Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools, officially classified as City of Chicago School District #299 for funding and districting reasons, in Chicago, Illinois, is the fourth largest school district in the U. S. The district serves over 396,000 students, Students attend a particular school based on their area of residence, except for charter schools and selective enrollment schools. The school system reported a rate of 65.4 percent for the 2012–2013 school year. CPS reported an average of 20 pupils per teacher in schools and 24.6 pupils per teacher in high school. Approximately 85% of CPS students are Latino or African-American, the student body includes 87% from low-income homes, and 12. 2% of students are reported to have limited English proficiency. Average salaries for 2008-2009 were $56,915 for teachers and $120,659 for administrators, for the 2013-2014 school year, CPS reported 41,579 staff positions including 22,519 teachers and 545 principals. In 2012 CPS reported a budget of $5.11 billion with $2.273 billion from local sources, $1.619 billion from the State of Illinois, per student spending was reported at $13,078 in 2010.
As Chicago was started as a trading outpost in the early 1800s, it several years for a citywide school system with adequate funding. As early as 1848, during the first term of the 10th Mayor of Chicago, James Hutchinson Woodworth, from 2001 to 2008, CPS, under Arne Duncans leadership, closed dozens of elementary and high schools due to classrooms being at low capacity or underperforming. These closures were fueled by corporate principles of competition and supported by billionaires, policy advocates, and local, during this programs time, it has closed over 80 schools and plans to open 100 charter schools. This include five military schools, three of which have Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps programs, on May 22,2013, the school board voted to close 50 public schools. However, the majority of the schools have been in poor neighborhoods with a black population. These areas are not only sites of demolished public housing, for every four schools that have been closed, three have been in these neighborhoods.
Over 88% of the affected by these closings have been African American. The teachers union first strike occurred in May 1969, which lasted two days, the second strike occurred in January 1971, lasting four days from January 12 through January 15. The strike resulted in an 8% teachers salary increase and a 7% increase for school staff workers. Another strike by the union occurred in January 1973, the union was requesting that their salaries be increased and their class sizes be smaller. On September 3,1975, The union went on strike for eleven days as a result to restore the loss of teaching and clerical jobs, overcrowding of classrooms. In February 1980, The union striked again for a total of ten days, asking for paydays worked during financial crisis, changes to school board’s spending cuts, in 1983, CPS teachers went on a fifteen-day strike from October 3 to October 18 demanding a 10% salary increase
Theater in Chicago
Chicago had long been a popular destination for tours sent out from New York managements, as well as an origins of many shows sent to appear worldwide. According to Variety editor Gordon Cox, beside New York City, the young settlement of Chicago in 1834 saw its first commercial production by the fire eater and ventriloquist, Mr. Brown. In 1837, the first resident theater company, the short-lived Chicago Theater opened in the Sauganash Hotel, one of the players was a boy named Joseph Jefferson, who grew to become a very successful comedic actor. Chicagos main theater prize, the Joseph Jefferson award is named after this pioneer, New theaters, including Rices Theater, owned by an empresario and future mayor, and McVickers Theater began booking nationally prominent acts beginning in the late 1840s. After the devastation of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, Scottish-American producer, David Henderson, gave Chicago a national reputation at his Opera House. Lively foreign language theaters patronised by new immigrants sprang up, in 1912 Maurice Browne founded the Little Theater in Chicago, crediting Pelhams Hull House influence.
This, along with the founding of the Toy Theatre in Boston the same year, is credited with starting the American Little Theatre Movement, the troupes that are commonly regarded as having started the postwar stage renaissance were The Second City, Steppenwolf Theatre Company and The Goodman Theatre. In 1968 Paul Sills left Second City to open The Body Politic Theater where he creatred Story Theater, the Kingston Mines Theater, where the musical Grease premiered, began shortly afterwards, the two theaters across the street from each other on Lincoln Avenue. In 1970 Sills invited Stuart Gordon and his Organic Theater Company to move to Chicago, Mosher produced and directed American Buffalo and Glengarry Glen Ross at the Goodman. The Goodman Theatre was where Hurlyburly by David Rabe premiered under the direction of Chicago improvisational theater alum Mike Nichols, after Mosher moved to New York, the artistic directorship went to Robert Falls, former director of the Wisdom Bridge Theatre. Several leading directors associated with these troupes -- Dennis Zacek, Mary Zimmerman and Frank Galati—are alumni of Northwestern University in Evanston, the Drury Lane Theatres were a group of six theaters in the Chicago suburbs founded by Tony DeSantis.
He began producing plays in 1949 in a tent adjacent to his Martinique Restaurant to attract customers, built his first theater in 1958. Chicago is home to more than 200 small theatre companies such as A Red Orchid Theatre, Lifeline Theatre, Remy Bumppo Theatre Company, Redtwist Theater, Trap Door Theatre, and TUTA Theatre. Some have their own venues, while many perform in untraditional theatre spaces such as storefronts or bars. Touring productions visit the city regularly, mainly playing at the big theaters in the Chicago Theatre District in the Loop, an ensemble-based company is formed of a group of artists who work collaboratively to create each production. Chicago theater has a record of introducing new plays and playwrights. Many of the theaters in Chicago have new play workshop programs to work from current playwrights. Chicago Dramatists, which was begun by a group of ex-students of a workshop at Victory Gardens Theater, has an ongoing program of developing new writers
Transportation in Chicago
Chicago, Illinois is the third-largest city in the United States and a major transportation hub. The city is served by two airports, and is the main freight rail hub of North America. Mass transit in much of the Chicago metropolitan area is managed through the Regional Transportation Authority, the RTA provides transportation services through the funding of three subordinate agencies, the Chicago Transit Authority and Pace. OHare International Airport, which is the second busiest airport in the world by one measure, is an airport serving numerous domestic. It is a hub for United Airlines and American Airlines, construction is underway for a major expansion. This airport is one of the busiest in the United States. Chicago Midway International Airport serves primarily domestic destinations and it is a major focus city for Southwest Airlines. There are several smaller commercial airports in the Chicago area. It is operating as the de facto third airport for the Chicago area, while the airports current operations do not include scheduled commercial passenger service, the administration is marketing to airlines and in talks with the U. S.
Customs and Border Protection. Recently completed field improvements included extending the runway to 8,859 feet. Corporations including Boeing and White Lodging Services base their corporate fleets here, the National Guard has constructed facilities to base their Chicago metropolitan area air operations here as well. Rockford officials are positioning the airport to attract customers from Chicagos western suburbs, a public heliport called Chicago Vertiport opened in 2015 near the Illinois Medical District. General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee is used by residents of Chicagos northern suburbs looking to avoid the congestion of the two main Chicago airports, South Bend International Airport in South Bend, Indiana is connected to downtown Chicago via a South Shore Line station. A Proposed Chicago south suburban airport has been proposed as a airport in far-south-suburban Peotone. The CTA operates 24 hours a day and, on a weekday,1.6 million rides are taken on the CTA. CTA has approximately 2,000 buses that operate over 152 routes and 2,273 route miles, buses provide about 1 million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops.
CTAs 1,190 rapid transit cars operate eight routes and 222 miles of track, CTA trains provide about 745,000 customer trips each day and serve 144 stations in Chicago, Skokie, Rosemont, Forest Park, Oak Park, and Cicero. The rapid transit system is known as the Chicago L or variations of L, El, Chicago is one of the few cities in the United States that provides rapid transit service to two major airports
Flag of Chicago
Between the two blue stripes are four red, six-pointed stars arranged in a horizontal row. The flag, designed by Wallace Rice, was adopted in 1917 after Rice won the competition for the flag. The historic events are Fort Dearborn, the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893, the three white background areas of the flag represent, from top to bottom, the North and South sides of the city. The top blue stripe represents Lake Michigan and the North Branch of the Chicago River, the bottom blue stripe represents the South Branch of the river and the Great Canal, over the Chicago Portage. The lighter blue on the flag is called sky blue or pale blue, in a 1917 article of a speech by Rice. There are four red six-pointed stars on the white stripe. From left to right, The first star represents Fort Dearborn and it was added to the flag in 1939. Its six points symbolize transportation, commerce, populousness, the second star stands for the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, and is original to the 1917 design of the flag.
Its six points represent the virtues of religion, aesthetics, beneficence, the third star symbolizes the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893, and is original to the 1917 design. The fourth star represents the Century of Progress Exposition, and was added in 1933, a possible fifth star has been proposed for the city flag on more than one occasion. The first occasion occurred in the 1940s, when a letter to the Chicago Tribune asked that a star be added to the city flag in honor of the citys place in the history of the nuclear age. On another occasion, a star was proposed in honor of Harold Washington, a fifth star was discussed following the Chicago Flood of 1992. Another fifth star was in the works from a group of Chicago real estate professionals to represent Chicagos entrepreneurial spirit in the early 1990s. In a more facetious vein, a star has been proposed if the Chicago Cubs should win the World Series. Six-pointed stars are used because five-pointed stars represent sovereign states, in 1915, Mayor William Hale Thompson appointed a municipal flag commission, chaired by Alderman James A.
Kearnes. Among the commission members were wealthy industrialist Charles Deering and impressionist painter Lawton S. Parker, Parker asked lecturer and poet Wallace Rice to develop the rules for an open public competition for the best flag design. Over a thousand entries were received, in the end, the commission chose the design by Wallace Rice himself. On April 4,1917, the recommendation was accepted by the city council
Demographics of Chicago
During its first century as a city, Chicago grew at a rate that ranked among the fastest growing in the world. Within the span of forty years, the population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million by 1890. By the close of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world, within fifty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population had tripled to over 3 million. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,695,598 people and 1,194,337 households residing within the city limits of Chicago, more than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. The 2000 United States Census had shown the population density of the city itself was 12,750.3 people per square mile, there were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075.8 per square mile. The median income for a household in the city was $38,625 in 2000, males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. Below the poverty line were 19. 6% of the population and 16. 6% of the families, the racial makeup of the city in 2010 was 32% black,45.
3% white, 5% Asian, and 3% from two or more races. The ethnic makeup of the population is 28% Hispanic and 72% belong to non Hispanic background. In 2000,21. 7% of the population was foreign born, the 2007 community survey for the U. S. Census showed little variation. Chicago has the fifth highest foreign-born population in the United States, Chicago is home to 30,000 natives of Iran. The White and Hispanic communities extend radially outward from the center of the city, Chicago has a large Irish American population, with many still residing on the South Side. The early years of Chicago coincided with the significant rise in Irish immigration in the 1830s and 1840s, some Irish already lived in Chicago when it was incorporated as a city in 1837. In the next few years Irish numbers grew rapidly, particularly after the arrival of refugees from the Great Famine, by 1850 Irish immigrants accounted for about one-fifth of the citys population. Many of the politicians are descendants of this group, including previous mayor Richard M.
Daley. The Irish gained entry to Chicagos Fire and Police Departments and have kept family traditions of participation in these units, the Irish laid the foundations for many of the citys Roman Catholic churches and hospitals. The Irish are still active in the citys politics. Germans have constituted a portion of ethnic whites in Chicago since the beginning of the citys history. When the Great Plains opened up for settlement in the 1830s and 1840s and those with skills in demand could — and often did — stay
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Navy Pier is a 3, 300-foot-long pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. It is located in the Streeterville neighborhood of the Near North Side community area and it is one of the most visited attractions in the entire Midwestern United States and is Chicagos number one tourist attraction. Navy Pier opened to the public on July 15,1916, many events were held at the pier, such as expositions and other types of entertainment. In the summer of 1918 the pier was used as a jail for draft dodgers. In 1927, the pier was renamed Navy Pier to honor the veterans who served in the First World War. In 1941, during World War II the pier became a center for the Navy. About 10,000 people worked and resided there, the pier contained a 2, 500-seat theater, gym, 12-chair barber shop, cobbler shops, soda fountain and a vast kitchen and hospital. In 1946, as the Navy was winding down from its mission, though the maximum capacity was exceeded the school outgrew the pier and the university relocated to Circle Campus.
After the university left, the Navy Pier became underutilized, in 1959, the St. Lawrence Seaway opened and increased commercial shipping activity at the pier for a short time, though business died down and left for more modern facilities at Lake Calumet. In 1976 the East End buildings were renovated and for a period the pier was alive again. But maintenance was not done and the pier went into decline, in 1989, the City of Chicago had the Urban Land Institute reimagine uses for the pier. The Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority was created, its responsibility was to manage, the MPEA undertook the redevelopment, incorporating some of ULI’s recommendations. In 1995, Navy Pier was redesigned and introduced to the public as a mixed-use venue incorporating retail, entertainment, starting in 2014, the redevelopment plan called The Centennial Vision was implemented. The Centennial Vision was completed in summer 2016, the Polk Family Foundation donated $20 million to the redevelopment effort, the park and fountain at the entrance to the pier was named the Polk Brothers Park and Fountain.
Navy Pier attractions include sightseeing tours from companies such as Seadog Ventures, Shoreline Sightseeing cruises and Water Taxi service, there are dinner cruises by Entertainment Cruises on their ships the Spirit of Chicago, Odyssey II, and Mystic Blue. The pier has fireworks on Wednesday and Saturday nights during the summer, Navy Pier hosts the Fifth Third Bank Winter Wonderfest from December through January. There is an ice skating rink as well as shopping and dining in Festival Hall. There are many attractions at the Navy Pier Park, such as the Pepsi Wave Swinger, Light Tower Ride, Remote Control Boats
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and it is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Indiana, ports along its shores include Chicago, Green Bay, Gary and Benton Harbor, Michigan. The word Michigan originally referred to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwa word mishigami meaning great water, some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians. Their culture declined after 800 AD, and for the few hundred years. The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan, in the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of Michigan, named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes.
Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a role in the development of Chicago. The first person to reach the bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition, in 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College. This formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake, One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated, Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes wholly within the borders of the United States, the others are shared with Canada.
It lies in the known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has an area of 22,404 sq. mi, making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area. It is the half of Lake Michigan–Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world. It is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long, the lakes average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet, while its greatest depth is 153 fathoms 5 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water, Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay
Geography of Chicago
The city of Chicago is located in northern Illinois, United States, at the south western tip of Lake Michigan. It sits on the Saint Lawrence Seaway continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, an ancient trade route connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. Chicagos present natural geography is a result of the glaciers of the Ice Age. The city of Chicago itself sits on the Chicago Plain, a plain that was once the bottom of ancestral Lake Chicago. This plain has very little relief, in fact, topographical relief is so unusual in the plain that what would be unnoticed hills. The highest natural point within the city limits is in the Beverly neighborhood at 41°42′12. 5″N 87°40′37″W at 672 ft, in pioneer days, this hill was called Blue Island, so named because at a distance it looked like an island set in a trackless prairie sea. In fact it, and the nearby Stony Island, were islands in Lake Chicago, as it receded. On the North side, the diagonals Clark Street and Ridge Boulevard run along ridges that were once sandbars in the Lake, one special feature of the Chicago area was the now-vanished Mud Lake in the Des Plaines River watershed.
When the city we know today was founded in the 1830s. Thus, the paradox of Chicagos development as a city in the 19th century became taking advantage of this geography, North of the city of Chicago, there are steep bluffs and ravines that run along Lake Michigan. In contrast, south of the city of Chicago into Northwest Indiana it is without bluffs, the greatest example of these can be seen at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, where some dunes reach up to almost 200 feet. Farther inland, a series of moraines surrounds the Chicago Plain and this surrounding area is hilly and higher than the Chicago Plain. Past the moraines, the land flattens out again, but is interspersed with a few river valleys such as the Illinois River, Fox River, Des Plaines River. Here you may find rock cliffs and rock ravines, which are absent from the interior Chicago area, also, a very large limestone quarry exists just south of the city of Chicago in the suburb of Thornton. It was once a coral reef when the Midwest was covered by an inland sea.
The rest of the Chicago area does not have bedrock this close to the surface, the city lies within the humid continental climate zone, and experiences four distinct seasons. Summers are warm and humid with a July average of 75.5 °F, winters are cold and windy with temperatures below freezing. Spring and fall are mild with moderate humidity, according to the National Weather Service, Chicago’s highest official temperature reading of 107 °F was recorded on June 1,1934
Climate of Chicago
Annual precipitation in Chicago is average, and reaches its lowest points in the months of January and February, and peaks in the months of May and June. Chicagos weather is influenced by the presence of Lake Michigan during all four seasons. As for the two airports located in Chicago, Midway Airport began observations in 1928, and OHare Airport began observations in 1958. Both sites have served as official observation locations, with the latter being the current location where Chicagos official weather data is recorded. For Midway Airport, weather data prior to July 1,1942, most winters produce many snow falls during the season in light accumulations of around 2 in. Winter temperatures can vary tremendously within the span of one week, the daily average high temperature in January at OHare is 31.0 °F with the average daily low of 16.5 °F and the daily mean of 23.6 °F. In addition, the effect of Lake Michigan during the winter makes sub-zero temperatures somewhat less common on the lakefront than in the more inland parts of the city.
Highs reach 50 °F an average of 8.8 days each winter from December to February at Midway. Based on 30-year averages obtained from NOAAs National Climatic Data Center for the months of December and February, although it is extremely rare, temperatures during late winter can reach up to and well over 80 °F. In 2012, there were eight days in the month of March with temperatures 80 °F + during the record-breaking March 2012 North American heat wave, the last couple of 80 °F days in this record-breaking stretch of warmth occurred after the vernal equinox. Spring in Chicago is perhaps the citys wettest season, Winter conditions can persist well into April, on the other hand, large snowfalls can occur in late March and in early April. For example, in 1970, over 10 in of snow fell in a storm occurred on April 1–2. Twelve years later, Opening Day for the Chicago White Sox was postponed due to another 9 in snowfall that had occurred on April 5. Even more extraordinary, over 18 in of snow fell on March 25–26,1930, the average date for last measurable snowfall is April 1.
Temperatures can vary tremendously in the springtime, at 100 °F, at OHare, temperatures as low as 7 °F and 31 °F have been recorded as late as April 7 and May 21, respectively. Conversely, in records, the earliest triple-digit high occurred on June 1,1934. Though rare, triple digit heat has occurred in May at Midway Airport, the last freezing low of the season on average occurs on April 13 at Midway and ten days at OHare. During the springtime, the effects of Lake Michigan are most prevalent, during this season, the lake is still quite cold, as the effects of much warmer temperatures are slow to affect the large body of water of Lake Michigan
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defense or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift. Breakwaters reduce the intensity of wave action in inshore waters and thereby reduce coastal erosion or provide safe harbourage, Breakwaters may be small structures designed to protect a gently sloping beach and put one to three hundred thousand feet onshore in relatively shallow water. An anchorage is only safe if ships anchored there are protected from the force of high winds, natural harbours are formed by such barriers as headlands or reefs. Artificial harbours can be created with the help of breakwaters, mobile harbours, such as the D-Day Mulberry harbours, were floated into position and acted as breakwaters. Some natural harbours, such as those in Plymouth Sound, Portland Harbour, the dissipation of energy and relative calm water created in the lee of the breakwaters often encourage accretion of sediment. However, this can lead to excessive salient build up, resulting in tombolo formation and this trapping of sediment can cause adverse effects down-drift of the breakwaters, leading to beach sediment starvation and increased erosion.
This may lead to further engineering protection being needed down-drift of the breakwater development, Breakwaters are subject to damage, and overtopping in severe storms events. Breakwaters can be constructed with one end linked to the shore, length of gap is largely governed by the interacting wavelengths. Breakwaters may be fixed or floating, and impermeable or permeable to allow sediment transfer shoreward of the structures. They usually consist of pieces of rock weighing up to 16 tonnes each. Their design is influenced by the angle of approach and other environmental parameters. Breakwater construction can be parallel or perpendicular to the coast. Of these three, the angle at which the breakwater is built is most important in the formation of salients. The angle at which the breakwater is built determines the new direction of the waves, a breakwater structure is designed to absorb the energy of the waves that hit it, either by using mass, or by using a revetment slope. In coastal engineering, a revetment is a land backed structure whilst a breakwater is a sea backed structure, caisson breakwaters typically have vertical sides and are usually erected where it is desirable to berth one or more vessels on the inner face of the breakwater.
They use the mass of the caisson and the fill within it to resist the forces applied by waves hitting them. They are relatively expensive to construct in shallow water, but in deeper sites they can offer a significant saving over revetment breakwaters, rubble mound breakwaters use structural voids to dissipate the wave energy. Rock or concrete armour units on the outside of the structure absorb most of the energy, the slopes of the revetment are typically between 1,1 and 1,2, depending upon the materials used
Architecture of Chicago
The buildings and architecture of Chicago have influenced and reflected the history of American architecture. The built environment of Chicago is reflective of the history and multicultural heritage. Since most structures within the area were destroyed by the Great Chicago Fire in 1871 Chicago buildings are noted for their originality rather than their antiquity. Beginning in the early 1880s, architectural pioneers of the Chicago School explored steel-frame construction and, in the 1890s and these were among the first modern skyscrapers. However, the Montauk Building, designed by John Wellborn Root Sr. shankland, and modern contractors, in particular George A. Fuller. Louis Sullivan was perhaps the citys most philosophical architect, realizing that the skyscraper represented a new form of architecture, he discarded historical precedent and designed buildings that emphasized their vertical nature. This new form of architecture, by Jenney, Burnham and others, became known as the Commercial Style, but it was called the Chicago School by historians.
In 1892, the Masonic Temple surpassed the New York World Building, breaking its two-year reign as the tallest skyscraper, since 1963, a Second Chicago School emerged from the work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. The ideas of structural engineer Fazlur Khan were influential in this movement, in particular his introduction of a new system of framed tubes in skyscraper design. The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building which Khan designed and was completed in Chicago by 1966, numerous architects have constructed landmark buildings of varying styles in Chicago. Among them are the so-called Chicago seven, James Ingo Freed, Tom Beeby, Larry Booth, Stuart Cohen, James Nagle, Stanley Tigerman and it is true that the White City represented anything other than its host citys architecture. Sullivans comments should be viewed in the context of his relationship with Burnham. Chicago is well known for its wealth of art, including works by such artistic heavyweights as Chagall, Miró.
City sculptures additionally honor the people and topics reflecting the rich history of Chicago. In the 21st century, Chicago has become an urban focus for landscape architecture. Frank Lloyd Wrights Prairie School influenced both building design and the design of furnishings, in the early half of the 20th century, popular residential neighborhoods were developed with Chicago Bungalow style houses, many of which still exist. Ludwig Mies van der Rohes Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago influenced the Modern or International style, van der Rohes work is sometimes called the Second Chicago School. Many organizations, notably Preservation Chicago and Landmarks Illinois are devoted to promoting the preservation of historic neighborhoods, Chicago has suffered from the same problems with sinking property values and urban decline as other major cities