Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside katakana; the Japanese term kanji for the Chinese characters means "Han characters". It is written with the same characters in the Chinese language to refer to the character writing system, hanzi. Chinese characters first came to Japan on official seals, swords, coins and other decorative items imported from China; the earliest known instance of such an import was the King of Na gold seal given by Emperor Guangwu of Han to a Yamato emissary in 57 AD. Chinese coins from the first century AD have been found in Yayoi period archaeological sites. However, the Japanese of that era had no comprehension of the script, would remain illiterate until the fifth century AD. According to the Nihon Shoki and Kojiki, a semi-legendary scholar called Wani was dispatched to Japan by the Kingdom of Baekje during the reign of Emperor Ōjin in the early fifth century, bringing with him knowledge of Confucianism and Chinese characters.
The earliest Japanese documents were written by bilingual Chinese or Korean officials employed at the Yamato court. For example, the diplomatic correspondence from King Bu of Wa to Emperor Shun of Liu Song in 478 has been praised for its skillful use of allusion. Groups of people called fuhito were organized under the monarch to read and write Classical Chinese. During the reign of Empress Suiko, the Yamato court began sending full-scale diplomatic missions to China, which resulted in a large increase in Chinese literacy at the Japanese court. In ancient times paper was so rare that people stenciled kanji onto thin, rectangular strips of wood; these wooden boards were used for communication between government offices, tags for goods transported between various countries, the practice of writing. The oldest written kanji in Japan discovered so far was written in ink on wood as a wooden strip dated to the 7th century, it is a record of trading for salt. The Japanese language had no written form at the time Chinese characters were introduced, texts were written and read only in Chinese.
During the Heian period, however, a system known as kanbun emerged, which involved using Chinese text with diacritical marks to allow Japanese speakers to restructure and read Chinese sentences, by changing word order and adding particles and verb endings, in accordance with the rules of Japanese grammar. Chinese characters came to be used to write Japanese words, resulting in the modern kana syllabaries. Around 650 AD, a writing system called man'yōgana evolved that used a number of Chinese characters for their sound, rather than for their meaning. Man'yōgana written in cursive style evolved into hiragana, or onna-de, that is, "ladies' hand," a writing system, accessible to women. Major works of Heian-era literature by women were written in hiragana. Katakana emerged via a parallel path: monastery students simplified man'yōgana to a single constituent element, thus the two other writing systems and katakana, referred to collectively as kana, are descended from kanji. In comparison to kana kanji are called mana.
In modern Japanese, kanji are used to write parts of the language such as nouns, adjective stems, verb stems, while hiragana are used to write inflected verb and adjective endings and as phonetic complements to disambiguate readings and miscellaneous words which have no kanji or whose kanji is considered obscure or too difficult to read or remember. Katakana are used for representing onomatopoeia, non-Japanese loanwords, the names of plants and animals, for emphasis on certain words. In 1946, after World War II and under the Allied Occupation of Japan, the Japanese government, guided by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, instituted a series of orthographic reforms, to help children learn and to simplify kanji use in literature and periodicals; the number of characters in circulation was reduced, formal lists of characters to be learned during each grade of school were established. Some characters were given simplified glyphs, called shinjitai. Many variant forms of characters and obscure alternatives for common characters were discouraged.
These are guidelines, so many characters outside these standards are still known and used. The kyōiku kanji are 1,006 characters; the list only contained 881 characters. This was expanded to 996 characters in 1977, it was not until 1982 the list was expanded to its current size. The grade-level breakdown of these kanji is known as the gakunen-betsu kanji haitōhyō, or the gakushū kanji; the jōyō kanji are 2,136 characters consisting of all the Kyōiku kanji, plus 1,130 additional kanji taught in junior high and high school. In publishing, characters outside this category are given furigana; the jōyō kanji were introduced in 1981, replacing an older list of 1,850 characters known as the tōyō kanji, introduced in 1946. Numbering 1,945 characters, the jōyō kanji list was extended to 2,136 in 2010; some of the new characters were Jinmeiyō kanji. Since September 27, 2004, the jinmeiyō k
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Uzumaki is a seinen horror manga series written and illustrated by Junji Ito. Appearing as a serial in the weekly manga magazine Big Comic Spirits from 1998 to 1999, the chapters were compiled into three bound volumes by Shogakukan and published from August 1998 to September 1999. In March 2000, Shogakukan released an omnibus edition, followed by a second omnibus version in August 2010. In North America, Viz Media serialized an English-language translation of the series in its monthly magazine Pulp from February 2001 to August 2002. Viz Media published the volumes from October 2001 to October 2002, with a re-release from October 2007 to February 2008, published a hardcover omnibus edition in October 2013; the series tells the story of the citizens of Kurōzu-cho, a fictional city, plagued by a supernatural curse involving spirals. The story for Uzumaki originated when Ito attempted to write a story about people living in a long terraced house, he was inspired to use a spiral shape to achieve the desired length.
Ito believes the horror of Uzumaki is effective due to its subversion of symbols which are positively portrayed in Japanese media, its theme of protagonists struggling against a mysterious force stronger than themselves. The manga was adapted into two video games for the WonderSwan and a Japanese live-action film directed by Higunchinsky; the manga has received positive reviews from English-language critics. It was nominated for an Eisner Award in 2003, placed in the Young Adult Library Services Association's list of the "Top 10 Graphic Novels for Teens" in 2009. Uzumaki follows Kirie Goshima; as the story progresses and Shuichi witness how the spiral curse affects the people around them, causing the citizens to become obsessed or paranoid about spirals. Kirie is affected by the curse as well, when her hair begins to curl into an unnatural spiral pattern, drains her life energy to hypnotize the citizens, chokes her whenever she attempts to cut it off. Shuichi is able to save her. Several citizens begin developing spirals on their backs, which continue growing until the afflicted people have turned into monstrous snails - this affects Kirie's younger brother, Mitsuo.
The curse continues to plague the town, until a storm conjured by the curse destroys most of its structures. The only remaining buildings are ancient abandoned terraced houses, which the citizens are forced first to move into, begin expanding as they grow more and more crowded. Kirie and Shuichi devise a plan to escape Kurōzu-cho, but when they attempt to escape, their efforts are unsuccessful. After returning to the town, they discover that several years have passed since they left, as time speeds up away from the spiral; the other citizens have expanded the terraced houses until they connect into a single structure forming a spiral pattern. Kirie and Shuichi decide to search for Kirie's parents, which brings them to the center of the spiral. At the center, they fall down a pit, within which they discover corpses of people whose bodies have been twisted into spirals - including Kirie's parents - and an ancient city covered with spiral patterns. Shuichi urges Kirie to move forward and find a way to stop the curse, but she replies that she does not have the strength and wishes to stay with him.
The two embrace each other, their bodies twist and wrap together as a result of the curse. As they lie together, Kirie notes that the curse ended at the same time it began, for just as time speeds up away from the center, it freezes at the center, concludes that the curse is eternal, all the events will repeat when a new Kurōzu-cho is built where the previous one lay. Uzumaki was illustrated by Junji Ito. Junji Ito's initial desire was to create a story about strange changes that would occur to people living in a long, traditional Japanese terraced house; this story would have been based on Ito's personal experience living in such a house as a child. During the process of finding a way to draw such a long building, Ito was inspired by the shape of a mosquito coil and decided he could make the building long by having it spiral. Ito has noted that the spiral is a "mysterious pattern" and described writing Uzumaki as an attempt to learn the secrets of the spiral. Ito sought inspiration by methods such as staring at spirals, researching spirals, creating spiral patterns by draining water from bath tubs, eating foods with spiral patterns, raising snails.
Looking back on the series in 2006, Ito stated that while he was still uncertain what the spiral stood for, he thought it might be representative of infinity. Uzumaki was influenced by the positive representation of spirals in media, which inspired Ito to subvert them to create horror, stating: "Usually spiral patterns mark character's cheeks in Japanese comedy cartoons, representing an effect of warmth. However, I thought it could be used in horror if I drew it a different way." The story in which Kirie's hair is cursed by the spiral reflects a recurring theme in Ito's work in which a heroine's hair has a life of its own. Ito uses this imagery because it lends itself well to horror due to its association with the Japanese feminine ideal, as well as the unnerving flowing motions of long hair, which he describes as snakelike. Ito noted that horror writer H. P. Lovecraft was one of his inspirations when creating Uzumaki, stating that the gradual development of the spiral curse was patterned on Lovecraft's storytelling and that " expressionism with regard to atmosphe
My-HiME is an anime series, created by Sunrise. Directed by Masakazu Obara and written by Hiroyuki Yoshino, the series premiered in Japan on TV Tokyo from September 2004 to March 2005; the show focuses on the lives of HiMEs—girls with the capacity to materialize photons—gathered at Fuka Academy for a secret purpose. The series was licensed for North American distribution by Bandai Entertainment and European distribution by Bandai's European subsidiary, with the first American DVD released at the end of March 2006. Bandai released the Complete Collection DVD set in America on October 7, 2008, it is shown on iaTV in the mid-2000s and on Comcast’s Anime Selects on Demand but only for a limited time. At Otakon 2013, Funimation Entertainment had announced that they have rescued My-HiME, along with a handful of other former BEI titles, they announced at the 2017 New York Comic Con that they will release My-HiMe, My-Otome, a My-Otome Zwei + My-Otome 0: S.ifr pack, all on Blu-Ray + DVD combo packs on January 8, 2018.
The story centers on Mai Tokiha, a ordinary high-school girl who has transferred to the prestigious Fuuka Academy with her sickly younger brother, Takumi Tokiha. The elite Fuuka Academy harbors a number of mysteries. Soon after arriving at the Academy, Mai finds herself bound to a Child, a part-spiritual, part-mechanical creature, that can only be summoned and controlled by girls with the HiME mark. Mai is told that there are twelve other girls who are marked, that they must use their powers to protect the unwitting human populace from Orphans, monstrous creatures with abilities similar to the HiME's Children. Mai is reluctant to become involved at first, because of her protective role towards her brother. However, the other HiME begin to manifest around her, each with different motivations and goals for using her powers; as the Orphans become more numerous and more aggressive Mai and her friends are drawn into the conflict, but Mai and the other HiME soon find out the Orphans are not the only kind of enemy they have to fight, as the cause of all of this is revealed, they find themselves facing the dark secret about their destiny.
The show's cast of characters is composed of students and staff at Fuuka Academy, with the emphasis on the female cast. Although most of the cast is introduced by the second episode, only a few characters are disclosed as HiMEs; the main characters are the hardworking, caring Mai Tokiha, the catlike Mikoto Minagi, the cold beauty Natsuki Kuga. Other characters are shown with a wide range of relationships. Director Masakazu Obara states that he "wanted to reverse the roles that men and women play," placing females in the lead roles. Mai is the protagonist of the Mai-Hime anime series, she is portrayed as a self-reliant person, hesitant to tell others about her problems. She is a first-year high school student, her roommate is Mikoto Minagi, her stated hobbies are taking care of Takumi. Mikoto is a third-grade middle school student, she loves to be with Mai at her side or clinging to her. She has a problem with spicy food, consuming it sends her into rampages while looking for water. Natsuki is portrayed as a serious, rational blue-haired female.
Natsuki doesn't want to work with Mikoto or Mai, but as the series progresses the three fight off the various Orphans at the academy, become friends. A My-Hime manga series was developed by Sunrise, it was first serialized in Akita Shoten's Shōnen Champion and published in North America by TOKYOPOP. It follows an alternate storyline at Fuka Academy where Mai and Natsuki become roommates. An anime spin-off, entitled My-Otome, premiered in Japan from October 2005 to March 2006; this series contains many characters with the same name and similar appearance as the characters of My-HiME, but it is set in a far future timeline. A PlayStation 2 video game, Mai-HiME: Unmei no Keitōju was developed by Marvelous Interactive and released in Japan on June 30, 2005; this adventure game follows a storyline different from the manga series. A remake, Mai-Hime - Unmei no Keitouju Shura, was released for the PC. Two PlayStation Portable fighting games, Mai-HiME Bakuretsu! Fuuka Gakuen Gekitoushi?! and Mai-HiME Senretsu!
Shin Fuuka Gakuen Gekitoushi!!, both developed by Sunrise Interactive, were released. A parody trailer for a Mai-Hime movie was included in the first DVD of Mai-Otome, with the title Fuuka Wars or The Great Battle of Fuuka with a release date of 20006. A second manga series titled, it was first serialized in Dengeki Daioh in 2010. Official My-Hime website TV Tokyo's My-Hime website My-HiME at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Jarinko Chie is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Etsumi Haruki. It was serialized by Futabasha in Manga Action between 1978 and 1997 and collected in 67 bound volumes, making it the 45th longest manga released. Jarinko Chie received the 1981 Shogakukan Manga Award for general manga. Jarinko Chie was adapted twice, first as an anime theatrical movie produced by Tokyo Movie Shinsha and Toho and directed by Isao Takahata, which premiered in Japan on April 11, 1981; this was followed by a 64-episode anime television series produced by Tokyo Movie Shinsha, broadcast in Japan between October 3, 1981 and March 25, 1983. A sequel anime television series with 39 episodes followed in October 19, 1991 to September 22, 1992; the official English title of the anime is Downtown Story. A girl with a short temper. Chie's father, he is a member of the Yakuza. Chie's pet cat, his trademark is a moon on the forehead. None of the video games were released outside Japan. Manga official website at Futabasha Anime official website Jarinko Chie at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Jarinko Chie on IMDb
Persona 4 is a role-playing video game developed and published by Atlus for Sony's PlayStation 2, chronologically the fifth installment in the Persona series, itself a part of the larger Megami Tensei franchise. The game was released in Japan in July 2008, North America in December 2008, Europe in March 2009. Persona 4 takes place in a fictional Japanese countryside and is indirectly related to earlier Persona games; the player-named protagonist is a high-school student who moved into the countryside from the city for a year. During his year-long stay, he becomes involved in investigating mysterious murders while harnessing the power of summoning Persona; the game features a weather forecast system with events happening on foggy days to replace the moon phase system implemented in the previous games. The plot of Persona 4 was inspired by the work of mystery novelists owing to its murder mystery premise; the rural setting was based on a town on the outskirts of Mount Fuji and intended as a "'nowhere' place" and is the central setting to have players sympathize with the daily life of the characters.
The developers added many in-game events to prevent the game from becoming stale. During the localization, numerous alterations to names and cultural references were made to preserve the effect through translation, but some Japanese cultural references were altered or removed; the release of the game in Japan was accompanied by merchandise such as character costumes and accessories. The North American package of the game was released with a CD with selected music from the game, unlike Persona 3, the European package contained a soundtrack CD; the game's score was composed by Shoji Meguro, with vocals performed by Shihoko Hirata. The game was positively developed into a full franchise. An enhanced version of the game for the PlayStation Vita, Persona 4 Golden, was released in 2012. Various other manga and light novel adaptations and spin-offs have been produced. An anime television adaptation by AIC ASTA, titled Persona 4: The Animation, began airing in Japan in October 2011, with an anime adaptation of Persona 4 Golden airing in July 2014.
The game has spawned two fighting game sequels, Persona 4 Arena and Persona 4 Arena Ultimax, a rhythm game, Persona 4: Dancing All Night. Persona 4 blends traditional RPG gameplay with simulation elements; the player controls the game's protagonist, a teenage boy, named by the player, who comes to the town of Inaba for a year. Gameplay is divided between the real world of Inaba, where the protagonist carries out his daily life, the mysterious "TV World", where various dungeons filled with monsters known as Shadows await. With the exception of scripted events, such as plot progression or special events, players can choose to spend their day how they like, be it participating in various real world activities, such as joining school clubs, taking part-time jobs, or reading books, or exploring the TV World's dungeons to gain experience and items. Days are broken up into various times of day, the most recurring being "After School/Daytime" and "Evening", with most activities causing time to move on.
Certain activities are limited depending on the time of day, days of the week, the weather, with most evening activities unavailable if the player visits the TV World that day. Furthermore, some activities and dialogue choices may be limited by the protagonist's five attributes. Whilst the player is free to choose how to spend their time, if they fail to rescue someone, trapped in the TV World by the time fog appears in town, which takes place after several days of consecutive rain, that person will get killed by the shadows and the game will end, forcing the player to return to a week prior; as the game progresses, the protagonist forms friendships with other characters known as "Social Links", which are each represented by one of the Major Arcana. As these bonds strengthen, the Social Links increase in Rank, which grant bonuses when creating new Personas in the Velvet Room. Additionally, strengthening Social Links with the main party members grant them additional abilities, such as the ability to perform a follow-up attack or an additional ability for their Persona.
The main focus of the game revolves around Personas, avatars projected from one's inner self that resemble mythological figures and represent the façades worn by individuals to face life's hardships. Each Persona possesses its own skills, as well as weaknesses to certain attributes; as Personas gain experience from battle and level up, that Persona can learn new skills, which include offensive or support abilities used in battle, or passive skills that grant the character benefits. Each Persona can carry up to eight skills at a time, with older skills needing to be forgotten in order to learn new ones. Whilst each of the main party members have their own unique Persona, which transforms into a stronger form after maxing out their Social Link, the protagonist has the "Wild Card" ability to wield multiple Personas, which he can switch between during battle to access different movesets; the player can earn new Personas from Shuffle Time, with the protagonist able to carry more Personas as he levels up.
Outside of the dungeons, the player can visit the Velvet Room, where players can create new Personas, or summon acquired Personas for a fee. New Personas are created by fusing two or more monsters to create a new one, which receives some of the skills passed down from its material monsters; the level of Personas that can be created are limited by the protagonist's current level. If the player has built up a Social Link relating to a particular Arcana a Pers