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Chicot County, Arkansas

Chicot County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,800; the county seat is Lake Village. Chicot County is Arkansas's 10th county, formed on October 25, 1823, named after Point Chicot on the Mississippi River, it is part of the Arkansas Delta, lowlands along the river that have been important as an area for large-scale cotton cultivation. Landmarks around the county include Lake Chicot, North America's largest oxbow lake and Arkansas's largest natural lake. Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto came to this area with his expedition in 1542, settling for a time in the village or territory known as Guachoya; the European-American town of Lake Village developed in the 19th century at Lake Chicot, formed by an oxbow of the Mississippi River. Eighteenth-century French colonists named it Chicot because of the many cypress trees in the waterways; the word is translated to "stumpy, or knobby". The area along the Mississippi River and major tributaries was developed as cotton plantations, the major commodity crop before and after the American Civil War of 1861-1865.

Enslaved African Americans formed the labor force, comprising a majority of the population in the antebellum years. Major large cotton plantations included Sunnyside. During the war and Confederate forces fought at the Battle of Old River Lake from June 5 to June 6, 1864; the population of the rural county has declined since its peak in 1940. Earlier in the century, boll weevils threatened the cotton crop, many African Americans left in the Great Migration for opportunity in northern and midwestern industrial cities. In addition, mechanization of agriculture and consolidation into industrial-style farms has reduced the need for farm labor. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 691 square miles, of which 644 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water. Arkansas 144 Desha County Bolivar County, Mississippi Washington County, Mississippi Issaquena County, Mississippi East Carroll Parish, Louisiana West Carroll Parish, Louisiana Morehouse Parish, Louisiana Ashley County Drew County As of the 2010 census, there were 11,800 people living in the county.

54.1% were Black or African American, 41.2% White, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.2% of some other race and 0.8 of two or more races. 4.6 % were Latino. As of the 2000 census, there were 14,117 people, 5,205 households, 3,643 families living in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 5,974 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 53.96% Black or African American, 43.24% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.41% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 2.88 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 5,205 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.70% were married couples living together, 22.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 15.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,024, the median income for a family was $27,960. Males had a median income of $25,899 versus $17,115 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,825. About 23.10% of families and 28.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.30% of those under age 18 and 20.70% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010 the county population was 11,800; the racial make-up was 40.35% Non-Hispanic whites, 54.08% blacks, 0.19% Native Americans, 0.47% Asians, 0.03% Pacific Islanders and 4.59% Hispanics or Latinos. Since 1940, the population of the county has collapsed. Press reports indicate that in 2013, the largest settlement in the county, Lake Village, Arkansas had two bank branches, two pharmacies, some law firms, two dollar stores, a grocery store, no retail shops.

The county voters have traditionally supported the Democratic Party. In the 20th century, the only Democratic presidential candidate to lose the county was George McGovern in 1972. From the turn of the century until the mid-1960s and passage of federal civil rights legislation, the Democratic Party in Arkansas was made up of conservative whites, as blacks had been disfranchised in Arkansas. Given national Democratic support for the civil rights struggle and the Voting Rights Act and other legislation by President Lyndon B. Johnson, many blacks have supported the party and its candidates since regaining the power to exercise the franchise. White voters in the county have trended toward the Republican presidential candidates since the 1980s, but none has received more than 42 percent of the vote in any of the last five Presidential elections; the county is part of Arkansas's 1st congressional district. In the Arkansas Senate, the county is in District 26 a

John Smith Griffin

John Smith Griffin was an American missionary in Oregon Country who participated at the Champoeg Meetings that created the Provisional Government of Oregon in 1843. In Oregon he served as a tutor at Fort Vancouver and organized a church on the Tualatin Plains in the Tualatin Valley. On November 23, 1807, John Griffin was born in Castleton, Vermont, to parents who immigrated from England. In New England and Ohio he seminaries. Griffin was ordained a minister and sent to Litchfield County, Connecticut, his church, the Congregational Church sent him as an unaffiliated missionary to Oregon Country to convert Native Americans. Griffin arrived in Oregon in 1839 and stayed at the Whitman Mission the first year before moving to the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River. Staying until 1841, he served as the post's chaplain. In 1841 he settled on the Tualatin Plains in what is now Washington County, Oregon where he would establish a church on June 26, 1842, he had planned on setting up a mission on the east side of the Cascade Mountains, but did not receive funds from the missionary board and instead set up a farm in the Tualatin Valley.

From the time he settled there until 1848 Griffin kept a journal of the arrivals of settlers on the Tualatin Plains. The church was the first church on the plains there, established at East Tuality Plains. Members of the church included Joseph L. Meek, George W. Ebbert, Joseph Gale, Charles Richard McKay among others. Griffin continued as minister of the congregation until the parishioners removed him in 1845 because of his rigid beliefs, replacing him with Harvey L. Clark. While living on the plains Griffin set up his own personal jail in order to detain Native Americans who would steal from him. In 1843, Griffin attended the meetings at Champoeg on the Willamette River where he opposed the type of resolution introduced at the May third meeting. Though opposing the type of measure, he did vote for the creation of the Provisional Government in what was a 52-to-50 vote in favor of the formation of a government; this temporary government continued until the government of the Oregon Territory was formed in 1849, after the region south of the 49th parallel north became part of the United States.

In 1848, Griffin took possession of the Oregon Mission Press and began printing The Oregon American and Evangelical Unionist. In 1851, Griffin invested in the Portland & Valley Plank Road Company, which began building a plank road from Portland to the Tualatin Valley. In 1839, Griffin was married in Saint Louis, Missouri, to Desiré C. Smith, who would die in 1884, he married Lina Harvey Kenyon in Three Oaks, Michigan. Griffin's sister-in-law Rachel Jane Smith married fellow missionary Henry H. Spalding as Spalding's second wife. John Smith Griffin died on February 5, 1899 and is buried at Hillsboro Pioneer Cemetery in Hillsboro, Oregon

Gundakar, Prince of Liechtenstein

Gundakar of Liechtenstein was a member of the House of Liechtenstein and as such the owner of a large estate. He served the Habsburg dynasty, he was the youngest son of Baron Hartmann II of Liechtenstein. His mother was Anna Maria, his brothers were Maximilian. He received a careful education, he himself was married twice. In the first marriage, he married Agnes, a daughter of Count Enno III of East Frisia and in the second marriage Elizabeth Lucretia, a daughter of Duke Adam Wenceslaus of Cieszyn and herself a ruling Duchess of Cieszyn, he was the founder of the so-called Gundakar line of the House of Liechtenstein. In 1606, the brothers signed a familial treaty stipulating that the first-born of the eldest surviving line would be head of the House of Liechtenstein, his father was a Lutheran and he had raised his children as Lutherans. At the beginning of the 17th century and his brothers converted to Catholicism. Gundakar wrote a vindication, entitled "Motives that moved me to accept the Catholic faith".

His conversion facilitated his ascent at the imperial court. He served under Emperors Matthias, Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, he began his career at court in 1599 as chamberlain. In the following years he accompanied Archduke Matthias on military expeditions to Hungary and was present at the siege of Buda. In 1606, he served several times as an ambassador and in 1608, he accompanied Matthias on his campaign in Bohemia against Rudolf II, he became a councillor at the Exchequer in 1606 and he led the department from 1613. As early as 1608, he appears to have acted as Vice Chancellor of the Exchequer, he was a councillor in the Chamber of Lower Austria. Between 1614 and 1617, he held various positions, including Land Marshal of Lower Austria, Chief Hofmeister to Archduke Charles John and Chief Hofmeister to the Empress Consort Anna of Tyrol, his real political rise coincided with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. In 1618 he led a delegation to the Estates of Silesia, his task was to prevent Silesia from joining the Bohemian revolt.

This attempt, failed. At the beginning of the year 1619, he was sent as an ambassador to various princes and prince-bishops to formally notify them of the death of Emperor Matthias. Informally, he would discuss the Bohemian revolt. Secretly, he negotiated with Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria and other Catholic princes about military assistance to the Catholic League, in view of the impending war. In the same year, he undertook a second mission, to the spiritual electors, to prepare the election of Ferdinand II as the next emperor, he visited Elector Palatine Frederick V though the court in Vienna knew that Frederick was about to play an important role in the Bohemian revolt. Gundakar was present when Ferdinand was continued to accompany him, he negotiated with the Upper Austrian Estates about their position with regards to the Bohemian revolt. The Austrians did not formally break with Bohemia. After the Imperial victory, Gundakar was tasked with punishing the supporters of the rebellion in Upper Austria.

From 1621, he was a close political adviser to the Emperor. In the period before 1626, he was influential as the leader of the Privy Council. After 1625, he was Chief Hofmeister. However, he was displaced from that position by Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, a supporter of Wallenstein and leader of the "Spanish" party at the court; this turned Gundakar into an enemy of Wallenstein. He has authored several studies and has two "Mirrors for princes", he argued for a reform of the administration. He demanded that the state should promote the economy, in the sense of the early mercantilism, in order to increase tax revenue; this was inspired by Giovanni Botero and other contemporary political theorists. Besides his official writings, he published a work on the bridling of horses. In 1623, he was raised to the rank of hereditary Imperial Prince, his ideology was anti-Machiavellian and he was influenced by the Catholic Counter-Reformation. He imposed Catholicism on his possessions, he created a staged surveillance apparatus to control the faith in his lands.

This allowed him to displace Protestantism from his eastern Moravian possessions, despite resistance of the population. When his father's inheritance was divided in 1598, he received the lordships Wilfersdorf and Ringelsdorf. In 1601, he issued a regulation for his subjects, he was so wealthy. Like his two brothers, he contributed to the increase of his family's possessions. Like other Catholic noblemen loyal to the Emperor, he profited from the redistribution in 1619 of the dispossessed fiefs of the supporters of the Bohemian revolt, he was enfeoffed by Ferdinand II with the Lordship of Uherský Ostroh, as a reward for services rendered. In 1622, he purchased the Lordships of Moravský Krumlov. However, he paid with bad currency. Instead of 540000guilders, the actual value of his money was less than 70000guilders; the possessions he purchased were valued at about one million guilders. However, further attempts to increase the property failed, he laid a claim on the County of Rietberg, owned by his first wife, Agnes of East Frisia.

He was defeated, however, by Maximilian Ulrich von Kaunitz in a drawn-out legal battle. His second wife was a ruling Duchess of Cieszyn and he tried to pressure her into transferring Cieszyn to him, she retired to Silesia and informed her husband that if he was interested in continuing the marriage, he had to come to Cieszyn. After her death, Cieszyn reverted to the Bohemian crown as a co


The Foettingeriidae are a family of apostome ciliates of the order Apostomatida. Like other apostomes, they are symbiotic with Crustacea, live in microbial cysts on their host's exoskeleton for most of their life, they excyst, or leave their cysts, when their hosts molt their exoskeleton in order to feed on the exuvial fluids trapped in their host's molted exoskeleton. Genera of the family Foettingeriidae are separated into the histotrophs; the exuviotrophs are a group of genera of the Foettingeriidae. They only feed on the exuvial fluids trapped in the host's cast-off exoskeleton; the histotrophs are another group of foettingeriid genera. Like the exuviotrophs, they feed on exuvial fluids of cast-off exoskeletons, they excyst after their host dies by injury and feed on the tissue fluids of the host's corpse. Protozoa of the family Foettingeriidae are called phoronts. While the phoront is encysted, it does not feed. Phoronts are encysted on the gills of crustacea. Phoronts are more to be encysted on smaller crustacea than larger crustacea.

Phoronts go through metamorphosis to prepare for excystation. Metamorphosis changes the body shape and physiology of the phoront to allow for rapid ingestion and storage of large amounts of food. Histotrophic phoronts metamorphose within a few hours of encysting on their hosts. Exuviotrophic phoronts can remain dormant for months after encysting and only metamorphose before their hosts molt their exoskeleton. After the protozoa excysts and feeds, it becomes swollen to thirty times its initial volume; this engorged state is called the trophont

Waiting for Godot

Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters and Estragon, wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters. Waiting for Godot is Beckett's translation of his own original French-language play, En attendant Godot, is subtitled "a tragicomedy in two acts"; the original French text was composed between 9 October 1948 and 29 January 1949. The premiere, directed by Roger Blin, was on 5 January 1953 at the Théâtre de Paris; the English-language version premiered in London in 1955. In a poll conducted by the British Royal National Theatre in 1990, it was voted the "most significant English language play of the 20th century"; the play opens on an outdoor scene of two bedraggled companions: the philosophical Vladimir and the weary Estragon - the latter of whom, at the moment, cannot remove his boots from his aching feet muttering, "Nothing to be done." Vladimir takes up the thought loftily, while Estragon vaguely recalls having been beaten the night before.

His boots come off, while the pair ramble and bicker pointlessly. When Estragon decides to leave, Vladimir reminds him that they must stay and wait for an unspecified person called Godot—a segment of dialogue that repeats often; the pair cannot agree on where or when they are expected to meet with this Godot. They only know to wait at a tree, there is indeed a leafless one nearby. Estragon dozes off and Vladimir rouses him but stops him before he can share his dreams—another recurring activity between the two men. Estragon wants to hear an old joke, which Vladimir cannot finish without going off to urinate, since every time he starts laughing, a kidney ailment flares up. Upon Vladimir's return, the jaded Estragon suggests that they hang themselves, but they abandon the idea when the logistics seem ineffective, they speculate on the potential rewards of continuing to wait for Godot, but can come to no definite conclusions. When Estragon declares his hunger, Vladimir provides a carrot, at which Estragon idly gnaws, loudly reiterating his boredom.

"A terrible cry" heralds the entrance of Lucky, a silent, baggage-burdened slave with a rope tied around his neck, Pozzo, his arrogant and imperious master, who holds the other end and stops now to rest. Pozzo barks abusive orders at Lucky, which are always followed, while acting civilly though tersely towards the other two. Pozzo enjoys a selfish snack of chicken and wine, before casting the bones to the ground, which Estragon gleefully claims. Having been in a dumbfounded state of silence since the arrival of Pozzo and Lucky, Vladimir finds his voice to shout criticisms at Pozzo for his mistreatment of Lucky. Pozzo explains his intention to sell Lucky, who begins to cry. Estragon takes pity and tries to wipe away Lucky's tears, but, as he approaches, Lucky violently kicks him in the shin. Pozzo rambles nostalgically but vaguely about his relationship with Lucky over the years, before offering Vladimir and Estragon some compensation for their company. Estragon begins to beg for money when Pozzo instead suggests that Lucky can "dance" and "think" for their entertainment.

Lucky's dance, "the Net", is shuffling. The monologue begins as a coherent and academic lecture on theology but dissolves into mindless verbosity, escalating in both volume and speed, that agonises the others until Vladimir pulls off Lucky's hat, stopping him in mid-sentence. Pozzo has Lucky pack up his bags, they hastily leave. Vladimir and Estragon, alone again, reflect on whether they have met Lucky before. A boy arrives, purporting to be a messenger sent from Godot to tell the pair that Godot will not be coming that evening "but tomorrow". During Vladimir's interrogation of the boy, he asks if he came the day before, making it apparent that the two men have been waiting for a long period and will continue. After the boy departs, the moon appears, the two men verbally agree to leave and find shelter for the night, but they stand without moving, it is daytime again and Vladimir begins singing a recursive round about the death of a dog, but twice forgets the lyrics as he sings. Again, Estragon claims to have been beaten last night, despite no apparent injury.

Vladimir comments that the bare tree now has leaves and tries to confirm his recollections of yesterday against Estragon's vague, unreliable memory. Vladimir triumphantly produces evidence of the previous day's events by showing Estragon the wound from when Lucky kicked him. Noticing Estragon's barefootedness, they discover his forsaken boots nearby, which Estragon insists are not his, although they fit him perfectly. With no carrots left, Vladimir is turned down in offering Estragon a radish, he sings Estragon to sleep with a lullaby before noticing further evidence to confirm his memory: Lucky's hat still lies on the ground. This leads to his waking involving him in a frenetic hat-swapping scene; the two wait again for Godot, while distracting themselves by playfully imitating Pozzo and Lucky, firing insults at each other and making up, attempting some fitness routines—all of which fail miserably and end quickly. Pozzo and Lucky reappear, but the rope is much shorter than during their last visit, Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being controlled by him.

As they arrive, Pozzo trips over Lucky and they together fall into a motionless


Ludkovice is a village and municipality in Zlín District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 11.85 square kilometres, has a population of 703. Ludkovice lies 14 kilometres south of Zlín and 262 km south-east of Prague, it is situated 5 km from the spa town Luhačovice. The village consists of two parts: Pradlisko; the name of the village is derived from the name Ludek and the name Pradlisko is derived from the place in the river used for washing. The first written records about Ludkovice come from 1412. Among the historical relics is Boží Muka from 1696 or a stone crucifix from 1761, situated in the village green. Ludkovice has a sports facility with a swimming pool. There is a cider house and a factory for drying fruit. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Zlín District