click links in text for more info

Chicago Boys

The Chicago Boys were a group of Chilean economists prominent around the 1970s and 1980s, the majority of whom trained at the Department of Economics of the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger, or at its affiliate in the economics department at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. Upon their return to Latin America they adopted positions in numerous South American governments including the military dictatorship of Chile; as economic advisors, many of them reached high positions within those. While the Heritage Foundation credits them with transforming Chile into Latin America's best performing economy and one of the world's most business-friendly jurisdictions, critics point to drastic increases in unemployment that can be attributed to counter-inflation policies implemented on their advice; some have argued that these policies were deliberately intended to serve the interests of American corporations at the expense of Latin American populations. Peter Kornbluh states that in the case of Chile, American attempts to destabilize the Chilean economy ceased once the Chicago Boys had gained political influence.

The term "Chicago Boys" has been used at least as early as the 1980s to describe Latin American economists who studied or identified with the libertarian economic theories taught at the University of Chicago though some of them earned degrees at Harvard or MIT. They advocated widespread deregulation and other free market policies for controlled economies; the Chicago Boys rose to prominence as leaders of the early reforms initiated in Chile during General Augusto Pinochet's rule. Milton and Rose Friedman used the term "Chicago Boys" in their memoir: "In 1975, when inflation still raged and a world recession triggered a depression in Chile, General Pinochet turned to the "Chicago Boys"; the training program was the result of the "Chile Project" organized in the 1950s by the U. S. State Department, through the Point Four program, the first US program for international economic development, it was funded by the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation aimed at influencing Chilean economic thinking.

The University of Chicago's Department of Economics set up scholarship programs with Chile's Catholic University. About one hundred select students between 1957 and 1970 received training, first in an apprenticeship program in Chile and in post-graduate work in Chicago; the project was uneventful until the early 1970s. The Chicago Boys' ideas remained on the fringes of Chilean economic and political thought after a group of them prepared a 189-page "Program for Economic Development" called El ladrillo, it was presented in 1969 as part of Jorge Alessandri's unsuccessful presidential candidacy. Alessandri rejected El ladrillo, but it was revisited after the 1973 Chilean coup d'état on 11 September 1973 brought Augusto Pinochet to power, it became the basis of the new regime's economic policy. Though the Chile Project ended, the training connection between Chile and the University of Chicago continues. One of the numerous networking organizations for alumni, including the Chicago Boys, is the "Latin American Business Group at Chicago Booth School of Business".

The term continues to be used in popular culture, business magazines and media. There is now a Chilean film titled Chicago Boys; some of them are or were: Jorge Cauas, Minister of Finance, 1975–1977. Sergio de Castro, Minister of Finance, 1977–1982. Pablo Baraona, Minister of Economy, 1976–1979. José Piñera, Minister of Labor and Pensions, 1978–1980. Hernán Büchi, Minister of Finance, 1985–1989. Alvaro Bardón, President of the Central Bank of Chile. Juan Carlos Méndez, Budget Director, 1975–1981. Emilio Sanfuentes, Economic advisor to Central Bank of Chile. Sergio de la Cuadra, President of the Central Bank of Chile. Rolf Lüders, Francisco Rosende, Research Manager, Central Bank of Chile, 1985 and 1990. Miguel Kast, Minister of Planning, 1978–1980. Martín Costabal, Budget Director, 1987–1989. Juan Ariztía Matte, Pension Superintendent, 1980–1990. Maria Teresa Infante, Minister of Labor, 1988–1990. Camilo Carrasco Alfonso, General Manager of Central Bank, 1994–2005. Joaquín Lavín, Minister of Education, 2010–2011.

Juan Andrés Fontaine, Minister of Economy, 2010–2011. Francisco Perez Mackenna, Chief Executive Officer of Quinenco, one of Chile's largest conglomerates, with assets of over US$33.1 billion 1998–present.


Nacni means female dancer in north Indian languages. In the east-central Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, the term nacnī refers to female performers who sing and dance professionally in rural areas, accompanied by male ḍhulkī and nagarā drummers who move around the stage with her. Women who perform as nacnīs are considered "kept women" and are paired in an informal "marriage" with a male manager and dancing partner of a higher caste. In this pairing, nacnīs are thought to embody the goddess Radha while the male dancing partner is a stand-in for Krishna; the performers are considered out-caste and in many ways transgress usual Indian caste and gender distinctions both on and off stage, taking on a certain power role among their "fans" and engaging in "typically male" behavior, such as drinking and smoking. This style of performance is disappearing

Marion Thompson

Marion Beatrice Thompson was one of a distinguished group of University of Otago women graduates of the 1890s who put their mark on girls' education in New Zealand in the new century. She is most noted in her career as the founding principal of Solway College, from 1916 through to her retirement in 1942. Marion Thompson completed her teacher training in 1898 at the Dunedin Teachers' College and received her MA with first class honours in 1899. For the next decade she taught in a number of schools around New Zealand, six years of it at Prince Albert College, Auckland. In 1909 she married Reverend Laurence Thompson, turning her attention to raising a family in Carterton, where her husband was minister of the Presbyterian church, her thoughts returned to teaching in late 1914 after Rev Thompson fell ill. She rejected several positions offered at established girls' schools to pursue an idea suggested by her brother-in-law Rev A. T. Thompson, he had for some time been considering establishment of a boys' school in the Wairarapa, believing that "the activities of the Church could profitably be extended into the educational world.".

As Mrs Thompson's teaching experience to date had been in girls' schools, Rev. Thompson agreed to enlist community support for a girls' school instead; the school opened in 1916 in Solway House, the old homestead of a large Wairarapa estate, with a roll of 21. The following year it grew to 61; the Rev. Thompson's return to health enabled both to play an active role in creating a solid foundation of community support for the school and life-education for its students. Marion Thompson's approach to operation of a girls' boarding school was outlined in a speech to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church in Auckland in 1915, expressing her hope that "with our family life at its centre, Solway College would have the atmosphere of a home rather than an institution." The school functioned with a disciplinary system absent of fines or detentions, Mrs Thompson's teaching approach was to establish "activities that rounded off the angularity of the class-room, made for fullness of living to counteract the popular opinion that young people should be educated to earn a living."

The concept of holistic education endures as a pillar of Solway College's teaching philosophy to this day. The pursuit of a school as a family took its toll on Marion Thompson's personal life. In her years, she admitted that the school had absorbed her life to the exclusion of family and her own social and cultural interests, she was a tireless worker in all areas of the school out of necessity due to frequent staff turnover or lack of availability through the war years. She battled throughout her career to earn the respect of the guarantors and board of governors, who she believed at the outset were'parsimonious and patronising', treating her as'a penniless woman with a sick husband and two small sons' whom they were benevolently providing with a means of livelihood. In 1942, resignation was forced upon her by failing eyesight, a condition evident since the mid-1930s but which had not improved despite a major operation, she published her memoirs in 1956, living out her final years with her daughter until her death in 1964.

She described her time at Solway College as'an experiment on a small scale', but one which she herself, ex-pupils, boards of governors and educators have acknowledged as successful and enduring. Notes BibliographyHill, J. We Built a School: Solway College, a pictorial history, 1916-1991. ISBN 0-908582-81-1 Page, Dorothy. "Thompson, Marion Beatrice 1877 - 1964". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 4 April 2011. Thompson, M B. We Built a School. Masterton Printing Co. Ltd Solway College website

A Woman in Amber

A Woman in Amber: Healing the Trauma of War and Exile is a part autobiographical, part fictional novel written by Agate Nesaule. The first half of the novel describes Nesaule’s experiences of exile from Latvia imposed by the invading Soviet army, her family’s emigration to the United States in 1950; the second half of the novel describes Nesaule’s experiences in the United States. Through Nesaule’s novel, the reader becomes acquainted with the Latvian community in Indianapolis during the 1950s; the novel explores the experience of immigration as seen from Nesaule’s point of view: that of a teenage girl in the 1950s. By the novel's end, Nesaule is able to heal from the harmful wartime experiences that fractured her life at such a young age. A Woman in Amber begins with Agate Nesaule as an adult, she is a successful professor of Women’s Studies and 20th century American Literature at the University of Wisconsin Whitewater. Despite her outward professional success, Agate lives with an inner turmoil caused by her memories of war and perpetuated by her husband Joe.

Nesaule finds herself in therapy and unable to come to terms with the root cause of her depression. On the advice of her therapist Ingeborg, Agate learns she can not begin to heal until she is able to tell her story. So she begins her story by admitting that she was in Germany during the last year of the war and that she was starving. From this first admittance, Agate begins to tell many stories related to her hunger, she tells how she was prompted by her mother to beg the Russian soldiers, in Russian, not Latvian, for food. In life, she mistakenly tells this same story to her husband Joe, he again for the way in which she was forced to beg for food. Agate remembers. Agate relates the shame of living with the belief she was not worth feeding; as the war progresses, things do not get much better for her family. When the Mongolian Russian soldiers arrive, her father is forced to leave with the rest of the men; the women and young girls are taken to a basement where the women are raped. Agate is young enough to escape this, but careful provisions must be made for her fifteen-year-old cousin Astrida.

Agate’s mother Valda is understandably destroyed by the Russian occupation and the horrors that occur in the basement. When they are let out of the basement, the soldiers lead the women and girls into the woods. Everyone believes. Valda makes preparations to drag Agate with her to the front of the lines. Valda reasons if she and Agate are first, they will not need to see the others die. Agate does not wish to die; the struggle Agate has with her mother that day remains a constant tension between the two. Agate desire to save her from pain; the reader comes to see that Valda did care for Agate and loved her much. For Valda and Agate, the trauma of war and the distance their shared experiences placed between them left no time to reconcile before Valda’s death. Agate and her family journey to Berlin where they are admitted to a Displaced Persons camp. Here they are given shelter; the family would move many times during the next several years, going from camp to camp and beginning life again. Agate attends Latvian school while in the camps.

At age twelve and her family leave the camps and immigrate to the United States. We learn of her parents' financial struggle. Agate must adapt to life in the United States. A quick learner, Agates teaches herself English in one summer; the first book she learns to read in English is Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind. An excellent student, Agate receives a scholarship to attend Indiana University. While there, she meets her future husband Joe. Agate’s family does not agree with the marriage, it finalizes the distance between Agate and her mother. During the next twenty years Agate receives her doctorate degree, has a son named Boris, becomes a successful professor at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Living with Joe’s put downs and minimization of the trauma she endured in the war, Agate represses her feelings of depression and tries to carry on with her life. Though they are separated for much of their adult life and Beate rejoin each other when Beate’s husband Uldis dies alone and penniless from alcohol poisoning.

Despite being distanced from the Latvian community in Indianapolis where her father remained active, Agate retains a close tie to her Latvian heritage. When a friend asks what he may bring Agate from Latvia, she asks for some Latvian soil, it is party due to her connection with Latvia that her new husband John is able to find a way into Agate’s heart. Throughout her life, Agate admires an amber pendant that her mother wore and passed down to Agate. John gives Agagte a similar piece of amber. Through his respectful and receptive listening Agate is able to heal when she tells John her story and finds acceptance. Agate – Agate is the main character of the book; the book is concerned Agate’s experience in the war, her eventual emigration to the United States. Valda – Agate’s mother. Throughout the book Valda pines for her mother Russia where she was involved in her studies. Valda is a teacher in Latvia. At age s

Agatha Biddle

Agatha de LaVigne Biddle was a woman of Odawa and French heritage, who identified with her Odawa kin. She resided on Mackinac Island after, she acted as a partner with her husband in running their fur trade business, Biddle was known as a shrewd businesswoman and her kinship connections were an integral part of the Biddle business. She was pivotal in the negotiations of the 1855 Treaty of Detroit where she used her relationships with local Indigenous peoples and settlers to negotiate on behalf of the Odawa peoples. Biddle was renowned for her charity, the aid she provided to her community, including needy children; the home she shared with her husband, independent fur trader Edward Biddle, known as Biddle House, still stands on Mackinac Island and was the site of many local gatherings. Agatha Biddle will be inducted into the Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame on October 18, 2018. Biddle was born Agatha de LaVigne, her mother was Marie Lefevre de La Vigne and her father was Kougowma called La Vigne of the Odawa people.

After the death of Agatha's father, her mother married Joseph Bailly, a fur trader of French descent from Nova Scotia who came to some prominence. They lived in the Mackinac area and Agatha continued to have a close relationship with her mother after her marriage. Edward Biddle arrived on Mackinac Island shortly after the conclusion of the War of 1812 and it is after this date that Agatha and Edward married. By marrying Agatha, Biddle made a connection to the prominent Bailly fur trading family. Details of their wedding were recorded, guests included many prominent members of Mackinac society, including Madeline La Framboise. Agatha and her mother were recorded by contemporary Elisabeth Baird as wearing the traditional dress of the Métis women of the area at the wedding; this included layers of broadcloth, moccasins and beads, all elaborately embroidered. Biddle continued to wear traditional clothing through her life. Fleming notes the marriage of Agatha was not unusual for the time. However, while it was typical for Métis women to marry outside their home community, Edward Biddle was an English-speaking, Protestant American in a community, Indigenous and French Canadian.

Together Agatha and Edward Biddle had seven children: Sophia, John and Mary and together they built their business. Their youngest daughter Mary died at the age of eight after falling through the ice while travelling between Mackinac Island and St. Ignace and her grave is the oldest in the St. Ann cemetery. During the early period of the fur trade the Mackinac and surrounded area were inhabited by First Nations people, but by the middle of the nineteenth century their numbers were reduced due to war, including the War of 1812, treaties which saw many of the local Odawa and Anishinaabe people relocated to tiny parcels of land. Biddle was made chief of the Mackinac band in the mid 1800s. Biddle took on a number of community roles, including taking in sick or orphaned Anishnaabe children and offering food and other charity, she is recorded as serving as undertaker on the island. She carried out burial services. Biddle is cited as an example of the way Metis women used their connections between local First Nations communities as well as settler communities to advantage in the fur trade society of the Great Lakes.

Fleming notes that there is archeological evidence to support the fact that Biddle worked with birch bark, as well as engaging in quill work and basketry

Category 6: Day of Destruction

Category 6: Day of Destruction is a 2004 four-hour television miniseries, broadcast in the United States on CBS in two parts, with the first part aired on November 14 and the second on November 17. It was released to DVD on February 15, 2005; the miniseries focuses on the city of Chicago as three unusual storm systems approach from the west and south and combine over the city to form a massive hurricane. At the same time a hacker-induced power outage cuts communications leaving a journalist and power officials scrambling to find the cause; the miniseries was a success for CBS in terms of ratings, as it was the highest-rated movie for the channel in two years, it earned the highest ratings during the November sweeps week with 19.4 million viewers watching the first part. Critics were less favorable towards the film, with most panning the film for its dialog, implausible science, poor acting; some reviewers did praise the film's high-budget special effects and felt the film had at least some "charm."

In November 2005 a four-hour sequel, Category 7: The End of the World, aired in the same two-part format. Andy Goodman is a week away from a forced retirement from his position as chief meteorologist at the National Weather Administration's Severe Weather Center. However, tornadoes level Las Vegas, an area not prone to the storms. Concerned and upset that the storm system formed unnoticed and that they were unable to warn the people, Goodman begins tracking the system. Goodman receives field reports from his friend "Tornado Tommy" and assistance from new intern Sabrina Rogers; as time passes, he realizes the system is heading towards Chicago, joined by an unusual warm storm coming from the south, causing a record-breaking heat wave in the city, an abnormally early cold front from the Arctic. Meanwhile, Mitch Benson, the Chief of Operations at Midwest Electric, is struggling to keep power going to the residents because the six-week heat wave is straining the system and residents are refusing to follow power conservation requests.

To get more energy, he is working with the company's largest supplier, but the company's CEO is trying to find new ways to profit from this crisis. Benson finds himself caught in a conflict of interest as he is having an affair with the Lexer's public relations representative, Rebecca Kerns. Ambitious reporter Amy Harkin is stuck reporting on the heat wave while trying to find proof behind the scenes that Lexer and Midwest are responsible for the lack of sufficient power; the Secretary of Energy, Shirley Abbott, is warning various politicians and the president that the power grid is too outdated to handle real natural disasters and that it is too vulnerable to attack. Dan London, the chief engineer of Lexer, has repeatedly warned Lexer that their systems are too vulnerable to hackers, but the company is only interested in going with the cheapest options, he decides to blow the whistle on the company to Harkin, but as he refuses to appear on camera, Harkin's boss will not allow the piece to air.

As the storms approach, early storms knock out the city's primary power generating plant, Benson is forced to negotiate with Lexer for more power. Not realizing the devastating nature of the storms coming, London sets out to force Lexer to listen to his warnings by hacking the system and causing a cascading chain reaction that knocks out all of the power in Chicago. Goodman and his team are unable to warn the citizens that the storms have formed into a category 6 hurricane over the Great Lakes and will hit Chicago head on. Harkin realizes what happened to the power and rushes to find London, while Benson and Secretary Abbott gather energy from a multitude of other companies to get around the breakdown at Lexer. Unaware of what each party is doing, London reverses the hacks at the same time as the energy starts flowing in from other companies; this overloads the system, knocking out the entire Midwest power grid as the storm hits the city and London is killed in the process. Unable to do anything further, Benson rushes to find his family after he receives word that they are trapped at a mall and that his daughter has been accidentally shot by her ex-boyfriend.

"Tornado Tommy" drives around the city filming tornadoes and is oblivious to another tornado, headed to his direction. He puts his camcorder in a suitcase and throws it out his window and he is sucked in the tornado. Harkin gives Benson a ride to the mall to pick up his family they go to rescue her pregnant sister-in-law from an elevator. After Amy's cameraman is injured while rescuing her sister-in-law, Harkin stays behind with him and their neighbor; the others rush to reach the airport during the 15-minute eye of the hurricane, where they are picked up in a plane piloted by Harkin's brother, an air force weather pilot. After the storm passes, Harkin tells London's story on air. Source: Thomas Gibson as Mitch Benson Nancy McKeon as Amy Harkin Chandra West as Rebecca Kerns Brian Markinson as Chris Haywood Nancy Ann Sakovich as Jane Benson Randy Quaid as "Tornado Tommy" Dixon Dianne Wiest as Energy Secretary Shirley Abbott Brian Dennehy as Andy Goodman Ari Cohen as Dan London Christopher Shyler as Craig Shilts Arnold Pinnock as Jason Chad Willett as Jeff Harkin Horis McLaren as Helen Travers Janaya Stephens as Laura Harkin Petra Wildgoose as Lindsey Benson Jeff Sutton as Garth Benson Jeff Clarke as George Kiley Alicia Johnston as Sabrina Rogers Amanda Brugel as Leslie Singer Ryan Kennedy as Eric Andrew Jackson as Walt Ashley Kjartan Hewitt as Tad Trevor Botkin as Rick David Lawrence Brown as Control Center Engineer Dean McKen