Wandsworth Town is a district of south London within the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is situated 4.6 miles southwest of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Wandsworth takes its name from the River Wandle. Wandsworth appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Wendelesorde; this means'enclosure of Waendel', whose name is lent to the River Wandle. To distinguish it from the London Borough of Wandsworth, from the Wandsworth District of the Metropolis and the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth, which all covered larger areas, it is known as Wandsworth Town. At the time of the Domesday Book, the manor of Wandsworth was held by William, son of Ansculfy, by St Wandrille's Abbey, its Domesday assets were 12 hides, with 22 acres of meadow. It rendered £9. Since at least the early 16th century, Wandsworth has offered accommodation to consecutive waves of immigration, from Protestant Dutch metalworkers fleeing persecution in the 1590s to recent Eastern European members of the European Union.
Between Wandsworth town centre and the river is the site of Co's Ram Brewery. Shire horse-drawn brewery drays were still used to deliver beer to local pubs. Whilst brewing by Young's stopped in September 2006 when Young & Co merged its operations with Charles Wells of Bedford, brewing does continue on the site by a master brewer albeit in small amounts. A planning application to redevelop the site for residential and shopping/leisure "mixed use" was submitted in 2012. Wandsworth gas plant was built in 1834 against the River Thames near Wandsworth Bridge; the undertaking became the Wandsworth and Putney Gaslight and Coke Company in 1854 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1856. Coal for making coal gas was brought by sea from North East England and unloaded on the Thames beside the gasworks; the firm grew by a series of mergers and takeovers so that by 1936 it served a considerable area of south-west London. The company's name evolved each time it merged with or took over neighbouring gas companies, but from 1936 it was the Wandsworth and District Gas Company.
The company became part of the South Eastern Gas Board. Wandsworth has a low foreign born population, compared to London as a whole, at 28.1%. The most prevalent foreign born population is South African; the former wharf area of the river-front is now lined with new apartment blocks, with several bars and restaurants. Notable pubs include the Ship Inn and the Waterfront, on the western and eastern side of Wandsworth Bridge respectively. Wandsworth Common is set back from the river, at the top of East Hill, is adjoined by an area known locally as "the Toast Rack" that has some of the most expensive townhouses in London, as well as the restaurant Chez Bruce Harveys, where chef Gordon Ramsay learned his trade, for which co-owner Bruce Poole gained a Michelin star in 1999. In the area is the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building, which now contains flats, a theatre school and a restaurant; the Tonsleys/Old York Road is a residential area of old Wandsworth close to the river and town centre, so called because many of the street names have the word "Tonsley" included.
It has a village feel with the Old York Road's shops at its heart. The area has three notable pubs: the East Hill and the Alma. Brady's Fish Restaurant serves chips; the area was used as the location for the BBC TV series Outnumbered. East Hill is an area of large Victorian houses bordered by the west side of Wandsworth Common. Wandsworth High Street is dominated by the regenerated Southside shopping centre and restaurant complex. Behind the shopping centre, following the River Wandle upstream towards Earlsfield and further south to Wimbledon, is King George's Park. Wandsworth Museum occupies the former Victorian library in West Hill having been moved here in 2007; the De Morgan Centre is situated in Wandsworth Museum and houses a collection of Victorian artwork. A green plaque to commemorate aviation pioneer Alliott Verdon Roe was unveiled by Wandsworth Council and members of the Verdon-Roe family beside the A3 close to Wandsworth Fire Station on the site of Roe's first workshop in the stables of his brother's house at 47 West Hill.
The underpass beneath the Wandsworth Bridge roundabout was the location for the scene in Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange in which a tramp is attacked. There are several schools in Wandsworth including Shaftesbury Park Primary School; the nearest railway stations are Wandsworth Town. Wandsworth Town is served by Southfields tube station in the Southfields area of the Town. All Saints' is the original parish church of Wandsworth, dating back to the 12th century, although the present building is of the 18th century. St Anne's and Holy Trinity churches were built in the 19th century to accommodate a growing population. Built in 1851, Wandsworth Prison is a Category B men's prison, it is the largest prison in London and one of the largest in Europe, with a similar capacity to Liverpool Prison. List of people from Wandsworth List of schools in Wandsworth James Thorne, "Wandsworth", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray Wandsworth travel guide from Wikivoyage Template:Wandsworth Radio
The Ivy is a restaurant, popular with celebrities, people from the arts and media and theatregoers. It is situated in West Street, near Cambridge Circus in London, opposite the Ambassadors and St Martin's theatres; the original restaurant was opened by Abel Giandolini in 1917 as an unlicensed Italian cafe in a building on the same site. Legend has it that the name itself originated from a chance remark by the actress Alice Delysia, who overheard Giandolini apologise to a customer for the inconvenience caused by building works; when he said that it was because of his intention to create a restaurant of the highest class, she interjected "Don't worry – we will always come and see you.'We will cling together like the ivy'", a line from the then-popular song, 1902's "Just Like the Ivy I'll Cling to You", written by AJ Mills and Harry Castling. The restaurant expanded into the current premises in 1929 run by Giandolini, with his longstanding Maitre d' Mario Gallati as host. In part due to its proximity to the West End theatres and late closing time, the restaurant became a theatrical institution, with Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh, Marlene Dietrich, John Gielgud, Lilian Braithwaite, Terence Rattigan, Binkie Beaumont and Noël Coward being habitués, having their regular 2-seater tables along the walls.
According to the actor Donald Sinden in his Sky Arts television documentary series Great West End Theatres, The Ivy became so famous as a theatrical-celebrities haunt that in the 1943 revue Sweet and Low which ran for six years at the neighbouring Ambassadors Theatre, there was a satirical sketch included, updated entitled Poison Ivy, where the show's star Hermione Gingold "would exchange wicked and salacious celebrity gossip". In 1950 Giandolini sold The Ivy to Bernard Walsh and the restaurant became part of his Wheeler's group of fish restaurants. Subsequent owners were the Forte Foundation, it closed in 1989 and Jeremy King and Chris Corbin, who owned Le Caprice, bought it. The restaurant was renovated to a design by American architect MJ Long incorporating specially-commissioned artworks by Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, Sir Peter Blake, Sir Howard Hodgkin, Bridget Riley, Allen Jones, Joe Tilson, Patrick Caulfield, Michael Craig-Martin and Tom Phillips. Fernando Peire was appointed Senior Maître d'.
The restaurant became a sensation. Peire left The Ivy in December 1998, three months after the restaurant was sold to Belgo PLC as part of Caprice Holdings Ltd.. The restaurant seats 100 guests and there is a private dining room on the first floor of the restaurant, seating up to 60 guests. Mobile phones and cameras are forbidden anywhere in the restaurant or adjoining club and there is a dress code: "Gentlemen are not required to wear ties. Shorts and micro-skirts are not acceptable forms of attire at The Ivy". A recipe book, written by the restaurant critic A. A. Gill and titled The Ivy: The Restaurant and its Recipes was published in 1997; the Ivy was the inspiration for the restaurant of the same name in Los Angeles, though they are unconnected. In 2000, the restaurant was awarded the Chandon London Restaurant Award for excellence. In 2005 the entrepreneur Richard Caring bought The Ivy and the Caprice Holdings group, which owns Le Caprice, located behind the Ritz in the St James's area of London, the fish restaurant J. Sheekey, located near Leicester Square, Scotts in Mount Street and 34 in Grosvenor Square.
In 2007 Fernando Peire returned to The Ivy in 2007 and was appointed Director of The Ivy and The Club at The Ivy. Gary Lee, in charge of Private Functions at The Ivy, returned as Head Chef and was appointed Executive Chef in 2008. Executive Chef Director of Caprice Holdings restaurants is Tim Hughes. In September 2008, The Club at The Ivy, a private members' club with a hidden entrance via an adjacent flower-shop, was opened on the three floors above the restaurant, with membership "as hard to get as a table at The Ivy itself" according to the author A. A. Gill, it boasts a Piano Lounge. Its director is Fernando Peire, the former Senior Maître d', widely known from the Channel 5 TV series The Restaurant Inspector. List of restaurants in London The Ivy – official site Club at The Ivy – official site
Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in the world; the area was part of the manor of Eia and remained rural until the early 18th century. It became well known for the annual "May Fair" that took place from 1686 to 1764 in what is now Shepherd Market. Over the years the fair grew unpleasant and downmarket, became a public nuisance; the Grosvenor family, acquired land through marriage and began to develop it under the direction of Thomas Barlow. The work included Hanover Square, Berkeley Square and Grosvenor Square which were surrounded by high-quality houses and the Church of St George Hanover Square. By the end of the 18th century, most of Mayfair was built on with upper-class housing; the decline of the British aristocracy in the early 20th century led to the area becoming more commercial, with many houses converted into offices for major corporate headquarters and other businesses.
Mayfair retains a substantial quantity of luxury residential property, upmarket shops and restaurants, modern hotels along Piccadilly and Park Lane. Its prestigious status has been commemorated by being the most expensive property square on the London Monopoly board. Mayfair is in the City of Westminster, consists of the historical Grosvenor estate and the Albemarle, Berkeley and Curzon estates, it is bordered on the west by Park Lane, north by Oxford Street, east by Regent Street, the south by Piccadilly. Beyond the bounding roads, to the north is Marylebone, to the east Soho, to the southwest Knightsbridge and Belgravia. Mayfair is surrounded by parkland; the 8-acre Grosvenor Square is in the centre of Mayfair, its centrepiece, containing numerous expensive and desirable properties. Following analysis of the alignment of Roman roads, it has been speculated that the Romans settled in the area before establishing Londinium. Whitaker's Almanack suggested that Aulus Plautius built a fort here during the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43 while waiting for Claudius.
The theory was developed in 1993, with a proposal that a town grew outside the fort but was abandoned as being too far from the Thames. The proposal has been disputed because of lack of archaeological evidence. If there was a fort, it is believed the perimeter would have been where the modern Green Street, North Audley Street, Upper Grosvenor Street and Park Lane now are, that Park Street would have been the main road through the centre; this area was the manor of Eia in the Domesday Book, owned by Geoffrey de Mandeville after the Norman Conquest. It was subsequently given to the Abbey of Westminster, who owned it until 1536 when it was taken over by Henry VIII. Mayfair was open fields until development started in the Shepherd Market area around 1686–88 to accommodate the May Fair that had moved from Haymarket in St James's because of overcrowding. There were some buildings before 1686 – a cottage in Stanhope Row, dating from 1618 was destroyed in the Blitz in late 1940. A 17th-century English Civil War fortification established in what is now Mount Street was known as Oliver's Mount by the 18th century.
The May Fair was held every year at Great Brookfield from 1–14 May. It was established during the reign of Edward I in open fields beyond St. James; the fair was recorded as "Saint James's fayer by Westminster" in 1560. It otherwise continued throughout the 17th century. In 1686, the fair moved to. By the 18th century, it had attracted showmen and fencers and numerous fairground attractions. Popular attractions included bare-knuckle fighting, semolina eating contests and women's foot racing. By the reign of George I, the May Fair had fallen into disrepute and was regarded as a public scandal; the 6th Earl of Coventry, who lived on Piccadilly, considered the fair to be a nuisance and, with local residents, led a public campaign against it. It was abolished in 1764. One reason for Mayfair's subsequent boom in property development was it was able to keep out lower class activities. Building on Mayfair began in the 1660s on the corner of Piccadilly, progressed along the north side of that street. Burlington House was started between 1664–5 by John Denham and sold two years to Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington who asked Hugh May to complete it.
The house was extensively modified through the 18th century, is the only one of this era to survive into the 21st century. The origins of major development began when Sir Thomas Grosvenor, 3rd Baronet married Mary Davis, heiress to part of the Manor of Ebury, in 1677; the Grosvenor family gained 500 acres of land, of which around 100 acres lay south of Oxford Street and east of Park Lane. The land was referred to as "The Hundred Acres" in early deeds. In 1721, the London Journal reported "the ground upon which the May Fair was held is marked out for a large square, several fine streets and houses are to be built upon it". Sir Richard Grosvenor, 4th Baronet asked the surveyor Thomas Barlow to design the street layout which has survived intact to the present day despite most of the properties being rebuilt. Barlow proposed a grid of straight streets, with a large place as a centrepiece. Buildings were constructed in quick succession, by the mid-18th century the area was covered in houses. Much of the land was owned by seven estates – Burlington, Millf
Notting Hill is an affluent district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea. Notting Hill is known for being a cosmopolitan and multicultural neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival and Portobello Road Market. From around 1870, Notting Hill had an association with artists. For much of the 20th century, the large houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Caribbean immigrants were drawn to the area in the 1950s because of the cheap rents, but were exploited by slum landlords like Peter Rachman and became the target of white Teddy Boys in the 1958 Notting Hill race riots. In the early 21st century, after decades of gentrification, Notting Hill has a reputation as an affluent and fashionable area known for attractive terraces of large Victorian townhouses and high-end shopping and restaurants. A Daily Telegraph article in 2004 used the phrase "the Notting Hill Set" to refer to a group of emerging Conservative politicians, such as David Cameron and George Osborne, who would become Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer and were once based in Notting Hill.
Notting Hill is in the historic county of Middlesex. It was a hamlet on rural land until the expansion of urban London during the 19th century; as late as 1870 after the hamlet had become a London suburb, Notting Hill was still referred to as being in Middlesex rather than in London. The origin of the name "Notting Hill" is uncertain though an early version appears in the Patent Rolls of 1356 as Knottynghull, while an 1878 text and New London, reports that the name derives from a manor in Kensington called "Knotting-Bernes,", "Knutting-Barnes," or "Nutting-barns", goes on to quote from a court record during Henry VIII's reign that "the manor called Notingbarons, alias Kensington, in the parish of Paddington, was held of the Abbot of Westminster." For years, it was thought to be a link with Canute, but it is now thought that the "Nott" section of the name is derived from the Saxon personal name Cnotta, with the "ing" part accepted as coming from the Saxon for a group or settlement of people.
The area in the west around Pottery Lane was used in the early 19th century for making bricks and tiles out of the heavy clay dug in the area. The clay was fired in a series of brick and tile kilns; the only remaining 19th-century tile kiln in London is on Walmer Road. In the same area, pig farmers moved in after being forced out of the Marble Arch area. Avondale Park was created in 1892 out of a former area of pig slurry called "the Ocean"; this was part of a general clean-up of the area which had become known as the Potteries and Piggeries. The area remained rural until London's westward expansion reached Bayswater in the early 19th century; the Ladbroke family was Notting Hill's main landowner, from the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to develop the Ladbroke Estate. Working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital. Many of these streets bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the area's main north-south axis, Ladbroke Square, London's largest private garden square.
The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, other roads are reminders of this. The local telephone prefix 7727 is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk. Ladbroke left the actual business of developing his land to the firm of City solicitors, Bayley, who worked with Allason to develop the property. In 1823 Allason completed a plan for the layout of the main portion of the estate; this marks the genesis of his most enduring idea – the creation of large private communal gardens known as "pleasure grounds", or "paddocks", enclosed by terraces and/or crescents of houses. Instead of houses being set around a garden square, separated from it by a road, Allason's houses would have direct access to a secluded communal garden in the rear, to which people on the street did not have access and could not see. To this day these communal garden squares continue to provide the area with much of its attraction for the wealthiest householders. In 1837 the Hippodrome racecourse was laid out.
The racecourse ran around the hill, bystanders were expected to watch from the summit of the hill. However, the venture was not a success, in part due to a public right of way which traversed the course, in part due to the heavy clay of the neighbourhood which caused it to become waterlogged; the Hippodrome closed in 1841, after which development resumed and houses were built on the site. The crescent-shaped roads that circumvent the hill, such as Blenheim Crescent, Elgin Crescent, Stanley Crescent, Cornwall Crescent and Landsdowne Crescent, were built over the circular racecourse tracks. At the summit of hill stands the elegant St John's church, built in 1845 in the early English style, which formed the centrepiece of the Ladbroke Estate development; the Notting Hill houses were large, but they did not succeed in enticing the richest Londoners, who tended to live closer to the centre of London in Mayfair or Belgravia. The houses appealed to the upper middle class, who could live there in Belgravia style at lower prices.
In the opening chapter of John Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga novels, he housed the Nicholas Forsytes "in Ladbroke Grove, a spacious abode and a great bargain". In 1862 Thomas Hardy left Dorchester for London to work with architect Arthur Blomfield.
Chiswick is a district of west London, England. It contains Hogarth's House, the former residence of the 18th-century English artist William Hogarth. In a meander of the River Thames used for competitive and recreational rowing, with several rowing clubs on the river bank, the finishing post for the Boat Race is just downstream of Chiswick Bridge. Chiswick was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, with an agrarian and fishing economy beside the river. Having good communications with London, Chiswick became a popular country retreat, part of the suburban growth of London in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it became the Municipal Borough of Brentford and Chiswick in 1932, part of Greater London in 1965, when it merged into the London Borough of Hounslow. Chiswick is an affluent area which includes Bedford Park, Grove Park, the Glebe Estate, Strand-on-the-Green and Tube stations Chiswick Park, Turnham Green and Gunnersbury, as well as the Gunnersbury Triangle local nature reserve.
Chiswick Roundabout is the start of the North Circular Road. At Hogarth Roundabout, the Great West Road from central London becomes the M4 motorway, providing a transport connection to Heathrow Airport and the M4 corridor; the Great Chertsey Road runs south-west from the Hogarth Roundabout. People who have lived in Chiswick include the poets Alexander Pope and W. B. Yeats, the Italian revolutionary Ugo Foscolo, the Impressionist painter Camille Pissarro, the novelist E. M. Forster and stage director Peter Brook. Chiswick was first recorded c.1000 as the Old English Ceswican meaning "Cheese Farm". Chiswick grew up as a village around St Nicholas Church from c. 1181 on Church Street, its inhabitants practising farming and other riverside trades including a ferry, important as there were no bridges between London Bridge and Kingston throughout the Middle Ages. The area included three other small settlements, the fishing village of Strand-on-the-Green, Little Sutton and Turnham Green on the west road out of London.
A decisive skirmish took place on Turnham Green early in the English Civil War. In November 1642, royalist forces under Prince Rupert, marching from Oxford to retake London, were halted by a larger parliamentarian force under the Earl of Essex; the royalists never again threatened the capital. In 1864, John Isaac Thornycroft, founder of the John I. Thornycroft & Company shipbuilding company, established a yard at Church Wharf at the west end of Chiswick Mall; the shipyard built the first naval destroyer, HMS Daring of the Daring class, in 1893. To cater for the increasing size of warships, Thornycroft moved its shipyard to Southampton in 1909. In 1822, the Royal Horticultural Society leased 33 acres of land in the area south of the High Road between what are now Sutton Court Road and Duke’s Avenue; this site was used for its fruit tree collection and its first school of horticulture, housed its first flower shows. The area was reduced to 10 acres in the 1870s, the lease was terminated when the Society’s garden at Wisley, was set up in 1904.
Some of the original pear trees still grow in the gardens of houses built on the site. The population of Chiswick grew tenfold during the 19th century, reaching 29,809 in 1901, the area is a mixture of Georgian and Edwardian housing. Suburban building began in Gunnersbury in the 1860s and in Bedford Park, on the borders of Chiswick and Acton, in 1875. During the Second World War, Chiswick was bombed with both incendiary and high explosive bombs. Falling anti-aircraft shells and shrapnel caused damage; the first V-2 rocket to hit London fell on Staveley Road, Chiswick, at 6.43pm on 8 September 1944, killing three people, injuring 22 others and causing extensive damage to surrounding trees and buildings. Six houses were demolished by the rocket and many more suffered damage. There is a memorial where the rocket fell on Staveley Road, a War Memorial at the east end of Turnham Green. By the start of the 21st century, Chiswick had become an affluent suburb. Chiswick St Nicholas was an ancient, civil, parish in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex.
Until 1834 its vestry governed most parish affairs. After the Poor Law Amendment Act, local administration in Chiswick began to be devolved to authorities beyond the vestry. Chiswick poor relief was administered by the Brentford Poor Law Union. From 1849 to 1855, responsibility for Chiswick drains and sewers passed to the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers under its'Fulham and Hammersmith Sewer District.' From 1858, under the Chiswick Improvement Act of that year, responsibility for drains and sewers and lighting was vested in an elected board of eighteen Improvement Commissioners. This operated as Chiswick's secular local authority for a quarter of a century until its replacement with a Local Board in 1883. In 1878 the parish gained a triangle of land in the east. From 1894 to 1927 the parish formed the Chiswick Urban District. In 1927 it was abolished and its former area was merged with that of Brentford Urban District to form Brentford and Chiswick Urban District; the amalgamated district became a municipal borough in 1932.
The borough of Brentford and Chiswick was abolished in 1965, its former area was transferred to Greater London to form part of the London Borough of Hounslow. With these changes, Chiswick Town Hall is no longer the local government centre but is still used for some council services. There wa
Gordon James Ramsay Jr. is a British chef, writer, television personality, food critic, former footballer. Born in Johnstone and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Ramsay's restaurants have been awarded 16 Michelin stars in total and hold a total of 7, his signature restaurant, Restaurant Gordon Ramsay in Chelsea, has held three Michelin stars since 2001. First appearing on television in the UK in the late 1990s, by 2004 Ramsay had become one of the best-known and most influential chefs in British popular culture; as a reality television personality, Ramsay is known for his fiery temper, strict demeanour, frequent use of expletives. He makes blunt and controversial comments, including insults and wisecracks about contestants' cooking and restaurant facilities, he combines activities in the television, film and food industries and has promoted and hired various chefs who have apprenticed under his wing. Ramsay is known for presenting TV programmes about competitive cookery and food, such as the British series Hell's Kitchen, The F Word, Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares, the American series MasterChef, MasterChef Junior, Hotel Hell, the American versions of Hell's Kitchen and Kitchen Nightmares.
In 2015, Forbes listed his earnings at $60 million for the previous 12 months, ranked him the 21st highest earning celebrity in the world. Ramsay was born on 8 November 1966 in Renfrewshire. From the age of five, he was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. Ramsay is the second of four children, he has Diane. Ramsay's father, Gordon James Sr. was—at various times—a swimming pool manager, a welder, a shopkeeper. Ramsay has described his early life as "hopelessly itinerant" and said his family moved due to the aspirations and failures of his father, a sometimes violent alcoholic. In 1976, they settled in Stratford-upon-Avon, where he grew up in the Bishopton area of the town. In his autobiography, Humble Pie, he describes his early life as being marked by abuse and neglect from this "hard-drinking womaniser". At the age of 16, Ramsay moved out into a flat in Banbury. Ramsay played football and was first chosen to play under-14 football at age 12, he was chosen to play for Warwickshire. His footballing career was marked by injuries, causing him to remark in life, "Perhaps I was doomed when it came to football."
In mid-1984, Ramsay had a trial with the club he supported as a boy. He injured his knee, smashing the cartilage during training. Ramsay continued to train and play on the injured knee, tearing a cruciate ligament during a squash game. Ramsay has claimed to have played two first team games for Rangers. According to his autobiography Ramsay played "a couple of non-league matches as a trialist" for Rangers and was signed by the club at the age of 15. Allan Cairns, the photographer who took a picture of Ramsay playing for Rangers in September 1985, said the photo was not one of Rangers first team but a side picked to play a testimonial match. A Rangers spokesman said: "Ramsay was a trialist in that testimonial game, he trained with us for a few months after that but got injured." In series 4, episode 12 of The F Word, Ramsay visited Ibrox, the home ground of his favourite childhood team and exclaimed, "Home, Sweet Home!" He explained, "My dream came true when I was spotted in the mid-80s and I joined the youth team here in Ibrox."
He related that one of his fondest memories is playing alongside one of Scotland's football legends, Ally McCoist, who said about Ramsay, "I remember him well and the one thing that never will change is that he's a competitive so-and-so and wants to do and be the best that he can." Ramsay recalled that, "the pain of being released on the back of an injury" was only assuaged many years "after receiving third Michelin Star", concluded that, "without the upset at Ibrox, I would not be the chef I am today." By this time, Ramsay's interest in cooking had begun, rather than be known as the football player with the gammy knee, at age 19, Ramsay paid more serious attention to his culinary education. Ramsay enrolled at North Oxfordshire Technical College, sponsored by the Rotarians, to study hotel management, he describes his decision to enter catering college as "an accident, a complete accident."In the mid-1980s, he worked as a commis chef at the Wroxton House Hotel ran the kitchen and 60-seat dining room at the Wickham Arms, until his sexual relationship with the owner's wife made the situation difficult.
Ramsay moved to London, where he worked in a series of restaurants until being inspired to work for the temperamental Marco Pierre White at Harveys. After working at Harveys for two years and ten months, tired of "the rages and the bullying and violence", decided that the way to further advance his career was to study French cuisine. White discouraged Ramsay from taking a job in Paris, instead encouraging him to work for Albert Roux at Le Gavroche in Mayfair, where he met Jean-Claude Breton, now his maître d'hôtel at Royal Hospital Road. After working at Le Gavroche for a year, Albert Roux invited Ramsay to work with him at Hotel Diva, a ski resort in the French Alps, as his number two. From there, a 23-year-old Ramsay moved to Paris to work with Guy Savoy and Joël Robuchon, both Michelin-starred chefs. In Master Chef series 3 episode 18, Gordon Ramsay stated, he continued his training in France for three years, before giving in to the p
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot