Oak Brook, Illinois
Oak Brook is a village in DuPage County with a small portion in Cook County in Illinois. The population was 7,883 at the 2010 census. A suburb of Chicago, Oak Brook serves as home to the headquarters of several notable companies and organizations including McDonald's, Ace Hardware, Ferrara Candy, Federal Signal, CenterPoint Properties, Sanford L. P. TreeHouse Foods, Lions Clubs International. Oak Brook was known as Fullersburg, named after Ben Fuller, an early settler. Oak Brook was incorporated as a village in 1958, due in large part to the efforts of Paul Butler, a prominent civic leader and landowner whose father had first moved to the vicinity in 1898 and opened a dairy farm shortly thereafter. Prior to incorporation, the name Oak Brook was used by local residents to distinguish their community from neighboring Hinsdale and Elmhurst, going back to the founding of the Oak Brook Civic Association two decades earlier; the original boundaries were smaller than the present extent of the village, but a considerable amount of land was annexed soon after the founding of the village, including the land, now the site of the Oakbrook Center shopping mall, which opened in 1962.
Paul Butler's interest in sport was reflected in the Oak Brook Sports Core, which features polo fields, a golf course and tennis facilities, other recreational facilities not found in a village of this size. The Oak Brook Historical Society was established in 1975 to serve as a community advocate for the historic preservation of the village and to be a resource for research and preservation of its history, their current goal is to restore the Old Butler School, which will serve the community as the Oak Brook Heritage Center, operated by the Oak Brook Historical Society. The Heritage Center will provide multigenerational programming, exhibits of the heritage and history of Oak Brook, a research library, small group meeting space. According to the 2010 census, Oak Brook has a total area of 8.279 square miles, of which 7.95 square miles is land and 0.329 square miles is water. Oak Brook is located about 19 miles west of the Chicago Loop and is served by a network of major federal and county roads, including the Tri-State Tollway, the Ronald Reagan Memorial Tollway, the Eisenhower Expressway.
Although Oak Brook is not directly served by any CTA or Metra trains, the commercial corridor along 22nd Street is served by several Pace bus routes, train stations in neighboring villages offer commuter train access to downtown Chicago. Most of Oak Brook consists of residential subdivisions, with the exception of the Oakbrook Center shopping mall and other retail and office properties along 22nd Street and the Interstate 88 corridor in the northern part of the village; the village's adjacent neighbors are Elmhurst to the north, Hillside to the northeast, Westchester to the east and Westmont to the south, Downers Grove to the southwest, Lombard and Oakbrook Terrace to the northwest. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,883 people, 2,939 households, 2,363 families residing in the village; the population density was 991.6 people per square mile. There were 3,188 housing units, at an average density of 401.0 per square mile. The racial makeup was 71.8% White, 2.0% African American, 23.2% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% some other race, 2.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 2,939 households, out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.6% were headed by married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.6% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.7% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63, the average family size was 2.99. In the village, the population was spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 13.8% from 25 to 44, 33.6% from 45 to 64, 29.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. For the period 2007-11, the estimated median annual income for a household in the village was $132,389, the median income for a family was $152,209. Male full-time workers had a median income of $104,981 versus $71,961 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $79,711. About 1.1% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.7% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over. In 2011, 23.2% of Oak Brook's residents were Asian, making it the Chicago suburb with the second highest percentage of Asians. Equalized Assessed Valuation: 2010 – $1,608,622,320 2009 – $1,749,470,588 2008 – $1,797,238,113 2007 – $1,693,581,172 2006 – $1,578,273,201 2005 – $1,482,432,467 2004 – $1,425,867,144 2003 – $1,327,099,526Median Home Value: $635,400* 2011 Municipal Operating and Capital Expense Budget: $49.4 million Village Employees: 134 full-time employees Village Government: president, village clerk, six trustees, village manager Oak Brook has its own school district, District 53, which includes Brook Forest Elementary School and Butler Junior High School. Students that live within the district attend Hinsdale Central High School, District 86. Ho
Gannett Co. Inc. is a publicly traded American mass media holding company headquartered in McLean, Virginia in Greater Washington DC. It is the largest U. S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation. Its assets include the national newspaper USA Today and the erstwhile weekly pullout magazine USA Weekend, found in local newspapers, its largest non-national newspaper is the Detroit Free Press in Detroit, Michigan. Other significant newspapers include The Indianapolis Star, The Cincinnati Enquirer, The Tennessean in Nashville, The Courier-Journal in Louisville, the Democrat and Chronicle in Rochester, New York, The Des Moines Register, The Arizona Republic in Phoenix, The News-Press in Fort Myers, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, the Great Falls Tribune. In 2015, Gannett Co. Inc. spun off its publishing business into a separate publicly traded entity, while retaining the internet media divisions. Following the spin off, the former parent Company renamed itself Tegna and owns 50 TV stations.
The spun-off publishing business renamed itself "Gannett". Gannett Company, Inc. was formed in 1923 by Frank Gannett in Rochester, New York, as an outgrowth of the Elmira Gazette, a newspaper business he had begun in Elmira, New York, in 1906. Gannett, known as a conservative, gained fame and fortune by purchasing small independent newspapers and developing them into a large chain, a 20th-century trend that helped the newspaper industry remain financially viable. By 1979, the chain had grown to 79 newspapers. In 1979, Gannett acquired Combined Communications Corp. operator of 2 major daily newspapers, the Oakland Tribune & The Cincinnati Enquirer, seven television stations, 13 radio stations, as well as an outdoor advertising division, for $370 million. The outdoor advertising became known as Gannett Outdoor, before being acquired by Outdoor Systems, before the company was sold to Infinity Broadcasting, which became part of Viacom, was part of CBS Corporation, until 2014 when CBS Outdoor went independent and became Outfront Media.
The company was headquartered in Rochester until 1986, when it moved to Arlington County, Virginia. Its former headquarters building, the Gannett Building, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Gannett's oldest newspaper still in circulation is the Leaf-Chronicle located in Clarksville, Tennessee. In 2001, the company moved to its current headquarters in Tysons Corner, a suburb of Washington, D. C. Beginning in 2005 at the Fort Myers News-Press, Gannett pioneered the mojo concept of mobile multimedia journalists, reporters who were untethered from conventional newsrooms and drove around their communities filing hyperlocal news via Wi-Fi in various formats including text for print publication, still photos for print and online publication, audio and video for the News-Press website; the practice has spread throughout the chain. On March 7, 2011, Gannett replaced the stylized "G" logo in use since the 1970s, adopted a new company tagline: "It's all within reach."In 2010, Gannett increased executive salaries and bonuses.
S. newspapers division president, was paid $3.4 million in 2010, up from $1.9 million the previous year. The next year, the company laid off 700 U. S. employees to cut costs. In the memo announcing the layoffs, Dickey wrote, "While we have sought many ways to reduce costs, I regret to tell you that we will not be able to avoid layoffs." In February 2012, Gannett announced that it would implement a paywall system across all of its daily newspaper websites, with non-subscriber access will be limited to between five and fifteen articles per month, varying by newspaper. The USA Today website became the only one to allow unrestricted access. On March 24, 2012, the company announced that it would discipline 25 employees in Wisconsin who had signed the petition to recall Governor Scott Walker, stating that this open public participation in a political process was a violation of the company's code of journalistic ethics and that their primary responsibility as journalists was to maintain credibility and public trust in themselves and the organization.
On August 21, 2012, Gannett acquired Blinq Media. Around the first week of October 2012, Gannett entered a dispute against Dish Network regarding compensation fees and Dish's AutoHop commercial-skip feature on its Hopper digital video recorders. Gannett ordered that Dish discontinue AutoHop on the account that it is affecting advertising revenues for Gannett's television station. Gannett threatened to pull all of its stations should the skirmish continue beyond October 7, Dish and Gannett fail to reach an agreement; the two parties reached an agreement after extending the deadline for a few hours. Gannett announced it would not be delaying print deadlines for the 2018 midterm elections in the United States, meaning that next-day newspapers would no longer contain the election's results, instead directing readers to the Internet. On June 13, 2013, Gannett announced plans to buy Dallas-based Belo Corporation for $1.5 billion and the assumption of debt. The purchase would add 20 additional stations to Gannett's portfolio and make the company the fourth largest television broadcaster in the U.
S. with 43 stations. Because of ownership conflicts that exist in markets where both Belo and Gannett own television stations and newspapers, the use of a third-party company as a licensee to buy stations to be operated by the owner of a same-market competitor and concerns about any possible future consolidation o
Rockford is a city in Winnebago County in the U. S. state of Illinois, in far northern Illinois. Located on the banks of the Rock River, Rockford is the county seat of Winnebago County; the largest city in Illinois outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, Rockford is the third-largest city in the state and the 171st most populous in the United States According to 2010 U. S. Census Data, the City of Rockford had a population of 152,871, with an outlying metropolitan area population of 348,360; the City of Rockford's population is 147,051 as of 2017, down 4.1% since 2010. Settled in the mid-1830s, the position of the city on the Rock River made its location strategic for industrial development. In the second half of the 19th century, Rockford was notable for its output of heavy machinery and tools. During the second half of the 20th century, Rockford struggled alongside many Rust Belt cities. Since the late 1990s, efforts in economic diversification have led to growth of automotive and healthcare industries, as well as the undertaking of various tourism and downtown revitalization efforts.
Nicknamed the Forest City, Rockford is presently known for various venues of cultural or historical significance, including Anderson Japanese Gardens, Klehm Arboretum, Tinker Swiss Cottage, the BMO Harris Bank Center, the Coronado Theatre, the Laurent House, the Burpee Museum of Natural History. Its contributions to music are noted in the Mendelssohn Club, the oldest music club in the nation, performers such as Phantom Regiment and Cheap Trick. Rockford traces its roots to 1834, as the combined settlements of Midway were founded on both banks of the Rock River. On the west bank, Germanicus Kent and Thatcher Blake founded Kentville. With the location of the Rock River equidistant between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, the combined settlement derived the name "Midway". In 1836, Winnebago County was created, with Midway named as its county seat. In 1837, the village of Midway was renamed Rockford, highlighting a rocky river ford across the Rock River in the village; the same year, Rockford established its first post office.
In 1840, the first weekly newspaper began circulation. In 1847, Rockford Female Seminary was founded. In 1852, Rockford was chartered as a city. In 1852, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad connected Rockford to Chicago by railroad. At the time of its founding, many of the village's residents were transplants from the Northeastern United States and upstate New York. Descended from English Puritans, the Midway/Rockford population was similar to much of the rest of northern Illinois and nearly all of Wisconsin during the mid-19th century. After the Black Hawk War, additional immigrants moved to northern Illinois. During the antebellum period, Rockford shared abolitionist leanings, lending considerable support to the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party. In 1848, 42 percent of voters in Winnebago County voted for Martin Van Buren. In 1852, Free Soil candidate John P. Hale became the first presidential candidate to visit Rockford, although he would only receive 28 percent of the vote. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln won 3,985 votes in Winnebago County to the 817 votes of Stephen A. Douglas.
The 1850s brought industry. In 1853, inventor John Henry Manny moved to Rockford to produce horse-drawn mechanical reapers for farmers and transport the finished products by rail. Chicago implement manufacturer Cyrus McCormick took Manny to court after he produced nearly 6,000 machines. Along with production of agricultural machines, Swedish furniture cooperatives established the city as a manufacturing base; the Rockford Union Furniture Company, under John Erlander, spearheaded these cooperatives. Today, Erlander's home is a Rockford museum that shows his efforts in elevating Rockford to second in furniture manufacturing in the nation, behind Grand Rapids. During the Civil War, one of the first Illinois regiments to be mobilized, the Zouaves, were from Rockford; the city served as the site for Camp Fuller, a training site for four other infantry regiments. In 1884, Rockford established its first city-wide public school district, constructing Rockford Central High School in 1885; the Rockford Female Seminary became the alma mater of Jane Addams in 1881.
This move accompanied the Seminary's transition into a more complete curriculum, represented by its renaming to Rockford College in 1892. Culture flourished with the founding of the Mendelssohn Club in 1884, which became the oldest operating music club in the United States; this was complemented by the construction of a Carnegie library in 1902, which became the first building of Rockford's public library system. 1903 saw the dedication of the Winnebago County Veterans Memorial Hall in the presence of sitting President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt returned to Rockford during his campaign in 1912 and again to address the soldiers at Camp Grant, a training site for World War I soldiers; the t
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
In broadcasting, a flagship is the broadcast station which originates a television network, or a particular radio or television program that plays a key role in the branding of and consumer loyalty to a network or station. This includes both direct network feeds and broadcast syndication, but not backhauls. Not all networks or shows have a flagship station, as some originate from a dedicated radio or television studio; the term derives from the naval custom where the commanding officer of a group of naval ships would fly a distinguishing flag. In common parlance, "flagship" is now used to mean the most important or leading member of a group, hence its various uses in broadcasting; the term is used in TV and radio in the United States and Canada. Lotteries Mega Millions from WSB-TV in Atlanta Ohio Lottery weekday- and Saturday-evening drawings from WEWS in Cleveland Michigan Lottery from WDIV-TV in DetroitShows Delilah from KRWM FM in Seattle Clark Howard from WSB /WSBB-FM in Atlanta Rush Limbaugh from WOR in New York City Live with Kelly and Ryan from WABC-TV in New York CityNetworks Midnight Radio Network from WBAP in Dallas/Fort WorthEvents Masters Tournament from WRDW-TV, as the CBS affiliate since 1956.
A flagship radio station is the principal station from which a radio network's programs are fed to affiliates. In the United States, traditional radio networks operate without flagship stations as defined in this article. Network operations and those of the local owned-and-operated or affiliated stations in the same city are now separate and may come under different corporate entities. In the U. S. CBS News Radio produces programming for distribution by Skyview Networks, but local stations WCBS and WINS in New York City and KNX in Los Angeles are operated separately from the network radio news operation, under a separate company with common shareholders, Entercom. IHeartMedia follows a similar model: flagship stations WOR/New York City and KFI/Los Angeles are both operated separately from its syndication wing, Premiere Networks. WWRL in New York City was an affiliate of the now-defunct Air America Radio and carries some of its programs but is separately owned and operated and does not produce any programs for the network.
Air America Radio leased WLIB as its flagship station. The network would lease WZAA in Washington, D. C. as its lone self-operated station. Fox Sports Radio's flagship station is KLAC in Los Angeles, with which it merged operations in 2009. SB Nation Radio is flagshipped at KGOW in Houston. CBS Sports Radio is nominally flagshipped at WFAN. ESPN Radio has no true flagship station, as it operates out of ESPN headquarters in Bristol, Connecticut. Nash FM, a country music network, is nominally flagshipped at WKDF in Tennessee. MeTV FM, a classic oldies/soft rock network, is flagshipped at WRME-LP in Chicago, the home base of its owner, television broadcaster Weigel Broadcasting; the Satellite Music Network networks were flagshipped at a cluster of stations in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex during their existence. CloudCast is flagshipped at KZOY in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, with much of its programming voicetracked from WGWE in Little Valley, New York. Former flagship stations for now-defunct networks in American radio's "Big Four" era of the 1940s–1980s were: NBC Red Network WNBC, New York City WYNY, New York City KNBR, San Francisco KYUU, San FranciscoMutual Broadcasting System WOR, New York City WGN, Chicago KHJ, Los AngelesIn Canada, current CBC/Radio-Canada flagships are CBLA-FM in Toronto, which broadcasts in English, CBF-FM in Montréal, which broadcasts in French.
Both are former AM clear channel operations which have moved to FM. Former flagship stations for now-defunct networks were: CJBC in Toronto CKO in Montréal VONF in St. John's, Dominion of Newfoundland While CJBC remains on-air on its original frequency, it is now an owned-and-operated station of the French-language Radio-Canada network; the CKO network's Toronto frequency was re-issued to CBL but the namesake CKO flagship in Montréal is silent. For syndicated radio programs, it refers to the originating station from which a program is fed by satellite or other means to stations nationwide, although the show may originate elsewhere or from a home studio via an ISDN line; some programs such as Imus in the Morning are simulcast on television. Others are simulcasted on Sirius Satellite Radio. Flagship stations of prominent syndicated radio programs include: Brooke and Jubal in the Morning: KQMV /Bellevue, Washington Mitch Albom: WJR (760 AM
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner