Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Lord of the manor
In English and Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property, one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, may be held in moieties: the title. A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Seigneur du Manoir, Welsh as Breyr, Gutsherr in German, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Ambachtsheer in Dutch and Signore or Vassallo in Italian. A lord of the manor might be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown; the origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086; the title cannot nowadays be subdivided. This has been prohibited since 1290 in the Statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution.
Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council QB 360, described the manor thus: In medieval times the manor was the nucleus of English rural life. It was an administrative unit of an extensive area of land; the whole of it was owned by the lord of the manor. He lived in the big house called the manor house. Attached to it were many acres of grassland and woodlands called the park; these were the "demesne lands". Dotted all round were the enclosed homes and land occupied by the “tenants of the manor”; the owner of a lordship of the manor can be described as, Lord/Lady of the Manor of, sometimes shortened to Lord or Lady of. In modern times any person may choose to use a name, not the property of another. Under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name he sees fit as long as it is not done to commit fraud or evade an obligation. A manorial lordship is not a noble title. Lordship in this sense is a synonym for ownership, although this ownership involved a historic legal jurisdiction in the form of the court baron.
The journal Justice of the Peace & Local Government Law advises that the position is unclear as to whether a lordship of a manor is a title of honour or a dignity, as this is yet to be tested by the courts. Technically, lords freemen. John Selden in his esteemed work Titles of Honour writes, "The word Baro hath been so much communicated, that not only all Lords of Manors have been from ancient time, are at this day called sometimes Barons But the Judges of the Exchequer have it from antient time fixed on them."John Martin Robinson, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary and co-author of The Oxford Guide to Heraldry, gave his opinion that "Lordship of this or that manor is no more a title than Landlord of The Dog and Duck". The style'Lord of the Manor of X' or'Lord of X' is, in this sense, more of a description than a title, somewhat similar to the term Laird in Scotland. King's College, Cambridge have given the view that the term'indicated wealth and privilege, it carried rights and responsibilities'.
Since 1965 Lords of the Manor have been entitled to compensation in the event of compulsory purchase. Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible for manors to be registered with HM Land Registry. Manorial incidents, which are the rights that a lord of the manor may exercise over other people's land, lapsed on 12 October 2013 if not registered by with the Land Registry; this is a separate issue to the registration of lordships of manors, since both registered and unregistered lordships will continue to exist after that date. It is only their practical rights that will lose what is called'overriding interest', or in other words the ability to affect land if the interests or rights are not registered against that land, as of 12 October 2013. Manorial incidents can still be recorded for either unregistered manors; this issue does not affect the existence of the title of lord of the manor. There have been cases where manors have been sold and the seller has unknowingly parted with rights to unregistered land in England and Wales.
In England in the Middle Ages, land was held of the English monarch or ruler by a powerful local supporter, who gave protection in return. The people who had sworn homage to the lord were known as vassals. Vassals were nobles who served loyalty in return for being given the use of land. After the Norman conquest of England, all land in England was owned by the monarch who granted the use of it by means of a transaction known as enfeoffment, to earls and others, in return for military service; the person who held feudal land directly from the king was known as a tenant-in-chief. Military servic
Ephemera are any transitory written or printed matter not meant to be retained or preserved. The word derives from the Greek ephemeros, meaning "lasting only one day, short-lived"; some collectible ephemera are advertising trade cards, airsickness bags, catalogues, greeting cards, pamphlets, posters, defunct stock certificates or tickets, zines. Ephemera is a noun, the plural neuter of ephemeron and ephemeros and New Latin for ἐπί – epi "on, for" and ἡμέρα – hemera "day" with the ancient sense extending to the mayfly and other short lived insects and flowers and for something which lasts a day or a short period of time. In library and information science, the term ephemera describes the class of published single-sheet or single page documents which are meant to be thrown away after one use; this classification excludes simple letters and photographs with no printing on them, which are considered manuscripts or typescripts. Large academic and national libraries and museums may collect and preserve ephemera as history.
A large and important example of such an archive is the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Over 2,000 images from the John Johnson Collection are available to search online for free at VADS and more than 65,000 items are available online; the extensive Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection from the Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 32,000 Victorian and Edwardian greeting cards and 450 Valentine's Day cards dating from the early nineteenth century, printed by the major publishers of the day. The Ephemera Kabinett at the Los-Angeles–based Institute of Cultural Inquiry contains'first' items from cultural turning points of the last two decades, such as a copy of the first Marvel comic in which a lead character comes out of the closet and one of the first AIDS red ribbons. By extension, video ephemera and audio ephemera refer to transitory audiovisual matter not intended to be retained or preserved; the great bulk of video and audio expression has, until been ephemeral.
Early TV broadcasts were not preserved. If radio and television stations preserve archives of their broadcasts, those backcatalogs are inaccessible in practice to the general public, leaving it to a small number of underground tape traders to exchange the rare, lucky moments when something unexpected or historical came across the air. An article on the Ephemera Society of America website notes Printed ephemera gave way to audio and video ephemera in the twentieth century.... These present more of a preservation problem than printed materials. Although made available for libraries, when videotapes are acquired for archival preservation they are found to be made on low quality tape, poorly processed, damaged from abuse by users; the large capacity and reach provided by resources such as the Internet Archive and YouTube have made finding and sharing video ephemera easier. As ephemera are items that are not supposed to be retained, they are accessible and attractive for collectors. Most of them can be obtained by either asking family friends to save it.
Printed ephemera contain various promotional images and texts. Different themes, types and shapes make these items perfect for collecting. Online collector catalogs exist to showcase different types of ephemera and provide information to enthusiasts. Found Footage Festival Prelinger Archives The Show with No Name Ephemeral Ephemeris Printed Ephemera: The Changing Uses of Type and Letterforms in English and American Printing, John Lewis, Suffolk, Eng.: W. S. Cowell, 1962 The Encyclopedia of Ephemera: A Guide to the Fragmentary Documents of Everyday Life for the Collector and Historian by Maurice Rickards et alia. London: The British Library. Fragments of the Everyday: A Book of Australian Ephemera by Richard Stone Twyman, Michael. "Ephemera: whose responsibility are they?". Library and Information Update. 1: 54–55. ISSN 1476-7171. Ephemera Society of Australia The Ephemera Society Ephemera Society of America Printed Ephemera in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division of the Library of Congress Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives - Ephemera Collection National Library of Australia - Ephemera Collection The Gjenvick-Gjønvik Archives - Ephemera Collection British Library - Evanian Collection of Ephemera State Library of Victoria - Ephemera State Library of Western Australia - Ephemera The John Grossman Collection of Antique Images New Zealand Ephemera Society website Bibliothèque Nationale de France - Ephemera ephemerastudies.org at Louisiana Tech University Sheaff, Dick.
"Sheaff: Ephemera". Ephemera. Retrieved 12 December 2011. Collection of digitized ephemera at Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, Biblioteca Nacional de España
Alfred Waterhouse was an English architect associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is best known for his design for Manchester Town Hall and the Natural History Museum in London, although he built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the country. Financially speaking, Waterhouse was the most successful of all Victorian architects. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse never limited himself to a single architectural style. Waterhouse was born on 19 July 1830 in Aigburth, Lancashire, the son of wealthy mill-owning Quaker parents, his brothers were accountant Edwin Waterhouse, co-founder of the Price Waterhouse partnership, which now forms part of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, solicitor Theodore Waterhouse, who founded the law firm Waterhouse & Co, now part of Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP in the City of London. Alfred Waterhouse was educated at the Quaker Grove House School in Tottenham, he studied architecture under Richard Lane in Manchester, spent much of his youth travelling in Europe and studying in France and Germany.
On his return to Britain, Alfred set up his own architectural practice in 1854 in Manchester. Waterhouse continued to practise in Manchester for 12 years, until moving his practice to London in 1865, his earliest commissions were for domestic buildings. In executing the commission for the cemetery buildings at Warrington Road, Lower Ince, he began his move towards designing public buildings in his developing Neo-Gothic style, building a lodge for the registrar, two chapels, one Church of England, one Non-conformist, his success as a designer of public buildings was assured in 1859 when he won the open competition for the Manchester Assize Courts. This work not only showed his ability to plan a complicated building on a large scale, but marked him out as a champion of the Gothic cause. In 1860 he married Elizabeth Hodgkin, daughter of John Hodgkin and sister of the historian Thomas Hodgkin. Elizabeth was herself the author of several books, including a collection of verse and some anthologies.
Her best known work was The Island of Anarchy, a Utopian story set in the late 20th century, first published in 1887 and more re-published by the Reading-based Two Rivers Press. Waterhouse had connections with wealthy Quaker industrialists through schooling and religious affiliations, many of which commissioned him to design and build country houses in the areas near Darlington. Several were built for members of the Backhouse family, founders of Backhouse's Bank, a forerunner of Barclays Bank. For Alfred Backhouse, Waterhouse built Pilmore Hall, now known as Rockliffe Hall, in Hurworth-on-Tees. In the same village he built the Grange, now the Hurworth Grange Community Centre, which Alfred Backhouse had commissioned as a wedding gift for his nephew, James E. Backhouse. Another Backhouse family mansion designed and built by Waterhouse was Dryderdale Hall, near Hamsterley, used for the home of Cyril Kinnear in the film Get Carter, he designed Baron's Craig a country house in Rockcliffe in Kirkcudbright shire in 1879 for Christopher Morris.
In 1865, Waterhouse was one of the architects selected to compete for the Royal Courts of Justice. The University Club of New York was undertaken in 1866. In 1868 and nine years after his work on the Manchester Assize Courts, another competition secured for Waterhouse the design of Manchester Town Hall where he showed a firmer and more original handling of the Gothic style; the same year he was involved in rebuilding Caius College, Cambridge. At Caius, out of deference to the Renaissance treatment of the older parts of the college, this Gothic element was intentionally mingled with classic detail, while Balliol and Pembroke College, which followed in 1871, are typical of the style of his mid career with Gothic tradition tempered by individual taste and by adaptation to modern needs. Girton College, Cambridge, a building of simpler type, dates from the same period, but has been periodically enlarged by further buildings. Two important domestic works were undertaken in 1870 and 1871 — Eaton Hall in Cheshire for the Duke of Westminster, Heythrop Hall, the latter a restoration of a strict classic type.
Waterhouse received, without competition, the commission to build the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, a design which marks an epoch in the modern use of architectural terracotta and, to become his best-known work. Waterhouse's other works in London included the National Liberal Club, University College London's Cruciform Building, the former site of University College Hospital, the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors in London's Great George Street, the Jenner Institute of Preventive Medicine in Chelsea. From the late 1860s, Waterhouse lived in Reading and was responsible for several significant buildings there; these included his own residences of Foxhill House and Yattendon Court, together with Reading Town Hall, Grove House, a boarding house at Leighton Park School and Reading School. Foxhill House is still in use by the University of Reading, as are his Whiteknights House and East Thorpe House. For the Prudential Assurance Company, Waterhouse designed many offices, including their Holborn Bars head office in Holborn and branch offices in Southam
Henry V of England
Henry V called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry, his sudden and unexpected death in France two years condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle in Wales, for that reason was sometimes called Henry of Monmouth.
He was the son of Henry of Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun, thus the paternal grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II, his first cousin once removed, was king. Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian; as he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not documented. However, records indicate that his younger brother Thomas was born in the autumn of 1387 and that his parents were at Monmouth in 1386 but not in 1387, it is now accepted that he was born on 16 September 1386. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly; the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England.
He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Earl of Chester and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the chancellor of the university. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. Less than three years Henry was in command of part of the English forces, he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. For eighteen months in 1410–11, Henry was in control of the country during his father's ill health and took full advantage of the opportunity to impose his own policies; when the king recovered, he dismissed the prince from his council. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408; as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort, legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November 1411; the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents endeavoured to defame the prince, it may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel wi
Chorlton-cum-Hardy is a suburban area of Manchester, four miles southwest of the city centre. Chorlton ward had a population of 14,138 at the 2011 census, Chorlton Park 15,147. By the 9th century, there was an Anglo-Saxon settlement here. In the Middle Ages, improved drainage methods led to population growth. In the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, its rural character made it popular among the middle class; the loss of its railway station, the conversion of larger houses into flats or bedsitters, significant social housing development to the south of the area changed its character again in the 1970s. Chorlton was a village on Lancashire's southern border with Cheshire, a township within the ancient parish of Manchester, it was incorporated into the city of Manchester in 1904. Chorlton borders Stretford, Didsbury and Whalley Range; the River Mersey runs past Chorlton along its southern boundary. The area's eastern boundary has changed since the 19th century because of incorporation into the City of Manchester and division into wards.
Chorlton means Ceolfrith's farm or settlement from the Old English personal name and tūn, an enclosure, farmstead or village. Hardy is derived from a personal name, ēg, Anglian for island or dry ground in a well-watered land, it has alternatively been suggested that Hardy may mean "by the woods", in reference to the ancient forest of Arden Wood that grew on both sides of the River Mersey in the area. Chorlton was recorded as Chollirton in 1250, Chollerton from 1292 and as Chourton in 1572; the ancient hamlets of Chorlton and Hardy, separated by the Chorlton Brook, together with Martledge and Barlow Moor, did not come under the combined name of Chorlton-cum-Hardy until the 18th century. The name was adopted by Victorian property developers who arrived in the wake of the coming of the railway in 1880, to distinguish this Chorlton from Chorlton-on-Medlock; the form Chorlton with Hardy was used to some extent from the early 19th century onwards and in the early years of the 20th. The district was part of the kingdom of Northumbria from the 7th century, but settlement in the Mersey valley may well have been later.
Thomas L. Ellwood suggested 610 AD as the date of founding the settlement, but John Lloyd in his 1972 history considered the period 610 to 900 AD more likely; the area now known as Chorlton-cum-Hardy comprises the ancient settlements of Chorlton along with Hardy and Barlow to the south on the north side of the Mersey and Martledge, the area around the present-day public library, to the north of Chorlton and Hardy. Chorlton was part of the Withington manor. Hardy was little more than a farm and a few houses, but Barlow was home to the family of that name, who occupied the manor house of Barlow Hall for several hundred years. Barlow Hall was built on a defensive site on rising ground on the north bank of the Mersey. In 1567 the lord of the manor was Alexander Barlow, a staunch recusant, imprisoned for his beliefs and died in 1584 leaving a son who held similar beliefs. Two of his sons entered the Order of Saint Benedict, one of them, Ambrose Barlow a missionary priest in the Leigh parish, was imprisoned several times and executed for his priesthood in 1641 at Lancaster.
Two sons of the papist, Anthony Barlow were charged with treason in the Jacobite rising of 1715. The estate remained with the family until the death of Thomas Barlow in 1773, when it was sold to the Egertons of Tatton Hall. In 1666 Barlow Hall was one of the largest houses paying hearth tax in the Withington manor; the estimated population in 1640 was 85. The 1801 census recorded 513 inhabitants, the 1811 census 619: by 1851 it had increased to 761; the Tithe Commissioners' survey carried out in 1841 provides details of the size and tenure of every piece of land. The tithe map reveals the township had two major landowners: Wilbraham Egerton of Tatton owned 888 acres and George Lloyd 231, the rest was shared between 21 others. Most land was pasture while 490 acres was arable. Many small landowners owned orchards or market gardens. At this time the village consisted of its ancient halls and scattered farms centred on Chorlton Green and Beech Road and a few buildings on Barlow Moor Road, its public houses were the Bowling Green, built in 1693, the Horse and Jockey, licensed in the early 19th century.
Marl had been dug in Martledge since at least 1598. The Chorlton Brick Company was established there in the early part of the 20th century, continued producing bricks for about forty years. Turf-cutting was a significant industry in Martledge, as well as in the White Moss and Jackson's Moss areas; until the last quarter of the 19th century Chorlton's population had increased slowly. When the railway reached neighbouring Stretford in 1849, upmarket villas were built on a flood-free area in Edge Lane and High Lane. Wilbraham Road was built in 1869 to connect the Egerton holdings across Withington from Edge Lane to Fallowfield; the Midland Railway built a line from Manchester Central through Chorlton station which opened on 1 January 1880. Over the following decade land close to the station was developed for residential and commercial purposes centred on the Barlow Moor Road/Wilbraham Road crossroads, northeast of the old village centre. Houses built in the 1880s attracted more affluent residents who worked in Manchester city centre to high quality homes in a more rural area.
Irish immigrants came to work in the expanding industries of Manchester, in small-scale horticulture and farming and domestic service. They brought Roman Catholicism, by the firs
A chantry or obiit was a form of trust fund established during the pre-Reformation medieval era in England for the purpose of employing one or more priests to sing a stipulated number of masses for the benefit of the soul of a specified deceased person the donor who had established the chantry in his will, during a stipulated period of time following his death. It was believed such masses would speed the deceased's soul through its undesirable and indeterminate period in Purgatory onwards to eternal rest in Heaven. Once the soul had reached Heaven the ideal state for the Christian human soul had been attained, the saying of masses would serve no further function, thus the concept of Purgatory was central to the perceived need for chantries. Chantries were established in England and were endowed with lands, rents from specified properties and other assets by the donor in his will; the income from these assets maintained the chantry priest. A chantry chapel is a building on private land or a dedicated area or altar within a parish church or cathedral, set aside or built for the performance of the chantry duties by the priest.
A chantry may occupy as premises a single altar, for example in the side aisle of a church, rather than an enclosed chapel within a larger church dedicated to the donor's favourite saint. Many such chantry altars became richly endowed with gold furnishings and valuable vestments. Over the centuries, chantries increased their wealth by attracting new donors. Sometimes this led to corruption of the consecrated life expected of clerics, it led in general to an accumulation of great wealth and power by the Church, beyond the feudal control of the Crown. This evident corruption was one of the factors used by King Henry VIII to order the Dissolution of the Monasteries in England. At that time, chantries were abolished and their assets were sold or granted to persons at the discretion of Henry and his son King Edward VI, via the Court of Augmentations. Many Tudor businessmen, such as Thomas Bell of Gloucester, thus acquired chantries as financial investments producing income streams derived from rents, or "unbundled" the assets and sold them piecemeal at a profit.
The Roman Catholic practice of saying masses to benefit the soul of a deceased person supposed to be in Purgatory is recorded as early as the 8th century. The most common form was the anniversarium or missa annualis, a mass said annually on the date of the person's death. Catholics believe that the more prayer the better, including the offering of the Mass. At the Council of Attigny in 765, about 40 abbots and bishops agreed to say masses and recite the psalter for the souls of deceased members of their'confraternity'. Ninth-century France and England have records of numerous confraternity agreements between monasteries or greater churches, by which each would offer prayers for the souls of dead members of the other's communities. Before the year 1000 in Italy and England, great churches extended the benefits of such associations to lay persons. Kings and great magnates asked that prayers for their souls be said in the monasteries they founded on their estates; the word "chantry" derives, via Old French chanter, from the Latin cantare and its mediaeval derivative, cantaria.
The French term for this commemorative institution is chapellenie. The Latin word obiit, used in English as a noun with the same meaning as a chantry, means "he is dead", from the verb obire, from the verb ire "to go" plus the prefix ob- "away", thus to die. Current theories locate the origins of the chantry in the rapid expansion of regular monasteries in the 11th century; the abbey of Cluny and its hundreds of daughter houses were central to this. The Cluniac order emphasised an elaborate liturgy as the centre of its common life. By the 1150s, the order had so many demands for multiple masses for the dead that Peter the Venerable placed a moratorium on further endowments. Other monastic orders benefited from this movement, but became burdened by commemoration; the history of the Cistercian house of Bordesley, a royal abbey, demonstrates this: in the mid-12th century, it offered the services of two priest monks to say mass, for the soul of Robert de Stafford. This sort of dedication of prayers towards particular individuals was a step towards the institutional chantry.
Another theory points to the parallel development of communities or colleges of secular priests or canons as an influence on the evolution of the chantry. Such communities were not monastic foundations. Like the monasteries, they offered dedicated prayers for the dead. An example is the collegiate church of Marwell, founded by Bishop Henry of Winchester in the early 1160s; the priests of the college were to pray for the souls of the bishops of Winchester and kings of England. Perpetual masses for the dead were delegated to one altar and one secular priest within a greater church; the family of King Henry II of England contributed to religious patronage. Henry II founded at least one daily mass for his soul by his gift of the manor of Lingoed in Gwent to Dore Abbey in Herefordshire. In 1183 the king lost his eldest son, He