1952 British Grand Prix
The 1952 British Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 19 July 1952 at Silverstone Circuit. It was race 5 of 8 in the 1952 World Championship of Drivers, in which each Grand Prix was run to Formula Two rules rather than the Formula One regulations used. New pit facilities had been built on the straight between Copse corners. Jean Behra was unable to take part in the British Grand Prix, having broken his shoulder blade at the non-championship Grand Prix de Sables d'Olonne the previous weekend. Maurice Trintignant took over Behra's Gordini T16 for Silverstone, having driven a Simca-Gordini T15 at Rouen-Les-Essarts; the Gordini team fielded regular drivers Robert Manzon and Prince Bira. As in the previous race, Belgian driver Johnny Claes entered a privateer Simca-Gordini under the'Ecurie Belge' moniker. Ferrari stuck with the same three drivers — Alberto Ascari, Nino Farina and Piero Taruffi — who had monopolised the podium positions at the French Grand Prix. There were a number of privateer Ferrari entrants: Fischer and Hirt for Ecurie Espadon, Peter Whitehead and Roy Salvadori.
HWM continued their policy of partnering regulars Peter Collins and Lance Macklin with a local driver, in this case Duncan Hamilton. The Connaught team ran a quartet of Lea Francis-engined entries — McAlpine, Downing and Poore — while the remainder of the grid was made up of a series of privateers of various constructors, including Coopers and Maseratis; the three works Ferraris, led on this occasion by Farina, again qualified in the top three positions on the grid, this time being joined on the four-car front row by Manzon. The second row consisted of Downing alongside Reg Parnell and Mike Hawthorn in a pair of Cooper-Bristols; the Connaughts of Poore and Thompson shared row three with Bira's Gordini and Hamilton in his HWM. Ascari took the lead at the start of the race and held onto it for the whole 85 laps, taking his third consecutive victory in the World Championship. Polesitter Nino Farina was in second place for the first 26 laps but he dropped down the field when he needed to pit to change spark plugs finishing in sixth, just outside the points.
Despite making a bad start that saw him drop to ninth by the end of the first lap, fellow Ferrari driver Taruffi recovered to take second place, finishing a lap behind Ascari. Dennis Poore, running in third after Farina's pit stop, needed to make a stop of his own in order to refuel his car; this allowed Hawthorn to inherit third place. He finished a lap behind Taruffi and took his first World Championship podium in just his third race. Poore took ahead of Connaught teammate Eric Thompson in the fifth and final points position. Ascari's win, coupled with yet another fastest lap, allowed him to extend his lead in the Drivers' Championship once again, he now enjoyed an eight-point lead over fellow Ferrari driver Taruffi. Farina, having not scored any points, was seven points adrift of Taruffi. ^1 — Roy Salvadori qualified and drove the entire race in the #14 Ferrari. Bobbie Baird, named substitute driver for the car, was not used during the Grand Prix. ^2 — Louis Rosier and Ken Wharton both withdrew from the event prior to practice.
Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Final Grand Prix drive for: David Murray First podium: Cooper Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
1951 Formula One season
The 1951 Formula One season was the fifth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1951 World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 27 May 1951 and ended on 28 October after eight races; the season included 14 races that were open to Formula One cars but did not count towards the championship standings. Ferrari's newer, unsupercharged 4.5 litre cars offered a real challenge to the Alfas, which were nearing the end of their development potential. The Ferraris were able to capitalize on the inefficiency of the Alfa's thirsty engines at Silverstone. Although Alfas won four races, with Fangio taking the championship, Ferrari's three victories spelled the end for the Alfas. BRM made their only championship appearance with the V16 at Silverstone, the old, slow Talbots were outclassed. Points were given to top 5 finishers. 1 point was given for fastest lap. Only the best four of eight scores counted towards the world championship. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps.
Although the official championship season would start in late May in Switzerland, there were a handful of non-championship events to be run. The first was the first Syracuse Grand Prix near the ancient city of Syracuse on the southern island of Sicily; this race was won by Italian Luigi Villoresi driving the new 4 1/2 liter Ferrari 375 on the 3.4 mile public road circuit. Villoresi would triumph again 2 weeks at Pau in southwest France over homeland hero Louis Rosier and Nino Farina, driving a Maserati for this race. On the same day Thai driver Prince Bira would triumph at the Richmond Trophy race at Goodwood in southern England in his Maserati. 3 weeks after the Goodwood and Pau races it was the San Remo Grand Prix in western Italy not far from Monaco, Alberto Ascari made his first appearance of the season and promptly won in a Ferrari 375 on this twisty and demanding 2.1 mile street circuit, ahead of his countryman Dorino Serafini and Swiss Rudi Fischer, both in Ferraris. A week was the Bordeaux Grand Prix in western France and it was won by Rosier in a Talbot, ahead of Fischer and Briton Peter Whitehead in a Ferrari.
Other than Farina this race did not feature any Italians in it because they were competing in the Mille Miglia. A week was the BRDC International Trophy race at Silverstone, with the Alfa Romeos making their first appearance in 1951. Of the first two heats, Fangio won the first. Two weeks after this was the Paris Grand Prix in the Bois de Boulogne Park in the French capital city, won by Farina in a Maserati. A week after the BRDC International Trophy race the Formula One Championship season started in Switzerland at the dangerous and tree-lined Bremgarten public road circuit near Bern around the time the Monaco Grand Prix would have been held, but that historic race was not held this year. Alfa Romeo, the dominant team in 1950 with its supercharged 159 Alfetta, took the first 5 places on the grid, with the exception of 3rd, taken by Luigi Villoresi in a Ferrari. Argentine Juan Manuel Fangio was on pole position, with his Italian teammate Giuseppe "Nino" Farina alongside him; the race started while it was raining, with its overhanging trees lining the road, this circuit was more dangerous in the wet.
But Fangio made no mistake and won the race from Piero Taruffi in a Ferrari and Farina, whose decision to run the race without changing tires proved to be the wrong decision. The Indianapolis 500 in the United States was run 3 days after the Swiss Grand Prix on a Wednesday, was the only non-European championship round and the only round not run to FIA Grand Prix regulations. Lee Wallard won this demanding race in his Kurtis Kraft-Offenhauser. Farina had won again at Ulster Trophy held at the dangerous and fast Dundrod circuit in Northern Ireland in an Alfa, the next championship Grand Prix was in Belgium at the fastest circuit of the year: the spectacular and rural 8.7 mi Spa-Francorchamps circuit. With Fangio and Farina once again 1–2 with the Ferraris of Villoresi and Alberto Ascari taking 3rd and 4th, the Alfas and Ferraris dueled around this circuit, with only 13 entries – small grids in all kinds of motorsports in Europe were commonplace at Spa, because of the fear most drivers had of the circuit.
Farina on a high after winning at Dundrod won by 3 minutes over Ascari and Villoresi, with Fangio finishing 4 laps down in 9th after one of his Alfa's wheels jammed on its hub. The French Grand Prix, given the honorary designation of the European Grand Prix this year was held at the fast 4.8 mile Reims-Gueux circuit deep in northern French champagne country played the host for an exciting race. Fangio, on pole again, was beaten off the line by 3rd placed qualifier Ascari, with 2nd placed qualifier Farina making a terrible start and dropping to 11th. On this triangular public road circuit, made up of long straights, slight kinks and slow, angular corners saw Ascari retire his car with a broken gearbox and Fangio nursing a sick car. Farina pushed hard and took the lead. Argentine Jose Froilan Gonzalez was 2nd in a Ferrari, 53-year old pre-war great Luigi Fagioli in an Alfa was 3rd in a one-off appearance for this year. Gonzalez was chasing Farina hard. However, during both the leader's pitstops, as was commonplace in Grand Prix racing up until 1957, when it was banned – Gonzalez handed his car over to Ascari, Fagioli exchanged his healthy car with Fang
1952 French Grand Prix
The 1952 French Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 6 July 1952 at Rouen-Les-Essarts. It was race 4 of 8 in the 1952 World Championship of Drivers, in which each Grand Prix was run to Formula Two rules rather than the Formula One regulations used. Unusually this race was run over a duration of 3 hours, rather than a fixed distance. Having won the previous weekend's Grand Prix de la Marne, Jean Behra, racing for Equipe Gordini, was among the favourites for the first French Grand Prix to be held at Rouen-Les-Essarts. Driving for Gordini were regulars Robert Manzon and Prince Bira, alongside Maurice Trintignant, who replaced Johnny Claes from the lineup for the previous round. Claes entered the race in a Simca-Gordini under his own'Ecurie Belge' label, which he had used in the 1950 and 1951 seasons. Ferrari retained their lineup of Ascari and Taruffi, who had locked out the front row of the grid in Belgium. There were several privateer Ferrari entries: the Swiss duo of Rudi Fischer and Peter Hirt, representing Ecurie Espadon, the Italian pairing of Franco Comotti and Piero Carini, for Scuderia Marzotto, Louis Rosier.
HWM again ran regular drivers Lance Macklin and Peter Collins, this time alongside Frenchman Yves Giraud-Cabantous. While the factory Maserati team remained absent, their new car, the A6GCM, made its World Championship debut, driven by Philippe Étancelin of Escuderia Bandeirantes. Enrico Platé entered a pair of older Maseratis, the 4CLT/48 model, for Toulo de Graffenried and Harry Schell. Completing the grid were Peter Whitehead, in a run Alta, Mike Hawthorn, who again took part in a Cooper-Bristol. Ascari took his second consecutive pole position, with his Ferrari teammates Farina and Taruffi again joining him on the front row of the grid; the Gordini team locked out the second row, with Behra and Manzon qualifying in fourth and fifth, respectively. Their teammates Trintignant and Bira started from the third row, alongside Peter Collins in the fastest of the HWMs; the new Maserati A6GCM proved a disappointment, with Philippe Étancelin only managing to qualify on the seventh row of the grid. The Ferraris once again dominated the race, with Alberto Ascari leading Farina from start to finish, thus taking his second consecutive victory in the World Championship.
Despite a good start from the Gordinis of Manzon and Behra, that saw them take third and fourth place by the end of the first lap, Piero Taruffi managed to regain third place on lap 4 and subsequently held it for the remainder of the race, ensuring that it was an all-Ferrari podium. Manzon finished fourth, a lap behind Taruffi, while his teammate Maurice Trintignant took the final points-scoring position of fifth. HWM driver Peter Collins took sixth, two laps behind Trintignant, ahead of Jean Behra, for whom seventh represented something of a recovery, having been in last place at the end of lap 3, his race had been compromised when he crashed and needed to pit. Ascari's win, fastest lap, ensured that he took a five-point lead in the Drivers' Championship, ahead of fellow Ferrari driver Piero Taruffi. Farina's second consecutive second-place finish took him to third in the standings, one point adrift of Taruffi. Indianapolis 500 winner Troy Ruttman was a further four points behind in fourth, one point ahead of Gordini driver Robert Manzon.
^1 — Piero Taruffi qualified and drove the entire race in the #12 Ferrari. Luigi Villoresi, entered in the same car, was unable to participate due to injury. ^2 — Toulo de Graffenried qualified and drove 26 laps of the race in the #16 Maserati. Harry Schell, whose own vehicle had retired, took over the car for a further 8 laps before again being forced to retire. ^3 — Philippe Étancelin qualified and drove the entire race in the #28 Maserati. Eitel Cantoni was entered in the car, but took no part in the Grand Prix after being fired. ^4 — Chico Landi withdrew from the event prior to practice. ^5 — Rudi Fischer qualified and drove 37 laps of the race in the #36 Ferrari. He was due to drive the #34 Ferrari 500, but engine problems in practice meant that he instead participated in a 212. Peter Hirt took over the car for the remainder of the race. Rudolf Schoeller, named substitute driver for the car, was not used during the Grand Prix. ^6 — Vittorio Marzotto, Sergio Sighinolfi and Reg Parnell were the designated substitute drivers for cars #38, #40 and #42, respectively.
None of the three was used during the Grand Prix. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Shared Drives Car #34: Fischer Hirt Car #16: de Graffenried Schell Last F1 Grand Prix drive for Philippe Étancelin Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in German Bundesstadt, French Ville Fédérale, Italian Città Federale. With a population of 142,493, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland; the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons; the official language in Bern is German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German. In 1983, the historic old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on folk etymology, Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, this turned out to be a bear, it has long been considered that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German.
As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin *berna "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s; the earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today′s city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, thought to be one of the 12 oppida of the Helvetii mentioned by Caesar. During the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site; the Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor. In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city; the medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in Upper Burgundy in the 12th century.
According to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a free imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered Aargau in 1415 and Vaud in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest city-state north of the Alps; the city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare. The Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345, it was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622. During the time of the Thirty Years' War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were replaced by half-timbered houses and subsequently the sandstone buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town.
Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow due to immigration from the surrounding countryside. Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when it was stripped of parts of its territories, it regained control of the Bernese Oberland in 1802, following the Congress of Vienna of 1814, it newly acquired the Bernese Jura. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the Restoration and until the secession of the canton of Jura in 1979. Bern was made the Federal City within the new Swiss federal state in 1848. A number of congresses of the socialist First and Second Internationals were held in Bern during World War I when Switzerland was neutral; the city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased to below 130,000 by 2000.
As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate urban agglomeration. Bern lies on the Swiss plateau in the canton of Bern west of the centre of Switzerland and 20 km north of the Bernese Alps; the countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent ice age. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of 864 m and Bantiger with a height of 947 m; the site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at 46°57′08.66″N 7°26′22.50″E. The city was built on a hilly peninsula surrounded by the river Aare, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on uneven ground. An elevation difference of several metres exists betwe
1951 British Grand Prix
The 1951 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 14 July 1951 at the Silverstone Circuit in Northamptonshire, England. It was contested over 90 laps; the race was the first victory for José Froilán González, was the first of many for the Scuderia Ferrari team. Both the team and driver achieved their first pole position during the weekend. José Froilán González was one second quicker than Juan Manuel Fangio in qualifying, achieving the first pole position of his career, it was the first pole position for the Ferrari team, the first in the World Championship not scored by an Alfa Romeo. Nino Farina and Alberto Ascari qualified in fourth positions, completing the front row. González and Fangio shot away parallel from the front row of the grid followed by the other Alfa Romeos and Ferraris. Alfa Romeo driver Felice Bonetto, who started in seventh position, was the first man at the first corner, with the Ferrari of González in second position. González took the lead from Bonetto on the second lap with Fangio chasing.
The BRM cars of Reg Parnell and Peter Walker were in hot pursuit of the leaders. The team had arrived at the last minute, had not practiced or qualified for their debut race, had started in 19th and 20th positions. Bonetto's Alfa Romeo teammates of Fangio and reigning World Champion, Nino Farina, managed to overtake him to move into second and third places. On lap 6, Fangio began to close in on González. Consalvo Sanesi pulled into the pits for fuel and new tyres; the Maserati of John James became the first retirement of the race on lap 23 with a radiator problem, but was soon joined on the sidelines by Louis Chiron, both his Maserati teammates, the Ferrari of Alberto Ascari and Farina. Farina pulled up at Abbey curve after 75 laps with his engine on fire, he had set the lap record on lap 38, with a time of 1 minute 44 seconds, an average speed of 99.99 mph, ensuring he still left the weekend with one point. González retook the lead on lap 39 with an overtake at Becketts corner, he kept his lead for the remainder of the race extending it to 1 minute and 5 seconds with 5 laps to go, before easing off at the end of the race.
The BRM drivers of Parnell and Walker were still battling on, despite the fact they were suffering from hand and feet burns, would finish fifth and seventh respectively. The Alfa Romeos of Fangio and Farina pitted twice for fuel, owing to the awful fuel consumption of their cars, they were doing 1 1/2 miles to the gallon, needed to take on 70 gallons for every stop. Both drivers needed to stop twice, owing to the lengthy, minutes-long pit stops of Formula One in 1951, the more fuel efficient Ferrari of González was able to overtake the Alfa Romeos and pull out a considerable lead. González took his own and Ferrari's first victory in a World Championship race by 51 seconds, it was the first World Championship race, not won by an Alfa Romeo. An Alfa Romeo was still in second place though, in the form of the year's eventual champion Fangio. Luigi Villoresi became the second Ferrari on the podium after he finished in third place, two laps behind. Bonetto and Parnell were the other two point scorers at the race, finishing in fourth and fifth positions respectively.
As it turned out, González had raced with an older chassis and engine than his teammates and Ascari. ^1 — Maurice Trintignant, Robert Manzon, André Simon and Philippe Étancelin all withdrew from the event prior to practice. Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
1953 Indianapolis 500
The 37th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1953. The event was part of the 1953 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 9 in the 1953 World Championship of Drivers. Bill Vukovich, after falling short a year before, earned the first of two consecutive Indy 500 victories. With the temperature in the high 90s, the track temperature exceeding 130 °F, this race is known as the "Hottest 500." Driver Carl Scarborough dropped out the race, died at the infield hospital due to heat prostration. Due to the extreme heat conditions, several drivers in the field required relief drivers, some relief drivers required additional relief. Vukovich, however, as well as second-place finisher Art Cross, both ran the full 500 miles solo. Sixteen year race veteran Chet Miller died in an accident in practice on May 15. Time trials were scheduled for four days. Saturday May 16 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 17 – Second day time trials Saturday May 23 – Third day time trials Sunday May 24 – Fourth day time trialsVukovich qualified on pole, with a speed of 138.392 mph.
Polesitter Bill Vukovich dominated the race, leading 195 laps and recording fastest lap. The race is known as the "Hottest 500", with track temperatures exceeding 130 °F. Recent research, has suggested that the 1937 race had higher recorded temperatures. Half the drivers in the field used relief help, including: Duane Carter took over from Sam Hanks Paul Russo took over from Fred Agabashian Eddie Johnson took over from Jim Rathmann Gene Hartley and Chuck Stevenson took over from Tony Bettenhausen Bob Scott took over from Carl Scarborough Jim Rathmann took over from Bill Holland Duke Dinsmore and Andy Linden took over from Rodger Ward Johnny Mantz took over from Walt Faulkner Jackie Holmes and Johnny Thomson took over from Spider Webb Andy Linden and Chuck Stevenson took over from Jerry Hoyt Carl Scarborough retired from the race due to heat exhaustion, died at the infield hospital. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Eddie Johnson Pole position: Bill Vukovich – 4:20.13 Fastest lead lap: Bill Vukovich – 1:06.240 The purse for first place was $89,496.
One of the prizes awarded to the winner was a year's supply of dog food. The race was carried live flag-to-flag on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. Instead of being produced by 1070 WIBC-AM, the network pooled together talent and technical staff from all five of the major radio stations in Indianapolis; the broadcast was anchored by Sid Collins, featured on-air talent from WIBC, WFBM, WISH, WIRE, WXLW. The broadcast signed on at 10:45 a.m. local time, carried live through the conclusion, until 3:45 p.m. local time. The broadcast was carried on 135 stations in at least 35 states across the country, on Armed Forced Network to Europe and Asia. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1953 Indianapolis 500 Radio Broadcast, Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network: Re-broadcast on "The History of the 500" – WFNI
Mil Milhas Brasil
The Mil Milhas Brasil is a sports car endurance race held annually in Brazil since 1956. The first Mil Milhas was organized by Eloy Gagliano and Wilson Fittipaldi Sr. the father of Wilson Fittipaldi Júnior and Emerson Fittipaldi. The two had been inspired by the 1949 Italian Mille Miglia. Wilson Fittipaldi Sr. was a journalist and brought media as well as sponsors such as auto parts companies to support the event. The first event was held on November 24–25, 1956 with 31 sports cars competing at the Interlagos circuit; the Mil Milhas has been held nearly every year since its inception and is one of the longest running motor racing events in Brazil. Nearly every running has used the Interlagos circuit, but the 1997 and 1999 events were held at Jacarepaguá and Curitiba respectively. In 2007, the race was held as a part of the Le Mans Series, the first time the race had been part of an international championship; the event had been supported as a non-championship event in the BPR Global GT Series as well as the FIA GT Championship.
FIA GT planned to add the event to their calendar in 2007, but chose to hand the event instead to Le Mans Series organizers. Zeca Giaffone holds the record of most wins, having won in 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1989. "Mil Milhas Brasileiras". Motor Racing Circuits Database. Retrieved 2007-12-01. "Endurance – Mil Milhas Brasileiras". Cronospeed. 21 January 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-01. "Tópícos". Autódromo de Interlagos – "José Carlos Pace". Archived from the original on 2007-11-09. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Official website 2007 LMS event page