A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, violent, behavior. Some criminal gang members are "jumped in", or they have to prove their loyalty and right to belong by committing certain acts theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster, a gang banger, or, less a thug. A number of gangs have gained notoriety throughout history, including the Italian Mafia, the Russian mafia, the Irish mob, the Polish mob, the Jewish mob, the Albanian mafia, the Yakuza in Japan, the Kkangpae in Korea, the Triad in China, the gangs of New England, the Jamaican Shower Posse and Yardies, the African-American Crips and Bloods, Latino gangs such as Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, Trinitarios, white supremacist gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhood, Aryan Nations and biker gangs like Hells Angels; the word "gang" derives from the past participle of Old English gan, meaning "to go".
It is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning "journey." It means a group of people, may have neutral, positive or negative connotations depending on usage. In discussing the banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr. suggests that gangsterism as a "form of self-help which victimizes others" may appear in societies which lack strong "forces of law and order". A wide variety of gangs, such as the Order of Assassins, the Damned Crew, Adam the Leper's gang, Penny Mobs, Indian Thugs, Chinese Triads, Japanese Yakuza, Irish mob, Pancho Villa's Villistas, Dead Rabbits, American Old West outlaw gangs, Bowery Boys, the Italian Mafia, Jewish mafia, Russian mafia crime families have existed for centuries; the 17th century saw London "terrorized by a series of organized gangs", some of them known as the Mims, Hectors and Dead Boys. These gangs came into conflict with each other. Members dressed in the following way: "with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions."Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s.
These early gangs had reputations for many criminal activities, but in most countries could not profit from drug trafficking prior to drugs being made illegal by laws such as the 1912 International Opium Convention and the 1919 Volstead Act. Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution; the emergence of the gangs was attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, began around the late 1820s in New York City; the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, according to the National Youth Gang Center. In 2011, the National Gang Intelligence Center of the Federal Bureau of Investigation asserted that "There are 1.4 million active street and outlaw gang members comprising more than 33,500 gangs in the United States."
230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, "The Gang Book 2012", Chicago has the highest number of gang members of any city in the United States: 150,000 members. Traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007. About 900,000 gang members lived "within local communities across the country," and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009. By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all gang members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%, Asians 7%. In December 13, 2009, The New York Times published an article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 50,000 gang members in Central America's El Salvador. More than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011.
The FBI estimates that the four Italian organized crime groups active in the United States have 25,000 members in total. The Russian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and other former Soviet organized crime groups or "Bratvas" have many members and associates affiliated with their various sorts of organized crime, but no statistics are available; the Yakuza are among one of the largest criminal organizations in the world. As of 2005, there are some 102,400 known members in Japan. Hong Kong's Triads include up to 160,000 members in the 21st century, it was estimated. One of the most infamous criminal gangs are the Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Italian-American Mafia; the Neapolitan Camorra, the Calabrian'Ndrangheta and the Apulian Sacra Corona Unita are similar Italian organized gangs. Other criminal gangs include the Russian mafia, Colombian Drug Cartels, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Mexican Mafia, the Texas Syndicate, the Black Guerrilla Family, the Nuestra Familia, the Mara Salvatrucha, the Primeiro Comando da Capital, the Irish Mob, the Puerto Rican Mafia, Nuestra familia, the Chinese Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, the Jamaican-British Yardies, the Haitian gang Zoe Pound, other crime syndicates.
Uptown is one of Chicago, Illinois’ 77 community areas. Uptown's boundaries are Foster Avenue on the north. To the north is Edgewater, to the west is Lincoln Square, to the south is Lake View; the historical and commercial center of Uptown is Broadway, with Uptown Square at the center. In 1900, the Northwestern Elevated Railroad constructed its terminal at Broadway. Uptown became a summer resort town for downtown dwellers, derived its name from the Uptown Store, the commercial center for the community. For a time, all northbound elevated trains from downtown ended in Uptown. Uptown became known as an entertainment destination. Charlie Chaplin, Gloria Swanson and other early film stars produced films at the Essanay Studios on Argyle Street; the Aragon Ballroom, Riviera Theater, Uptown Theatre, Green Mill Jazz Club are all located within a half block of Lawrence and Broadway. Uptown is home to one of Chicago's most celebrated final resting spots, Graceland Cemetery; the Uptown neighborhood boundary once extended farther to Hollywood Avenue.
Beginning at the turn of the 20th Century, just after the World's Columbian Exposition, the entire area had experienced a housing construction boom. In the mid-1920s, construction of large and luxurious entertainment venues resulted in many of the ornate and historic Uptown Square buildings which exist today; the craftsmanship and artistry of those Uptown Square buildings reflects the ornate pavilions of the Exposition. For over a century, Uptown has been a popular Chicago entertainment district, which played a significant role in ushering in the Gilded Age, the Lyceum Movement, the jazz age, the silent film era, the swing era, the big band era, the rock and roll era, has been a filming location for over 480 movies, has ties to significant spectator sport athletes and organizations, including the Chicago Blackhawks and three Olympic figure skaters, as well as theater, comedy clubs, dance performers who became nationally famous, "The People's Music School," a needs-based, tuition-free music school for formal classical music training.
By the 1950s, the middle class was leaving Uptown for more distant suburbs, as commuter rail and elevated train lines were extended. Uptown's housing stock was aging, old mansions were subdivided. Residential hotels which had housed wives of sailors attached to the Great Lakes Naval Station during World War II now served low-income migrants from the South and Appalachia. Uptown developed a reputation as "Hillbilly Heaven" during the 1960s; the Council of the Southern Mountains, headquartered in Berea, Kentucky launched the Chicago Southern Center in 1963 in Uptown, with help from Chicago philanthropist W. Clement Stone. Chicago's anti-poverty program opened the Montrose Urban Progress Center. Students for a Democratic Society initiated a community organizing project, JOIN in 1963. Large-scale urban renewal projects like Harry S. Truman College eliminated much low-cost housing, the low-income Southern white residents dispersed. New waves of Asian and African-American migrants moved into the remaining neighborhoods.
Latinos forced out from other near downtown and lakefront areas by urban renewal settled close to the border with Lakeview at Sheridan, near Irving Park. In 1975 Young Lords founder Jose Jimenez joined with a broad coalition of whites and Latinos and ran unsuccessfully against Daley-sponsored Christopher Cohen, they still were able to garner 39% of the vote. His main campaign issue was housing corruption, displacing Latinos and the poor from prime real estate areas of Chicago. Most since 2000, gentrification has spread north from neighboring Lakeview and south from Edgewater. Median condo prices jumped 69.1% from 2000-2005. Historical images of Uptown can be found in Explore Chicago Collections, a digital repository made available by Chicago Collections archives and other cultural institutions in the city. Buena Park is a neighborhood bounded by Montrose Avenue, Irving Park Road, Graceland Cemetery and Lake Shore Drive. At the core of the neighborhood is the Hutchinson Street Historic District, a tree-lined stretch several blocks long featuring mansions that make up "one of the best collections of Prairie-style architecture in the city."
It is in sharp contrast to the skyscrapers. The neighborhood was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, it can be accessed from the Sheridan stop on the CTA's Red Line. Robert A. Waller developed Buena Park starting in 1887 by subdividing his property; the site of the original Waller home now holds St. Mary of the Lake church. Buena Park pre-dates the remainder of Uptown by a number of years. Buena Park is home to one of the most active neighborhood organizations in Chicago: Buena Park Neighbors."The Delectable Ballad of the Waller Lot" by Chicago poet Eugene Field: Up yonder in Buena ParkThere is a famous spot,In legend and in history the Waller lot. Sheridan Park is a neighborhood bounded by Lawrence Avenue on the north, Clark on the west, Montrose on the south and Broadway on the east, it is residential, containing six-flats, single family homes, courtyard apartment buildings. There is a growing business district along Wilson Avenue, which bisects Sheridan Park from Broadway to Clark.
Truman College, one of the City Colleges of Chicago, is located in Sheridan Park. The neighborhood can be accessed from either the Lawrence stop on the CTA's Red Line. In 1985, the
Humboldt Park, Chicago
Humboldt Park, one of 77 designated community areas, is on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. The Humboldt Park neighborhood is known for its dynamic social and ethnic demographic change over the years; the Puerto Rican community has identified with the area since the 1970s. The official community boundaries established by the City of Chicago include Bloomingdale Ave to the north, the Union Pacific railroad tracks to the south, the train tracks running between Kostner and Cicero to the west, Humboldt Park proper to the east. In contrast to the Humboldt Park Official Community Area, the Humboldt Park Neighborhood's borders include Western Avenue to the east, Pulaski Road to the west, North Avenue to the North, the Union Pacific tracks to the south; the railyards southeast of Grand and Sacramento are part of the community area. There are two distinct areas of Humboldt Park: East Humboldt Park and West Humboldt Park, divided by Sacramento Boulevard. East Humboldt Park is bordered by Sacramento Boulevard, Western Avenue, North Avenue and Division Street.
Though it is considered a part of the Humboldt Park neighborhood, it is a part of the West Town community area. The area has been known for its working and lower middle class Puerto Rican community from the 1970s to the 2000s, though now the area has seen a large influx of white middle to upper middle class residents due to the process of gentrification; the area once had the largest middle class Puerto Rican community in the Midwest. The area is home to many social service institutions, restaurants and shops as well as two sixty-foot Puerto Rican flags on a stretch of Division Street designated Paseo Boricua. Mayor Rahm Emanuel's sweeping school closings closed Von Humboldt Elementary, De Duprey Elementary, Lafayette Elementary, leaving no neighborhood elementary schools in the area. West Humboldt Park is the area west of Sacramento Boulevard. Many residents on this side of Humboldt Park are low-income working class residents; the area is known for its high crime, but it has declined by little in blocks adjacent to the park since the gentrification is moving westward.
Though in conventional terms the Humboldt Park neighborhood has been considered between Western Avenue, Pulaski Road, North Avenue, Chicago Avenue. The area west of Pulaski until Kenton Avenue is considered West Humboldt Park as well; the park was named for Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist and geographer famed for his five-volume work Cosmos: Draft of a Physical Description of the World. His single visit to the United States did not include Chicago. Humboldt Park is part of Chicago's Boulevard Park System, which flanks the Loop with large parks linked with boulevards; the park is lined with graystone houses and is now enjoying a non-restrictive landmark status on Kedzie Ave. The park itself has 3 major historical public buildings, including the Boat House, the Field House and the Historic Stables. Chicago annexed most of the neighborhood in 1869, the year; because the area lay just beyond the city's fire code jurisdiction, as set out after the 1871 fire, this made low cost construction possible.
The neighborhood has been a center for many ethnic groups since Chicago's inception: Scandinavians European Jews, Germans, & Italians Polish Puerto Ricans, African Americans and other Latinos 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation white gentrifiers Our Lady of the Angels School Fire occurred at the Our Lady of Angels School on December 1, 1958 on 909 North Avers Avenue in the Humboldt Park area. The school, operated by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago, lost 92 students and three nuns in five classrooms on the second floor. In 1980 Puerto Ricans were the largest ethnic group in Humboldt Park, with a majority in 42 census tracts in the Humboldt Park area, in 2009 Puerto Ricans were the largest ethnic presence in only 11 census tracts in the Humboldt Park area. In the 1970s, Humboldt Park became more dangerous with high levels of gang activity and violence; the neighborhood was economically depressed, with housing values below the citywide average, until the recent upswing. Overcrowding remains a serious problem, as does gang activity and violent crime.
Gentrification, beginning in the late 1990s, along with changing police tactics, cultural and social organizations, have changed the demographics, politics and crime rates of the area. Research indicates that as communities experience gentrification and more affluent residents mobilize community resources to construct brighter street lights, renovate walkways, insist on garbage removal and street cleaning services, call on law enforcement agencies to take action against crime. Additionally and more affluent residents in Humboldt Park prioritize community concerns, though the previous poorer and non-white residents are criminalized by these new residents who use law enforcement agencies. According to the Woodstock institute, 550 foreclosures in Humboldt Park during 2010 further decreased the Puerto Rican presence. Newer middle-class and wealthy white people, as well as working class Mexican people have shifted the Puerto Rican majority in Humboldt Park; some Puerto Ricans that are upwardly mobile have left Humboldt Park, while others dispersed due to economic difficulty throughou
Little Italy is a general name for an ethnic enclave populated by Italians or people of Italian ancestry in an urban neighborhood. The concept of "Little Italy" holds many different aspects of the Italian culture. There are shops selling Italian goods as well as Italian restaurants lining the streets. A "Little Italy" strives to have a version of the country of Italy placed in the middle of a big non-Italian city; this sort of enclave is the result of periods of immigration in the past, during which people of the same culture settled together in certain areas. As cities modernized and grew, these areas became known for their ethnic associations, towns like "Little Italy" blossomed, becoming the icons they are today. Little Italy, Melbourne Little Italy, Edmonton in Alberta Little Italy, Montreal, in Quebec Little Italy, Ottawa, in Ontario Little Italy, Toronto, in Ontario Corso Italia, Toronto, in Ontario Little Italy, Vancouver, in British Columbia Little Italy, Windsor, in Ontario Little Italy, Winnipeg, in Manitoba Little Italy in Bedford Little Italy, Hoddesdon, in Hertfordshire Scotland Road in Liverpool was known as Little Italy Clerkenwell in London was known as Little Italy Ancoats in Manchester was known as Little Italy Several Little Italys exist in New York City, including: Little Italy, Manhattan Italian Harlem Arthur Avenue, The Bronx Morris Park, Bronx Bensonhurst, Brooklyn Rosebank, Staten Island Little Italy, Chicago, in Illinois Little Italy, Arkansas Little Italy, Baltimore, in Maryland North End, Boston, in Massachusetts Little Italy, Bridgeport, in Connecticut Little Italy, Cleveland, in Ohio Little Italy, Connellsville, in Pennsylvania Little Italy in Erie, Pennsylvania Wooster Square, in New Haven, Connecticut Little Italy, Omaha, in Nebraska The Hill in St. Louis, Missouri Little Italy, San Diego, California North Beach, San Francisco, in California Little Italy, Schenectady, in New York Little Italy, Rochester, NY Little Italy, Syracuse, in New York Little Italy, Waterbury, in Connecticut Little Italy, Clay County, West Virginia Little Italy, Randolph County, West Virginia Little Italy, Wilmington, in Delaware Italian Quarter, Dublin Little Italy, Gothenburg Some Italian neighborhoods may have other names, but are colloquially referred to as "Little Italy," including: La Boca, Buenos Aires Norton Street: in the Sydney suburb of Leichhardt Ramsay Street: in the Sydney suburb of Haberfield Campbelltown/Athelstone in Adelaide New Farm in Brisbane New Italy, New South Wales Griffith, New South Wales Mooca, São Paulo Bexiga Jundiaí, São Paulo state Santa Felicidade, Paraná Savassi, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Antonio Prado, Rio Grande do Sul St. Leonard, a borough of Montreal with a large Italian population LaSalle, a borough in Montreal with a large Italian population Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles, another borough of Montreal with a prominent Italian population Corso Italia, a neighbourhood in Toronto Vaughan, Ontario, A city in north of Toronto with a high population of Italians Stoney Creek, Ontario North Burnaby, British Columbia Capitán Pastene, northwest Temuco Malindi District, Kilifi County Chipilo, Puebla Colonia Manuel Gonzalez, Veracruz La Merced barrio, Mexico City Colonia Roma, Mexico City Gutierrez Zamora, Veracruz Colonia Diez Gutierrez, San Luis Potosi San Pedro, Nuevo Leon Nueva Italia, Michoacán Lombardia, Michoacán Arandas, Jalisco Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo Orange Grove, Johannesburg Clerkenwell, London Ancoats, Manchester North Beach, San Francisco, California Little Italy, San Diego, California Spaghetti Hill, California Thompsonville, Connecticut Town Plot in Waterbury, Connecticut Wooster Square in New Haven, Connecticut Italia in northern Florida Pompano Beach, a section is an Italian neighborhood Taylor Street Archives, Illinois Heat of Little Italy, Illinois Little Sicily, Illinois Bridgeport, Illinois Dunning, Chicago Indy Little Italy, Indiana Des Moines, South Des Moines is an Italian neighborhood Independence, Louisiana Old Forge, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania Little Italy, Maryland North End, Massachusetts Columbus Park, Kansas City, Missouri The Hill, St. Louis, Missouri North East, Kansas City, Missouri Little Italy, Nebraska Seventh Avenue, New Jersey Varick Street, New York Dominick Street, New York North Side, New York, though "Little Italy" was considered the West Side of the city Schenectady, New York, proposed "Little Italy" from Hillary Clinton, to run through sections of downtown.
Utica, New York, East Side considered to be city's "Little Italy" Brier Hill, Ohio Italian Village, Ohio Italian Market, Pennsylvania Bloomfield, Pennsylvania Easton, Pennsylvania Roseto, Pennsylvania Federal Hill, Rhode Island Johnston, Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Italian Americans of any municipality in the country. Galveston, south of Houston, highest Italian-American population in the Greater Houston as well as Texas. Judiciary Square, Washington, D. C. Turen Buzzelli, Michael. "From Little Britain to Little Italy: an urban ethnic landscape study in Toronto". Journal of Historical Geography. 27: 573–587. Doi:10.1006/jhge.2001.0355. Frunza, Bogdana Simina. Streetscape and Ethnicity: New York's Mulberry Street and the Redefinition of the Italian American Ethnic Identity Gabaccia, Donna R.. "Inventing'Little Italy'". Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 6: 7–41. JSTOR 25144462. Gabaccia, Donna R.. "Global Geography of'Little I
Richard I of England
Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death. He ruled as Duke of Normandy and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou and Nantes, was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period, he was the third of five sons of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior, he was known in Occitan as: Oc e No, because of his reputation for terseness. By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, although he did not retake Jerusalem from Saladin. Richard spoke both Occitan, he was born in England. Following his accession, he spent little time as little as six months, in England. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or defending his lands in France.
Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he has been perceived as preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies. He was seen as a pious hero by his subjects, he remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. Richard was born on 8 September 1157 at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was a younger brother of Count William IX of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Duchess Matilda of Saxony. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II, he was not expected to ascend to the throne, he was an elder brother of Duke Geoffrey II of Brittany. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Countess Marie of Champagne and Countess Alix of Blois; the eldest son of Henry II and Eleanor, died in 1156, before Richard's birth. Richard is depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, his father was great-grandson of William the Conqueror.
Contemporary historian Ralph of Diceto traced his family's lineage through Matilda of Scotland to the Anglo-Saxon kings of England and Alfred the Great, from there legend linked them to Noah and Woden. According to Angevin family tradition, there was even'infernal blood' in their ancestry, with a claimed descent from the fairy, or female demon, Melusine. While his father visited his lands from Scotland to France, Richard spent his childhood in England, his first recorded visit to the European continent was in May 1165, when his mother took him to Normandy. His wet nurse was Hodierna of St Albans. Little is known about Richard's education. Although he was born in Oxford and brought up in England up to his eighth year, it is not known to what extent he used or understood English. During his captivity, English prejudice against foreigners was used in a calculated way by his brother John to help destroy the authority of Richard's chancellor, William Longchamp, a Norman. One of the specific charges laid against Longchamp, by John's supporter Hugh, Bishop of Coventry, was that he could not speak English.
This indicates that by the late 12th century a knowledge of English was expected of those in positions of authority in England. Richard was said to be attractive. According to Clifford Brewer, he was 6 feet 5 inches, though, unverifiable since his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution. John, his youngest brother, was known to be 5 feet 5 inches; the Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi, a Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusade, states that: "He was tall, of elegant build. He had long arms suited to wielding a sword, his long legs matched the rest of his body". From an early age, Richard showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime. Marriage alliances were common among medieval royalty: they led to political alliances and peace treaties and allowed families to stake claims of succession on each other's lands.
In March 1159 it was arranged that Richard would marry one of the daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. Henry the Young King was married to Margaret, daughter of Louis VII of France, on 2 November 1160. Despite this alliance between the Plantagenets and the Capetians, the dynasty on the French throne, the two houses were sometimes in conflict. In 1168, the intercession of Pope Alexander III was necessary to secure a truce between them. Henry II had conquered Brittany and taken control of Gisors and the Vexin, part of Margaret's dowry. Early in the 1160s there had been suggestions Richard should marry Alys, Countess of the Vexin, fourth daughter of Louis VII
The Chicago Outfit is an Italian-American organized crime syndicate based in Chicago, which dates back to the 1910s. It is part of the American Mafia originating in Chicago's South Side; the Outfit rose to power in the 1920s, under the control of Johnny Torrio and Al Capone and the period was marked by bloody gang wars for control of the distribution of illegal alcohol during Prohibition. Since the Outfit has been involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including loansharking, prostitution, political corruption, murder. Following Capone's conviction for income tax evasion, the Outfit was run by Paul Ricca. From 1943 until his death in 1972, he shared power with Tony Accardo, who became the sole power in the Outfit upon Ricca's death. Accardo was one of the longest sitting bosses of all time right up until his death in the early 1990s; the Outfit did not have a monopoly on organized crime in Chicago, but was by far the most powerful and largest criminal organization in the Midwest. The Outfit's influence, at its peak, stretched as far as Florida.
Higher law enforcement attention and general attrition has led to the Outfit's gradual decline since the late 20th century. From 1997 to 2018, the Chicago Outfit was believed to be led by John DiFronzo before his death; the early years of organized crime in Chicago, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, were marked by the division of various street gangs controlling the South Side and North Side, as well as the Black Hand organizations of Little Italy. Big Jim Colosimo centralized control in the early 20th century. Colosimo was born in Calabria, Italy, in 1877, emigrating to Chicago in 1895 where he established himself as a criminal. By 1909, he was successful enough that he was encroaching on the criminal activity of the Black Hand organization, his expanding organization required the procurement of extra muscle. This came in the form of Colosimo's nephew Johnny Torrio from New York. In 1919, Torrio brought in Al Capone. In time and Torrio had a falling out over Torrio's insistence that they expand into rum-running, which Colosimo staunchly opposed.
In 1920, Colosimo was killed on Torrio's order. Torrio brought in New York colleague Frankie Yale to murder Colosimo. Al Capone has been suspected as Colosimo's assassin. Torrio brought together different parts of Chicago criminal activity, with a lasting effect on Chicago in general, Chicago crime in particular. With the start of Prohibition in the United States, Al Capone saw an opportunity for himself and the Outfit in Chicago to make money and to further expand their criminal empire by racketeering small businesses. With Capone taking the role of an actual businessman and partner of the owner, the Outfit had a legitimate way to source their money, which prevented incrimination and unnecessary attention from law enforcement. During the Prohibition era, Johnny Torrio competed with other gangsters in Chicago for the bootlegging business. Despite this, Torrio was able to reach a truce with Dean O'Banion, the leader of the Irish North Side Gang; the Chicago Outfit operated in South Chicago. Torrio had allied with the Sicilian Genna crime family that operated out of Little Italy in the city's center.
The truce with the North Side fell apart and, on November 10, 1924, Dean O'Banion was killed by Frankie Yale and two Genna gunmen. Hymie Weiss took over the North Side Gang and, on January 24, 1925, Torrio was wounded in an assassination attempt, he recovered in the hospital, served a one-year jail sentence, handed off control to Capone and retired. In 1926, Capone had Hymie Weiss killed. Capone's accession led to a bloody war for control of the bootlegging rackets in Chicago during the 1920s; this culminated in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre; the war was covered by the press and turned Capone into a national figure. Capone and his men were raking in vast amounts of money, were immune to prosecution because of witness intimidation and the bribing of city officials, he paid off numerous police officers to avoid the arrest of his men. By the end of his reign, Capone had expanded the Chicago Outfit throughout metro Chicago. One of the prime areas of interest was in Canada, the main source of alcohol which the Outfit was smuggling into the States.
This illicit alcohol was distributed to all the brothels of Chicago. During Prohibition, this was one of the greatest sources of income for the Outfit; the boss controlled the heads of various divisions of the Outfit through a system of subordinates placed throughout the various levels of the organization. Anyone who betrayed the honor of the organization was killed. Unable to convict Capone of any meaningful criminal activity, Treasury agents had him arrested for tax evasion and he was sentenced to 11 years in prison in 1931. Capone's hand-picked successor Frank Nitti nominally assumed power. In truth, power was seized by Nitti's underboss Paul Ricca, acknowledged as "boss" by the leaders of the growing National Crime Syndicate. Ricca ruled the Outfit, for the next 40 years. Over the next decade, The Outfit moved into labor racketeering and loan sharking. Geographically, this was the period when Outfit muscle extended to Milwaukee and Madison, Kansas City, to Hollywood and other California cities, where The Outfit's extortion of labor unions gave it leverage over the motion picture industry.
In the early 1940s, a handful of top Outfit leaders went to prison because they were found to be extorting Hollywood by control
The Folk Nation is an alliance of American street gangs originating from the Chicago area, in 1978. The gang has since spread throughout the United States to the Midwestern United States, they are rivals to the People Nation. The Folk Nation was formed on November 11, 1978, within the confines of the Illinois Department of Corrections. Larry Hoover, the chairman of the Gangster Disciple Nation, created the idea for the alliance and persuaded many leaders of large Black and Latino gangs from Chicago to join. Soon after its formation, the People Nation was formed to counter the Folks alliance. Gangs demonstrate their particular alliance-alignment by "representing" through the display of symbols, colors and numbers and letters. Folk Nation symbols are Winged Heart, Devil's Horns, 6-Dice, Number 6, Devil's Tail, Six Point Star, Upside Down 5 and Crown, Broken Five Point Star, a Pitch Fork. Folk Nation group members use right-handed identifiers to distinguish themselves from the People Nation groups, wearing articles of clothing to the right, such as caps, bandannas, or rolling up the right pant leg and using right angles.
Folk Nation gangs use the term "All is One" to greet each other. A 1995 report from the Florida Department of Corrections' Security Threat Intelligence Unit listed Folk Nation's major sets as follows: Black Gangster Disciples Black Disciples Gangster Disciples Imperial Gangsters International Posse La Raza Latin Disciples Latin Eagles Maniac Latin Disciples Simon City Royals Spanish Cobras Spanish Gangster Disciples Two Sixers