John T. Wilder
John Thomas Wilder was a colonel in the Union Army during the American Civil War, noted principally for capturing a key mountain pass in the Tullahoma Campaign in Central Tennessee in June 1863. Victory at Hoovers Gap was attributed largely to Wilders persistence in procuring the new rifles, Wilder was an engineer who operated the first two blast furnaces in the South. Wilder was born in the Catskill Mountains in Hunter, Greene County, New York and he was a descendant of a long line of soldiers. His grandfather and great-grandfather, both named Seth Wilder, fought in the American Revolutionary War, after the great-grandfather lost a leg in the Battle of Bunker Hill, Seth, Jr. took his place. Wilders father Reuben fought in the War of 1812, Wilder spent his younger years in Hunter, where he attended school. When he turned nineteen, his school days over, he decided to head west to make it on his own, Wilder soon arrived in Columbus, nearly penniless, and found employment as draftsman and an apprentice millwright at a local foundry.
This training would lay the groundwork for his career, in 1857, eight years after he arrived in Columbus, Wilder relocated to Indiana, first to Lawrenceburg and to Greensburg, where he married Martha Jane Stewart and raised a large family. He established a foundry of his own. Wilder invented many machines that he patented, and he sold equipment, building mills. He became renowned as an expert in the field of hydraulics. On the outbreak of the Civil War, John Wilder attempted to organize a light company in the Greensburg area. Wilders company was mustered into service but the Federal government declined to accept the company. Instead, Wilder was commissioned Captain, and his men were organized as Company A, when the 17th Indiana left for western Virginia in July 1861, Company A took along the two cannons. In March 1862 Wilder was promoted to Colonel and given command of the 17th Indiana, during the campaign to take Corinth Mississippi, Wilder quickly earned a reputation as a competent, and even gifted, regimental commander.
In the 1862 Confederate offensive into Kentucky, Gen. Braxton Braggs army left Chattanooga, bragg approached Munfordville, a station on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad where Wilder commanded the Union garrison, which consisted of three regiments with extensive fortifications. This forced the Confederates to conduct siege operations September 15–16, by this time, Wilders 4,000 men were almost completely surrounded by 22,000 Confederates with 100 artillery pieces. Realizing that Union reinforcements were nearby and not wanting to kill or injure innocent civilians, the formal ceremony occurred on September 17. Wilder spent two months as a prisoner of war before being exchanged, Wilder received wide attention for his performance in the Tullahoma Campaign
Moccasin Bend Archeological District is an archeological site in Chattanooga, that is part of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park unit. The National Park Service refers to it as one of the most unique units found in the entire National Park Service, the area contains remnants of 12,000 years of continuous human habitation and therefore serves as a fascinating area with a rich history and unique cultural significance. For many years, there was recognition of the historical significance of the area. The archeological district is significant due to the prevalence of historic artifacts found within some of the most historically important Native American sites in the United States, Moccasin Bend was a part of the Trail of Tears and played a vital role in the American Civil War. Moccasin Bend National Archeological District is a park with a complex. In 2003, with the help of U. S, representative Zach Wamp, the Friends of Moccasin Bend, and community leaders, the Moccasin Bend National Archeological District was created as part of the Chickamauga National Military Park.
This designation made Moccasin Bend the first and only National Archeological District in the entire National Park Service, the area of land known as Moccasin Bend is a 1,000 acre peninsula sitting on the edge of the Tennessee River. Most of the land on the peninsula became the property of the federal government and this created a rather fragmented park with distinct and diverse parts. The core area of the District resides on the tip of the Bend. This area includes Civil War resources and important American Indian sites, the Friends of Moccasin Bend, alongside the National Park Service, sought to implement such amenities as an interpretive center. Plans for this center are currently in the works. Just as the creation of the park was relatively slow going, the fragmented nature of the park and its history of industrial and commercial use has made the transition into a thriving area of cultural and historical significance a challenge. In order to forward with some of the proposed plans for development.
This has proved to be a difficult task and these efforts are largely spearheaded by the Friends of Moccasin Bend. While the Friends of Moccasin Bend and the National Park Service work with the city to move forward on the proposed plans, there are currently some limited recreational opportunities and amenities. While areas of the continue to be developed, there are a few key areas that are currently accessible to the public. The National Archeological District includes a 10.5 acre meadow that has designated the future site of an interpretive center. The area is located on Hamm Road, a gateway that runs through Moccasin Bend
Chattanooga is a city in the U. S. state of Tennessee, with a population of 176,588 in 2015. The fourth-largest Tennessee city, it is the seat of Hamilton County, located in southeastern Tennessee in East Tennessee, on the Tennessee River, served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. The city, with elevation of approximately 680 feet, lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the nickname for Chattanooga is the Scenic City. Unofficial nicknames include River City, Nooga, Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song Chattanooga Choo Choo by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and Chattanooga State Community College, the city has its own typeface, which was launched in August 2012. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans, sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period showed continuous occupation through the Archaic, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi, and Cherokee.
The Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauga Creek is the oldest remaining visible art in Chattanooga, the Citico town and mound site was the most significant Mississippian/Muscogee landmark in Chattanooga up to 1915. The first part of the name Chattanooga derives from the Muskogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ – rock, the latter may be derived from a regional suffix -nuga meaning dwelling or dwelling place. In 1816 John Ross, who became Principal Chief, established Rosss Landing, located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which extended into Georgia and Alabama. Their journey west became known as the Trail of Tears for their exile, the US Army used Rosss Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or emigration depots, where Native Americans were held prior to the journey on the Trail of Tears. One of the internment camps was located in Fort Payne, Alabama, in 1839, the community of Rosss Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga.
The city grew quickly, initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce, with the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town. During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle, during the Chickamauga Campaign, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9,1863. Following the Battle of Chickamauga, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga, the next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought, driving the Confederates off the mountain. On November 25, Grants army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridge and these battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward. After the war ended, the city became a railroad hub and industrial. The largest flood in Chattanoogas history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority system was created in 1933 by Congress, the flood crested at 58 feet and completely inundated the city
Andersonville National Historic Site
Most of the site lies in southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of the town of Andersonville. As well as the prison, the site contains the Andersonville National Cemetery. The site is a reminder of the horrors of Civil War prisons. It was commanded by Captain Henry Wirz, who was tried and executed after the war for war crimes and it was overcrowded to four times its capacity, with an inadequate water supply, inadequate food rations, and unsanitary conditions. Of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners held at Camp Sumter during the war, the chief causes of death were scurvy and dysentery. Friends provided care and moral support for others in their social network, the prison, which opened in February 1864, originally covered about 16.5 acres of land enclosed by a 15-foot high stockade. In June 1864, it was enlarged to 26.5 acres, the stockade was rectangular, of dimensions 1,620 feet by 779 feet. There were two entrances on the west side of the stockade, known as entrance and south entrance.
Before us were forms that had once been active and erect, —stalwart men, now nothing but mere walking skeletons, covered with filth, many of our men, in the heat and intensity of their feeling, exclaimed with earnestness. And all thought that he alone could bring them out alive from so terrible a place, further descriptions of the camp can be found in the diary of Ransom Chadwick, a member of the 85th New York Infantry Regiment. Chadwick and his mates were taken to the Andersonville Prison. Father Peter Whelan arrived on 16 June 1864 to muster the resources of the church, at Andersonville, a light fence known as the dead line was erected approximately 19 feet inside the stockade wall. It demarcated a no-mans land that kept away from the stockade wall. Anyone crossing or even touching this dead line was shot without warning by sentries in the pigeon roosts, dead lines were used at other prisons during the Civil War. At this time in the war, Andersonville Prison was frequently undersupplied with food, the Confederate Army and civilians struggled to get enough food.
The shortage was suffered by prisoners and the Confederate personnel alike within the fort, but the prisoners received less than the guards, as the latter did not suffer such emaciation, nor scurvy. The latter was probably the cause of mortality. Even when sufficient quantities of supplies were available, they were of poor quality, although the prison was surrounded by forest, very little wood was allowed to the prisoners for warmth or cooking
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
Dade County, Georgia
Dade County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. It occupies the northwest corner of Georgia, and the countys own northwest corner is the westernmost point in the state, as of the 2010 census, the population is 16,633. The county seat and only incorporated municipality is Trenton, Dade County is part of the Chattanooga, TN–GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1860, residents of Dade County voted to secede from the state of Georgia and from the United States, in 1945, the county symbolically rejoined Georgia and the United States. However, in 1999, it was left off the Georgia state quarter and this, was claimed to have been unintentional, and was fixed. Dade County was established in 1837 and was named for Major Francis Langhorne Dade, the first settlers of Dade County won the land in the Georgia Land Lotteries, held to encourage settlement after the Cherokee people were forced off the land. Many settlers worked in regional coke and coal mines that contributed to development of the Chattanooga, the area was long isolated from the rest of Georgia by its geography of mountains and rivers, which some historians say contributed to early residents separatist attitudes.
Georgia did not have a road connecting Dade County to the rest of the state until the establishment of Cloudland Canyon State Park in 1939 and that year Georgia began work on Highway 136 to connect U. S.41 to the recently created park. The Civilian Conservation Corps built many of the facilities and access roads to the park, up until then, travelers from elsewhere in Georgia could drive to the county only by way of Alabama or Tennessee. Dade County had a short-lived state secessionist movement before the American Civil War, in 1860, county residents wanted to secede from the Union, but lawmakers for the state of Georgia were cautious. Legend has it that in 1860, the people of Dade County were so impatient that they announced their own secession from both Georgia and the United States. On July 4,1945, a telegram from President Harry S. Truman was read at a celebration marking the countys rejoining the Union, historians say Dades individual secession and readmission were symbolic and had no legal effect.
They say that officially, Dade County seceded along with the state of Georgia in 1861, the noted Southern humorist and seminal writer of Southern humor George Washington Harris is buried in the Brock Cemetery in Trenton. Although he greatly influenced the works of Mark Twain, William Faulkner. In 1964 Covenant College established a campus at Lookout Mountain, founded in 1955 in California, it was ready to expand after a year. Several professors led Covenant to move to St. Louis, after outgrowing its facilities there, the college decided to move to Dade County. Shortly after the Georgia State Quarter was released by the US Mint, as shown on the quarter, the state appears to lack Dade County, in the extreme northwestern part of the state. Some accounts in 2012 suggest the exclusion was intended to refer to the legend of Dade Countys secession from Georgia
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests