-95 began in 1959 and was complete by 1979, with the final portion near the Philadelphia International Airport finished in 1985; the route was projected to run through the center of Trenton, New Jersey, but was rerouted to the Scudder Falls Bridge due to limited capacity in Trenton. It remained on this alignment until July 2018 when it was truncated to the Pennsylvania Turnpike, being replaced by an extended Interstate 295. Upon completion of two new high-speed flyovers connecting I-95 and the Pennsylvania Turnpike on September 22, 2018, I-95 was extended to the east into New Jersey toward the New Jersey Turnpike along the former Interstate 276. I-95 enters Pennsylvania from Delaware in Lower Chichester Township, Delaware County, a short distance north of the interchange with the northern terminus of I-495.
The ramp from southbound I-95 to southbound I-495 splits north of the state line. From the Delaware border, I-95 heads northeast as a six-lane freeway through wooded areas, passing over PA 491 without an interchange and coming to a northbound welcome center; the road reaches an interchange with Chichester Avenue. Past this interchange, the freeway passes near residential areas and comes to the PA 452 exit to the north of the borough of Marcus Hook. I-95 continues east-northeast through woods and passes to the south of CSX's Twin Oaks Rail Yard, an automotive unloading facility; the road comes to an interchange with US 322 and Highland Avenue, with I-95 having a southbound exit and northbound entrance with US 322 and a complete interchange with Highland Avenue. At this point, US 322 becomes concurrent with I-95 and the freeway enters the city of Chester, gaining a fourth northbound lane and passing through urban residential neighborhoods; the freeway crosses into Chester Township and heads near more development in the community of Feltonville before US 322 splits from I-95 at an interchange to head southeast on a freeway toward the Commodore Barry Bridge over the Delaware River.
From here, I-95 heads back into the city of Chester and runs between CSX's Philadelphia Subdivision to the northwest and urban areas to the southeast, coming to a northbound exit and southbound entrance with Kerlin Street. The freeway narrows to six lanes and continues parallel to the railroad tracks, crossing the Chester Creek into the borough of Upland and passing to the southeast of Crozer-Chester Medical Center. I-95 crosses into Chester once again and comes to an interchange with PA 320 and PA 352 as it and the CSX rail line pass under several city streets. Following this, the freeway curves northeast near urban neighborhoods and crosses the Ridley Creek into Ridley Township, where it comes to an interchange with the southern terminus of I-476, where it passes over the Crum Creek. Past this interchange, I-95 widens to eight lanes and turns to the east away from the CSX line, passing near residential and commercial development and coming to bridges over US 13 and Amtrak's Northeast Corridor.
The road curves east-northeast and enters the southern edge of the borough of Ridley Park, passing to the north of Boeing Defense, Space & Security's Vertical Lift helicopter plant and reaching a diamond interchange with Stewart Avenue that serves Ridley Park. The freeway heads back into Ridley Township and curves southeast before coming to a bridge over the Darby Creek, at which point it enters Tinicum Township. I-95 turns to the east-northeast and passes between the creek to the north and commercial development to the south; the freeway comes to a cloverleaf interchange with PA 420 north of the community of Essington, where the right lanes serve as collector/distributor roads for the interchange. Past this interchange, the eight-lane freeway continues between marshland in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum to the north and developed areas to the south. I-95 heads north of an office park before it comes to a northbound ramp that connects to eastbound PA 291. Past this, the freeway comes to a bridge over Conrail Shared Assets Operations' Chester Secondary and PA 291.
I-95 crosses into the city of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, at which point it passes to the northwest of the Philadelphia International Airport. The freeway passes under a ramp to the airport's departures terminal
The Belgravia Hotel known as Peale House, is a historic building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, it was listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places on June 3, 1982. The building was the site of a hotel but has been developed into condominiums. Famous former residents include violinist Efrem Zimbalist. Listing at Philadelphia Architects and Buildings
Science History Institute
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it includes a library, archive, research center and conference center, it was founded in 1982 as a joint venture of the American Chemical Society and the University of Pennsylvania, as the Center for the History of Chemistry. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers became a co-founder in 1984, it was renamed the Chemical Heritage Foundation in 1992, moved two years to the institution's current location, 315 Chestnut Street in Old City. On December 1, 2015, CHF merged with the Life Sciences Foundation, creating an organization that covers "the history of the life sciences and biotechnology together with the history of the chemical sciences and engineering." As of February 1, 2018, the organization was renamed the Science History Institute, to reflect its wider range of historical interests, from chemical sciences and engineering to the life sciences and biotechnology.
The Institute focuses not only on the history of chemistry but on the history of science, the history of technology, trends in research and development, the impact of science on society, relationships between science and art, among other subjects. It supports a community of an oral history program; as of 2012, it was the largest US grantor of research fellowships for the history of science. The idea of creating "a library of reference and a chemical museum" in the United States can be found in the Proceedings of the first meeting of the American Chemical Society in 1876. Impetus for the creation of the Science History Institute dates to 1976, when the nation's bicentennial and the centennial of the American Chemical Society stimulated interest in both history and chemistry. John H. Wotiz of the Division of the History of Chemistry of the ACS organized a session on the history of chemistry as part of the ACS centennial activities and was a strong proponent of a national center for historical chemistry.
In 1979, the ACS formed a task force chaired by Ned D. Heindel to investigate the possibility of creating a national center for the history of chemistry. Arnold Thackray, a professor in the Department of History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania, curator of the Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection on the history of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, argued for the formation of such a center in Philadelphia, he was able to obtain promises of private support from chemist John C. Haas, institutional support from the Dow Chemical Company and DuPont. In December 1981 the ACS approved the establishment of the Center for the History of Chemistry, with support of $50,000 per year for five years, in cooperation with the University of Pennsylvania, to provide an equivalent in goods and services. An agreement to create the Center for the History of Chemistry was signed by officers of the American Chemical Society and the University of Pennsylvania on January 22 and 26, 1982.
A policy council was appointed by the sponsoring institutions to oversee routine operations of the center, Arnold Thackray was appointed part-time director of the center on April 29, 1982. The official inauguration of the center was held on March 11, 1983; the Center's first home was in several vacant basement rooms on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Its "immediate aims" included gathering oral histories of important chemists and inventorying papers and manuscripts in repositories throughout the country to map "the unexplored territory of the history of chemistry and chemical technology."A National Advisory Board was formed from a wide-ranging group of people in academia and industry. In 1982, its members included John C. Haas, historians Margaret W. Rossiter and Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and at least three Nobel Prize winners, Christian B. Anfinsen, Herbert C. Brown, Glenn T. Seaborg; the American Institute of Chemical Engineers became a co-founder of the Center, signing an agreement on August 27 and 28, 1984.
In addition, the institution began to establish relationships with affiliated organizations such as The Chemists' Club, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, the Electrochemical Society and the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. As early as 1983, the Center for the History of Chemistry expressed an interest in "The Conservation of Historic American Chemical Instruments", in discussions of a possible joint project with the Smithsonian. However, the center did not yet have exhibition or collections space to allow for the acquisition of any but the most limited quantities of documents; the center did curate a number of traveling exhibitions by collaborating with other organizations, including "Joseph Priestley: Enlightened Chemist", "Polymers and People", "Scaling Up", "Chemical Education in the United States". During the 1980s, the center came to the attention of Arnold Orville Beckman; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation provided a $2 million challenge grant in 1986 to stimulate expansion of the center as a research institute, the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for the History of Chemistry.
Beckman challenged the center to define its mission more broadly, reaching out to academic and trade organizations, including biochemistry, materials science, petrochemicals and instrumentation within its mandate. The National Foundation for History of Chemistry was established in 1987 as a supporting Pennsylvania nonprofit; the renamed Beckman Center began a major capital campaign, listing as its needs "offices, an exhibit gallery, a reading room, library stacks, archives and storage areas." It celebrated its
U.S. Route 13 in Pennsylvania
U. S. Route 13 is a U. S. highway running from Fayetteville, North Carolina north to Morrisville, Pennsylvania. The route runs for 49.33 mi through the Philadelphia metropolitan area in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The route enters the state from Delaware in Delaware County, it continues in a northeasterly direction through Delaware County, passing through the city of Chester before heading through suburban areas along Chester Pike to Darby. US 13 enters Philadelphia on Baltimore Avenue and runs through West Philadelphia to University City, where it turns north along several city streets before heading east across the Schuylkill River along Girard Avenue; the route turns north and heads to North Philadelphia, where it runs northeast along Hunting Park Avenue. US 13 becomes concurrent with US 1 on Roosevelt Boulevard. US 13 splits southeast on one-way streets before heading northeast out of the city on Frankford Avenue; the route continues into Bucks County as Bristol Pike, heading northeast to Bristol, where it turns into a divided highway.
US 13 continues north to its terminus at US 1 near Morrisville. US 13 parallels Interstate 95 through its course in Pennsylvania; the routing dates back to colonial times as part of the King's Highway. In the 19th century, the road was part of several turnpikes, including the Darby and Ridley Turnpike between Chester and Darby and the Frankford and Bristol Turnpike between Philadelphia and Morrisville. In the early 20th century, these private turnpikes became public roads. US 13 was designated through Pennsylvania in 1926, running between the Delaware border in Marcus Hook and US 1 in Morrisville; the route was designated concurrent with Pennsylvania Route 91 between the Delaware border and Philadelphia and PA 32 between Philadelphia and Morrisville. US 13 ran through Darby on Main Street and Philadelphia on Woodland Avenue, Market Street, Broad Street, Diamond Street, Front Street, Kensington Avenue, Frankford Avenue. In the 1930s, the route was shifted to use Macdade Boulevard, Whitby Avenue, 44th Street, Powelton Avenue, 31st and 32nd streets, Spring Garden Street, Broad Street, Roosevelt Boulevard, Levick Street, Frankford Avenue through the city.
Between the 1930s and 1960s, three bypass routes existed for portions of US 13 between Marcus Hook and Philadelphia. The divided highway alignment between Bristol and Tullytown was completed by 1950; the US 13 freeway between Tullytown and US 1 was completed in 1955, shifting the northern terminus to its current location. This freeway was once considered to become a part of I-95 that would pass through Trenton, New Jersey before it was decided for the interstate to bypass Trenton to the north. A US 13 freeway was again proposed between I-95 near Bristol and Tullytown in 1969 but was cancelled; the route was shifted to use 43rd and 44th streets, Powelton Avenue, 34th Street, Girard Avenue, 33rd Street, Ridge Avenue, Hunting Park Avenue in Philadelphia in the 1950s. US 13 was rerouted to use Church Lane and Baltimore Avenue between Yeadon and West Philadelphia in the 1960s; the route was shifted to its current alignment in the 1970s. US 13 enters Pennsylvania from Delaware in the borough of Marcus Hook in Delaware County, heading northeast on four-lane undivided Post Road.
From the state line, the route passes through Sunoco's Marcus Hook Industrial Complex. The road narrows to two lanes and crosses a railroad spur serving the industrial complex before it heads into the commercial center of Marcus Hook as 10th Street, intersecting the southern terminus of PA 452. US 13 crosses a Conrail Shared Assets Operations line and runs between residential areas to the north and industrial areas to the south before it crosses the Marcus Hook Creek into the borough of Trainer; the route becomes Post Road again and passes between homes and some businesses to the north and a Delta Air Lines' Trainer Refinery to the south before it reaches a junction with the western terminus of PA 291. The road continues through urban residential and industrial areas as it enters the city of Chester, where the road name becomes 4th Street. US 13 passes near urban businesses, turning northwest onto Highland Avenue; the route passes under Amtrak's Northeast Corridor near the Highland Avenue station serving SEPTA's Wilmington/Newark Line before running past more homes and turning northeast onto 9th Street.
US 13 passes Community Hospital of Chester. The route comes to an partial interchange with the US 322 freeway providing access to and from the Commodore Barry Bridge over the Delaware River. Following this, the road continues past urban residences and businesses, passing south of Chester High School and crossing Chester Creek. US 13 reaches a junction with the southern terminus of PA 352 and Avenue of the States and continues northeast to intersect PA 320, routed on the one-way pair of Madison Street northbound and Upland Street southbound; the route turns north onto Morton Avenue and continues through urban development, curving to the northeast. US 13 crosses the Ridley Creek and forms the border between Ridley Township to the north and the borough of Eddystone to the south, widening to four lanes and becoming Chester Pike; the road passes a mix of homes and businesses before it comes to a bridge over Crum Creek, at which point it enters Ridley Township. The route passes under I-95 and continues past commercial development in the community of Crum Lynne, gaining a center left-turn lane.
US 13 enters the borough of Ridley Park and passes under the Northeast Corridor near the Cr
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Front Street (Philadelphia)
Front Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is a north-south street running parallel to and near the Delaware River. In 1682, when the city was laid out by William Penn, it was the first street surveyed and built in the new colony of Pennsylvania; as part of the King's Highway, which extended from Boston to Charleston, South Carolina, as the waterfront of Philadelphia's port, it was the most important street in the city from its founding into the nineteenth century. Front Street is the origin street of Philadelphia's numbered streets. There is no First Street, Front Street exists in its place, numbered streets begin at the next major block with Second Street, about one-tenth mile west. At least three stations of SEPTA's Market–Frankford Line are built above Front Street, they include Girard Station, Berks Station, York–Dauphin Station. SEPTA gives the address of Spring Garden Station as Front Street, by which pedestrians have access, but its platform lies in the median of Interstate 95 over Spring Garden Street, just west of Front Street.
The South Front Street Historic District, which includes numbers 700-712 on the west side of South Front, is a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The district includes three buildings individually listed on the NRHP as well, Widow Maloby's Tavern, Capt. Thomas Moore House, the Nathaniel Irish House. Four sites listed on the National Register adjoin North Front Street: Elfreth's Alley, the Quaker City Dye Works, two schools, the Thomas K. Finletter School and Olney High School
Second Bank of the United States
The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836. The bank's formal name, according to section 9 of its charter as passed by Congress, was "The President and Company, of the Bank of the United States."A private corporation with public duties, the bank handled all fiscal transactions for the U. S. Government, was accountable to Congress and the U. S. Treasury. Twenty percent of its capital was owned by the federal government, the bank's single largest stockholder. Four thousand private investors held 80% of the bank's capital, including one thousand Europeans; the bulk of the stocks were held by a few hundred wealthy Americans. In its time, the institution was the largest monied corporation in the world; the essential function of the bank was to regulate the public credit issued by private banking institutions through the fiscal duties it performed for the U.
S. Treasury, to establish a sound and stable national currency; the federal deposits endowed the BUS with its regulatory capacity. Modeled on Alexander Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Second Bank was chartered by President James Madison in 1816 and began operations at its main branch in Philadelphia on January 7, 1817, managing twenty-five branch offices nationwide by 1832; the efforts to renew the bank's charter put the institution at the center of the general election of 1832, in which the bank's president Nicholas Biddle and pro-bank National Republicans led by Henry Clay clashed with the "hard-money" Andrew Jackson administration and eastern banking interests in the Bank War. Failing to secure recharter, the Second Bank of the United States became a private corporation in 1836, underwent liquidation in 1841; the political support for the revival of a national banking system was rooted in the early 19th century transformation of the country from simple Jeffersonian agrarianism towards one interdependent with industrialization and finance.
In the aftermath of the War of 1812 the federal government suffered from the disarray of an unregulated currency and a lack of fiscal order. A national alliance arose to legislate a central bank to address these needs; the political climate—dubbed the Era of Good Feelings—favored the development of national programs and institutions, including a protective tariff, internal improvements and the revival of a Bank of the United States Southern and western support for the bank, led by Republican nationalists John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky was decisive in the successful chartering effort; the charter was signed into law by James Madison on April 10, 1816. Subsequent efforts by Calhoun and Clay to earmark the bank's $1.5 million establishment "bonus", annual dividends estimated at $650,000, as a fund for internal improvements, was vetoed by President Madison, on strict constructionist grounds. Opposition to the bank's revival emanated from two interests. Old Republicans, represented by John Taylor of Caroline and John Randolph of Roanoke characterized the Second Bank of the United States as both constitutionally illegitimate and a direct threat to Jeffersonian agrarianism, state sovereignty and the institution of slavery, expressed by Taylor's statement that "...if Congress could incorporate a bank, it might emancipate a slave".
Hostile to the regulatory effects of the central bank, private banks—proliferating with or without state charters—had scuttled rechartering of the first BUS in 1811. These interests played significant roles in undermining the institution during the administration of U. S. President Andrew Jackson; the BUS was launched in the midst of a major global market readjustment as Europe recovered from the Napoleonic Wars The central bank was charged with restraining uninhibited private bank note issue—already in progress—that threatened to create a credit bubble and the risks of a financial collapse. Government land sales in the West, fueled by European demand for agricultural products, ensured that a speculative bubble would form; the national bank was engaged in promoting a democratized expansion of credit to accommodate laissez-faire impulses among eastern business entrepreneurs and credit hungry western and southern farmers. Under the management of the first BUS president William Jones, the bank failed to control paper money issued from its branch banks in the West and South, contributing to the post-war speculative land boom.
When the U. S. markets collapsed in the Panic of 1819—a result of global economic adjustments—the central bank came under withering criticism for its belated tight money policies—policies that exacerbated mass unemployment and plunging property values. Further, it transpired that branch directors for the Baltimore office had engaged in fraud and larceny. Resigning in January 1819, Jones was replaced by Langdon Cheves who continued the contraction in credit in an effort to stop inflation and stabilize the bank as the economy began to correct; the central bank's reaction to the crisis—a clumsy expansion a sharp contraction of credit—indicated its weakness, not its strength. The effects were catastrophic, resulting in a protracted recession with mass unemployment and a sharp drop in property values that persisted until 1822; the financial crisis raised doubts among the American public as to the efficacy of paper money, in whose interests a national system of finance operated. Upon this widespread disaffection the anti-bank Jacksonian Democrats would mobilize opposition to the BUS in the 1830s.
The national bank was in general disrepute among most Americans when Nicholas Biddle, the third and last president of the bank, was app