James R. Thompson Center
The James R. Thompson Center is located at 100 W. Randolph Street in the Loop district of Chicago and houses offices of the Illinois state government; the building serves as a secondary capitol for the State of Illinois in the most populated city and county of the state. The building opened in May 1985 as the State of Illinois Center, it was renamed in 1993 to honor former Illinois Republican Governor James R. Thompson; the property takes up the entire block bound by Randolph, Clark and LaSalle Streets, one of the 35 full-size city blocks within Chicago's Loop. In front of the Thompson Center is Monument With Standing Beast, by Jean Dubuffet. On February 13, 2018, Chicago Police Commander Paul Bauer was shot and killed by Shomari Legghette, while Bauer was in pursuit of the suspect down a stairwell of the Thompson Center; the Thompson Center was designed by Helmut Jahn of Murphy/Jahn now called JAHN Architects. It opened to mixed reviews by critics, ranging from "outrageous" to "wonderful"; the color of the street-level panels were compared to tomato soup.
The 17-story, all-glass exterior curves and slopes facing a plaza on the southeast corner of the property. The design looks forward with advanced architectural tectonics and back to recapture the grandeur of large public spaces. Visitors to the Thompson Center's interior can see all 17 floors layered partway around the building's immense skylit atrium; the open-plan offices on each floor are supposed to carry the message of "an open government in action."Originally, the design called for curved, insulated glass panels, but these were found to be prohibitively expensive. Flat, insulated glass was dismissed by Jahn. Single-paned, curved glass panels were used, resulted in the need for a more expensive air conditioning system, which remains costly to operate, is insufficient on hot days; the building is bitterly cold in the winter. The marble floor of the atrium developed unsightly water stains, an issue which has since been resolved; the Clark/Lake'L' station, the second busiest in the system, is housed between the Thompson Center and the 203 N. LaSalle building across the street.
Orange, Blue, Pink and Brown Line trains stop at the center. Three tunnels of the Chicago Pedway enter the building's food-court concourse, connecting from to 203 North LaSalle Street, the Chicago Title and Trust Company and Chicago City Hall; the sculpture at the front entrance by French artist Jean Dubuffet sets the tone for this building that houses a tremendous art collection. The collection includes nineteen specially commissioned artworks funded by the State of Illinois Art-in-Architecture Program; the building has over 150 of the state's 600 works collected under the Percent for Art program. Under this program 0.5% of the money designated for construction of state-funded public buildings is used for the purchase of art. The Illinois Artisan's shop is housed inside the building; when he first came to office, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich proposed selling the building to assuage the state budget. The proposal was criticized. Lawmakers at first agreed to the plan, but a $200 million mortgage was agreed to instead, payable over 10 years.
The plan was declared unconstitutional by Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan in June 2004. The plan was set aside, although it had cost the state $532,000 in legal fees. In 2015, again in 2017, Governor Bruce Rauner proposed selling the property, a legislative committee to explore his request was announced by Democratic House Speaker Michael Madigan in February 2017. Chicago district office of the Governor of Illinois Illinois Court of Claims Illinois House Republican Staff Illinois State Board of Education The Thompson Center has been a filming location in several motion pictures, including 2000's The Watcher and 1990's The Kid Who Loved Christmas, The climax of 1986's Running Scared was filmed there; the location was the location of the Sherman House Hotel operated by Ernie Byfield. The hotel was demolished in 1973 and the site was used as a parking lot until the Thompson Center was constructed. Chicago architecture Commerce, Culture, & State Offices Under Glass Commerce, Culture, & State Offices Under Glass James R. Thompson Center New York Times Travel Guide Chicago James R. Thompson Center Emporis.com page Google Maps page
Loop Retail Historic District
Loop Retail Historic District is a shopping district within the Chicago Loop community area in Cook County, United States. It is bounded by Lake Street to the north, Ida B. Wells Drive to the south, State Street to the west and Wabash Avenue to the east; the district has the highest density of National Historic Landmark, National Register of Historic Places and Chicago Landmark designated buildings in Chicago. It hosts several historic buildings including former department store flagship locations Marshall Field and Company Building, the Sullivan Center, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 27, 1998. It includes 74 contributing buildings and structures, including 13 separately listed Registered Historic Places, 22 non-contributing buildings. Other significant buildings in the district include the Joffrey Tower, Chicago Theatre, Palmer House, Page Brothers Building, it hosts DePaul University's College of Commerce, which includes the Kellstadt Graduate School of Business and the Robert Morris College.
The district is most associated with department store buildings. In its heyday the district hosted seven prominent department stores from which six buildings remain today; these include the aforementioned Marshall Field and Company Building, Carson, Pirie and Company Buildings as well as the National Register of Historic Places A. M. Rothschild & Company Store at 333 S. State St; the other department store buildings are contributing properties. The district's period of historic significance was 1872–1949. In the late 1860s, Potter Palmer improved State Street by building his own Palmer House hotel on State Street in 1870, he had convinced Marshall Field and Levi Leiter to move the Field, Leiter & Co. store to State Street in 1868. Chicago's retailing center was State Street in the downtown Loop after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Convenient mass transit such as streetcars and elevated trains, supported a retail corridor along State Street from Lake Street to Van Buren Street. State Street became a shopping destination during the 1900s, is referred to in Frank Sinatra's song Chicago, where Frank refers it to "State Street, that Great Street."
At one time seven major department stores were situated on State Street: Benson, Karolls, Charles A. Stevens and Mandel Brothers; however Chicago evolved and by the 1920s, commuter suburbs began to have significant retail districts. After 1950, suburban development reduced the role of the Loop's daily significance to many Chicagoans as downtown retail sales slipped. However, the Magnificent Mile kept a luxury shopping district close to the central business district. In 1979, Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne converted the downtown portion into a pedestrian mall with only bus traffic allowed. Mayor Richard M. Daley oversaw the State Street Revitalization Project and on November 15, 1996, the street was reopened to traffic. In addition, the Chicago Transit Authority Red Line serves State Street and the elevated trains of the Chicago'L' serve Wabash and Lake streets in this district. Current revitalization is catering to the mix of student residents and other new residents with the newly available residential spaces.
City of Chicago Loop Community Map 41°53′N 87°38′W
Chicago Board of Trade Building
The Chicago Board of Trade Building is a skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois. It stands at 141 W. Jackson Boulevard at the foot of the LaSalle Street canyon, in the Loop community area. Built in 1930 and first designated a Chicago Landmark on May 4, 1977, the building was listed as a National Historic Landmark on June 2, 1978, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 16, 1978. Built for the Chicago Board of Trade, it is now the primary trading venue for the derivatives exchange, the CME Group, formed in 2007 by the merger of the CBOT and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. In 2012, the CME Group sold the CBOT Building to a consortium of real estate investors, including GlenStar Properties LLC and USAA Real Estate Company; the 141 W. Jackson address hosted the former tallest building in Chicago designed by William W. Boyington before the current Holabird & Root structure, which held the same title for over 35 years until being surpassed in 1965 by the Richard J. Daley Center.
The current structure is known for its art deco architecture and large-scale stone carving, as well as large trading floors. An aluminum, three-story art deco statue of Ceres, goddess of agriculture, caps the building; the building is a popular sightseeing attraction and location for shooting movies, its owners and management have won awards for efforts to preserve the building and for office management. On April 3, 1848, the Board of Trade opened for business at 101 South Water Street; when 122 members were added in 1856, it was moved to the corner of South LaSalle Streets. After another temporary relocation west on South Water Street in 1860, the first permanent home was established within the Chamber of Commerce Building on the corner of LaSalle and Washington Streets in 1865. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed this building; the exchange temporarily reopened two weeks after the fire in a 90 feet wooden building known as "the Wigwam" at the intersection of Washington and Market Streets, before reclaiming its home in a new building constructed at the Chamber of Commerce site one year later.
In 1882 construction began of the CBOT's new home, which opened at the current location on May 1, 1885. The building was designed by William W. Boyington, best known today for his work on the Chicago Water Tower, it faced Jackson Street with 180 ft feet of frontage and was built from structural steel and granite took from the Fox Island quarry near Vinalhaven, Maine. With a rear of enameled brick, it was 10 stories tall and featured a tower 320 ft tall containing a large clock and 4,500 pounds bell, topped by a 9 feet copper weather vane in the shape of a ship; the interiors were finished in frescoed. Construction cost $1.8 million. With four elevators and a great hall measuring 152 ft × 161 ft and 80 ft high decorated by a stained-glass skylight and ornate stone balusters, it was the first commercial building in Chicago to have electric lighting, it was the first building in the city to exceed 300 ft in height and at the time was the tallest building in Chicago. The building's formal dedication ceremonies, which were described by a contemporary as "brilliant and imposing", took place on April 29, 1885 and were attended by over four thousand persons including dignitaries from around the world.
The building attracted tourists and protesters. The inaugural banquet for the building opening was marched on by a sizable column of Chicago labor activists, under the International Working People's Association banner and led by Albert Parsons, Lucy Parsons, Lizzie Holmes. "The building, on which two million dollars had been lavished in the midst of an economic depression, was denounced by the anarchists as... the crowning symbol of all, hateful in the private property system.". The procession were cheered by thousands of spectators, their access to the Board of Trade was blocked by a phalanx of police, first at Jackson at LaSalle coming to within a half-block of the building, "bathed in a sea of electric light only installed for the occasion."Viewing galleries were opened to the public for the first time in honor of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. In 1895, the clock tower was removed and the "tallest building in Chicago" record was held by the 302 ft tall Masonic Temple Building. Built on caissons surrounded by muck, the trading house was rendered structurally unsound in the 1920s when construction began across the street on the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
The 1885 building was subsequently demolished in 1929, the exchange temporarily moved to Van Buren and Clark while a new building was constructed at the LaSalle and Jackson site. The 1885 allegorical architectural sculptures of 35 ft Industry and Agriculture, two figures of a four-piece set, were removed from the original building and now stand in a nearby pedestrian plaza. In 1925, the Chicago Board of Trade commissioned Root to design the current building; the general contractors Hegeman & Harris built it for $11.3 million, although the reported twenty-year mortgage value was $12 million. Clad in gray Indiana limestone, topped with a copper pyramid roof, standing on a site running 174 ft east–west on Jackson Boulevard and 240 ft north–south on LaSalle Street, the 605 ft tall art deco-styled building opened on June 9, 1930, it serves as the southern border for the skyscrapers hugging LaSalle Street and is taller than surrounding structures for several blocks. The Chicago Board of Trade has operated continuously on its fourth floor since the 1930 opening, dedicating 19,000 square f
The Monadnock Building is a 16-story skyscraper located at 53 West Jackson Boulevard in the south Loop area of Chicago, Illinois. The north half of the building was designed by the firm of Burnham & Root and built starting in 1891; the tallest load-bearing brick building constructed, it employed the first portal system of wind bracing in America. Its decorative staircases represent the first structural use of aluminum in building construction; the south half, constructed in 1893, was designed by Holabird & Roche and is similar in color and profile to the original, but the design is more traditionally ornate. When completed, it was the largest office building in the world; the success of the building was the catalyst for an important new business center at the southern end of the Loop. The building was remodeled in 1938 in one of the first major skyscraper renovations undertaken—a bid, in part, to revolutionize how building maintenance was done and halt the demolition of Chicago's aging skyscrapers.
It was sold in 1979 to owners who restored the building to its original condition, in one of the most comprehensive skyscraper restorations attempted as of 1992. The project was recognized as one of the top restoration projects in the US by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 1987; the building is divided into offices from 250 square feet to 6,000 square feet in size, serves independent professional firms. It was listed for sale in 2007; the north half is an unornamented vertical mass of purple-brown brick, flaring out at the base and top, with vertically continuous bay windows projecting out. The south half is vertically divided by brickwork at the base and rises to a large copper cornice at the roof. Projecting window bays in both halves allow large exposures of glass, giving the building an open appearance despite its mass; the Monadnock is part of the Printing House Row District, which includes the Fisher Building, the Manhattan Building, the Old Colony Building. When it was built, many critics called the building too extreme, lacking in style.
Others found in its lack of ornamentation the natural extension of its commercial purpose and an expression of modern business life. Early 20th-century European architects found inspiration in its attention to purpose and functional expression, it was one of the first buildings named a Chicago Architectural Landmark in 1958. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, named as part of the National Historic Landmark South Dearborn Street – Printing House Row North Historic District in 1976. Modern critics have called it a "classic", a "triumph of unified design", "one of the most exciting aesthetic experiences America's commercial architecture produced"; the Monadnock was commissioned by Boston real estate developers Peter and Shepherd Brooks in the building boom following the Depression of 1873–79. The Brooks family, which had amassed a fortune in the shipping insurance business and had been investing in Chicago real estate since 1863, had retained Chicago property manager Owen F. Aldis to manage the construction of the seven-story Grannis Block on Dearborn Street in 1880.
It was Aldis, one of two men Louis Sullivan credited with being "responsible for the modern office building", who convinced investors such as the Brooks brothers to build new skyscrapers in Chicago. By the end of the century, Aldis would create over 1,000,000 square feet of new office space and manage nearly one fifth of the office space in the Loop. Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root met as young draftsmen in the Chicago firm of Carter and Wight in 1872 and left to form Burnham & Root the following year. At Aldis's urging, the Brooks brothers had retained the then-fledgling firm to design the Grannis Block, their first major commission. Burnham and Root would become the architects of choice for the Brooks family, for whom they would complete the first high-rise building in Chicago, the 10-story Montauk Building, in 1883, the 11-story Rookery Building in 1888; the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 had destroyed a 4-mile by 0.5-mile swath of the city between the Chicago River and Lake Michigan, subsequent commercial development expanded into the area far south of the main business district along the river that would come to be known as "the Loop".
Between 1881 and 1885, Aldis bought a series of lots in the area on Peter Brooks' behalf, including a 70-by-200-foot site on the corner of Jackson and Dearborn streets. The location was attractive for several reasons; the construction of the Chicago Board of Trade Building in 1885 had made nearby LaSalle Street the city's prime financial district, driving up property values, railroad companies were buying up land further south for new terminal buildings, creating further speculation in the southeastern end of the Loop. Brooks commissioned Burnham & Root to design a building for the site in 1884, the project was announced in 1885, with a brief trade journal notice that the building would cost $850,000; the Chicago building community had little faith in Brooks' choice of location. Architect Edwin Renwick would say: When Owen Aldis put up the Monadnock on Jackson Boulevard there was nothing on the south side of the street between State Street and the river but cheap one-story shacks, mere hovels.
Every one thought. When he carried the building on through Van Buren Street they were sure he was. Early sketches show a 13-story building with Ancient Egyptian ornament and a slight flaring at the top, divided visually into five sections with a lotus-blossom decorative motif; this design was nev
Chicago Public Library
The Chicago Public Library is the public library system that serves the City of Chicago in the U. S. state of Illinois. It consists of 80 locations, including a central library, two regional libraries, branches distributed throughout the city's 77 Community Areas; the American Library Association reports that the library holds 5,721,334 volumes, making it the 9th largest public library in the United States by volumes held, the 30th largest academic or public library in the United States by volumes held. The Chicago Public Library is the second largest library system in Chicago by volumes held; the library is the second largest public library system in the Midwest, after the Detroit Public Library. In the aftermath of the 1871 Great Chicago Fire, Londoner A. H. Burgess, with the aid of Thomas Hughes, drew up what would be called the "English Book Donation," which proposed that England should provide a free library to the burnt-out city; the Chicago Public Library was created directly from the ashes of the great Chicago Fire.
Burgess wrote on December 7, 1871 in the London Daily News that "I propose that England should present a Free Library to Chicago, to remain there as a mark of sympathy now, a keepsake and a token of true brotherly kindness forever..."After circulating requests for donations throughout English society, the project donated 8,000 books. Private donors included Queen Victoria, Benjamin Disraeli, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning, John Stuart Mill, John Ruskin, Matthew Arnold. In Chicago, town leaders petitioned Mayor Joseph Medill to establish the library; the meeting led to the Illinois Library Act of 1872, which allowed Illinois cities to establish tax-supported libraries. In April 1872, the Chicago City Council passed an ordinance establishing the Chicago Public Library. In the rebuilding section of the city, on January 1, 1873, the Chicago Public Library opened its doors in an abandoned iron water tank at LaSalle and Adams Streets; the collection included 3,157 volumes. The water tank was 58 feet in diameter, 21 feet high and with a 30-foot foundation.
A two-story office building was soon built around it to hold city offices, a third floor reading room was built for the library. On October 24, 1873, William Frederick Poole was elected the first head librarian by the library's board of directors. Poole was concerned during his tenure on building the circulation. In 1874, circulation services began with 13,000 out of 17,533 available for lending; the library moved from place to place during its first 24 years. Eleven years it spent on the fourth floor of city hall. In 1887, Poole resigned to organize the Newberry Library of Chicago. On October 15, 1887, Frederick H. Hild was elected the second Librarian of the Chicago Public Library and securing a permanent home was his primary drive. Ten years the Central Library was opened. Designed by the Boston firm of Shepley and Coolidge in the same academic classical style as their building for the Art Institute, it was located on Michigan Avenue between Washington Street and Randolph Street on land donated by the Grand Army of the Republic, a Civil War Veterans group led by John A. Logan, a Civil War General and U.
S. Senator from Illinois. In return for the land the Library was to maintain a Civil War collection and exhibit in a G. A. R. Room until the last northern Civil War veteran died; the library would remain on this site for the next 96 years. It is now the Chicago Cultural Center. Henry Eduard Legler assumed the leadership of the Chicago Public Library on October 11, 1909. A Wisconsin Progressive, he was well known as an aggressive advocate of the expansion of library service. In 1916, Legler presented his "Library Plan for the Whole City," the first comprehensive branch library system in the nation. A landmark in library history, the plan called for an extensive network of neighborhood library locations throughout Chicago; the goal of the plan was to bring "library service within the walking distance of home for every person in Chicago who can read or wants to use books." Legler was succeeded by his assistant Carl B. Roden in 1918. Roden served as Chief Librarian until 1950. Roden was succeeded in 1951 by Chief Librarian Gertrude E. Gscheidle.
During her tenure the Library expanded its service to Chicago's neighborhoods by modernizing its bookmobile services. In the 1960s several new neighborhood branch libraries were constructed or were established in leased storefronts or reading rooms; the two-story, 62,000-square-foot Carter G. Woodson Regional Library, named after the "Father of Modern Black Historiography," opened its doors in December 1975. A decade Chicago Public Library replaced its north side regional library when the Conrad Sulzer Regional Library opened to the public in late 1985; the Woodson branch library features the Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection, one of the largest repositories of African-American archival information in the Midwest, it holds the papers of many notable Chicagoans, such as John H. Sengestacke, Robert S. Abbott, Doris E. Saunders, Timuel Black, Rev. Addie L. Wyatt, numerous others. In 1974, the board of directors authorized an $11 million renovation of the Central Library. While the restoration of the original central library proved a great success, the collections remained warehoused outside the old library while the City debated the status of the future of the central library.
One plan was to move the library to the former Rothchild/Goldblatts Department Store which stood empty on Chicago's State Street and had reverted to City ownership. From 1982 to 1985, Amanda Rudd rose to become the first African-American to head of the Chicago Public Library system. Rudd had experienced segregated libraries durin
A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, recreational opportunities, in large scale it may have ecological benefits; the practice of cultivating food on the rooftop of buildings is sometimes referred to as rooftop farming. Rooftop farming is done using green roof, aeroponics or air-dynaponics systems or container gardens. Humans have grown plants atop structures since the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia had plantings of trees and shrubs on aboveground terraces. An example in Roman times was the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, which had an elevated terrace where plants were grown. A roof garden has been discovered around an audience hall in Roman-Byzantine Caesarea; the medieval Egyptian city of Fustat had a number of high-rise buildings that Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described as rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top story complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.
Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, The Hanging Gardens are depicted as tall structures holding vegetation. Roof gardens are most found in urban environments. Plants have the ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building which reduces energy consumption. "The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its subsequent re-radiation. Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler." This translates into a cooling of the environment between 3.6 and 11.3 degrees Celsius, depending on the area on earth. The study was performed by the University of Cardiff. A study at the National Research Council of Canada showed the differences between roofs with gardens and roofs without gardens against temperature; the study shows temperature effects on different layers of each roof at different times of the day.
Roof gardens are very beneficial in reducing the effects of temperature against roofs without gardens. “If adopted, rooftop gardens could reduce the urban heat island, which would decrease smog episodes, problems associated with heat stress and further lower energy consumption.” Aside from rooftop gardens providing resistance to thermal radiation, rooftop gardens are beneficial in reducing rain run off. A roof garden can delay run off. “As cities grow, permeable substrates are replaced by impervious structures such as buildings and paved roads. Storm water run-off and combined sewage overflow events are now major problems for many cities in North America. A key solution is to reduce peak flow by retaining run-off. Rooftop gardens can delay peak flow and retain the run-off for use by the plants.” “In an accessible rooftop garden, space becomes available for localized small-scale urban agriculture, a source of local food production. An urban garden can supplement the diets of the community it feeds with fresh produce and provide a tangible tie to food production.”
At Trent University, there is a working rooftop garden which provides food to the student café and local citizens. Available gardening areas in cities are seriously lacking, the key impetus for many roof gardens; the garden may be on the roof of an autonomous building which takes care of its own waste. Hydroponics and other alternative methods can expand the possibilities of roof top gardening by reducing, for example, the need for soil or its tremendous weight. Plantings in containers are used extensively in roof top gardens. Planting in containers prevents added stress to the roof's waterproofing. One high-profile example of a building with a roof garden is Chicago City Hall. For those who live in small apartments with little space, square foot gardening, or green walls can be a solution; these use much less space than traditional gardening. These encourage environmentally responsible practices, eliminating tilling, reducing or eliminating pesticides, weeding, encouraging the recycling of wastes through composting.
Becoming green is a high priority for urban planners. The environmental and aesthetic benefits to cities is the prime motivation, it was calculated that the temperature in Tokyo could be lowered by 0.11–0.84 °C if 50% of all available rooftop space were planted with greenery. This would lead to a savings of 100 million yen Singapore is active in green urban development. "Roof gardens present possibilities for carrying the notions of nature and open space further in tall building development." When surveyed, 80% of Singapore residents voted for more roof gardens to be implemented in the city's plans. Recreational reasons, such as leisure and relaxation, beautifying the environment, greenery and nature, received the most votes. Planting roof gardens on tops of building is a way to make cities more efficient. A roof garden can be distinguished from a green roof, although the two terms are used interchangeably; the term roof garden is well suited to roof spaces that incorporate recreation and provide additional outdoor living space for the building's residents.
It may include planters, plant