Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Bearden is a city in Ouachita County, United States. The population was 1,125 at the 2000 census, it is part of the Camden Micropolitan Statistical Area. Bearden is located at 33°43′34″N 92°37′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 966 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 58.7% White, 32.5% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian and 2.5% from two or more races. 5.8% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,125 people, 443 households, 295 families residing in the city; the population density was 976.7 people per square mile. There were 495 housing units at an average density of 429.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.07% White, 32.44% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 1.07% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 445 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,420, the median income for a family was $30,573. Males had a median income of $28,611 versus $14,886 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,904. About 18.3% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 19.2% of those age 65 or over.
Public education for elementary and secondary students is provided by the Bearden School District, which includes: Bearden Elementary School, serving kindergarten through grade 6. Bearden High School, serving grades 7 through 12. Marion H. Crank, born in Bearden in 1915 Reverend Dr. James Hal Cone, Father of Black Liberation Theology, distinguished professor of Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York for 50 years, raised in childhood in Bearden, Arkansas. Homer Harold Jones Jr, Mayor of Bearden for 11 years. Born March 2 1929 and passed away May 14, 2017
Ouachita County, Arkansas
Ouachita County is a county located in the south central part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,120; the county seat is Camden. Ouachita County is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Formed on November 29, 1842, the county is named for the Ouachita River; until the late 20th century, the county was a Democratic Party stronghold, aided by the state's having disenfranchised most African Americans at the turn of the century. As in much of the rest of the South, conservative whites, who comprise the majority of the population in the county, have shifted into the Republican Party. In 1972, U. S. President Richard M. Nixon became the first Republican presidential nominee in the 20th century to win a majority in Ouachita County. Much in the 2008 presidential election, U. S. Senator John McCain won the county by nearly ten percentage votes over Senator Barack Obama, following President George W. Bush's victory over Senator John F. Kerry in 2004; the politically influential Pryor family is based here.
S. senators, David Pryor and his son Mark Pryor. The elder Pryor served as a former governor of Arkansas and US Congressman; the county is served by The Camden News. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 740 square miles, of which 733 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 278 Highway 4 Highway 7 Highway 9 Highway 24 Dallas County Calhoun County Union County Columbia County Nevada County Clark County The county had its peak of population in 1950; as of the 2010 census, there were 26,120 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 56.3% White, 39.9% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.4% from two or more races. 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 28,790 people, 11,613 households, 8,071 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 13,450 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 59.74% White, 38.64% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,613 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,341, the median income for a family was $35,736.
Males had a median income of $30,976 versus $18,800 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,118. About 16.10% of families and 19.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.20% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over. Bearden Camden Chidester East Camden Stephens Louann Reader Cullendale Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Ouachita County are listed below. List of lakes in Ouachita County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Ouachita County, Arkansas USS Ouachita County Ouachita County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Ouachita County Sheriff's Office
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Reader is an unincorporated census-designated place in Nevada and Ouachita counties in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, its population is 66; the population was 82 at the 2000 census. The town disincorporated in 2002; the Nevada County portion of Reader is part of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area, while the Ouachita County portion is part of the Camden Micropolitan Statistical Area. Reader is located at 33°45′9″N 93°5′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of all land; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 66 people residing in the CDP. The racial makeup of the CDP was 48.5% White, 42.4% Black, 7.6% Asian and 1.5% from two or more races. As of the census of 2000, there were 82 people, 28 households, 19 families residing in the town; the population density was 35.0/mi². There were 43 housing units at an average density of 18.4/mi². The racial makeup of the town was 50.0% White and 50.0% Black or African American. There were 28 households out of which 57.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families.
28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.53. In the town the population was spread out with 42.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 6.1% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 127.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $14,375, the median income for a family was $14,583. Males had a median income of $25,938 versus $13,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,037. There were 39.1% of families and 38.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including 42.9% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. Public education for elementary and secondary school students in the Ouachita County section is available from Camden Fairview School District, which leads to graduation from Camden Fairview High School.
Residents in the Nevada County portion are zoned to the Prescott School District, which operates Prescott Elementary School, McRae Middle School, Prescott High School