Kent Fire and Rescue Service
The total coastline covered is 225 km, it has 55 fire stations, and 4 district fire safety offices. The FRS provides emergency cover to a population of nearly 2 million, the area meets the boundaries of the London Fire Brigade to the north of the county, Surrey to the north west and East Sussex to the south west of Kent. The first fire brigade appeared in Kent in 1802 when the Kent Fire Office formed a brigade in Deptford. In the same year, and completely separately from insurance companies, Hythe became the first town in Kent to set up its own fire brigade, by the 20th century, it was quite fashionable for local authorities to have their own fire brigades. Maidstone had seen the formation of its fire brigade in 1901 when the Royal Insurance Company provided a new Shand Mason horse-drawn steam fire engine. This company had taken over the Kent Fire Office in the same year, things often became very competitive between individual town and village brigades, in many instances, each one trying to outdo its neighbour.
In 1910, Bromley became the first town in Kent to house motorised fire engines, until 1938, the provision of a fire brigade was a discretionary power, and naturally there were a few local authorities that regarded it as an unnecessary expense. However, due to the threat of war, Parliament enacted the Fire Brigades Act 1938 and made it a duty and so created over 1,600 individual fire authorities across the nation. It was these local brigades and the Auxiliary Fire Service – formed in 1938 – that valiantly coped with the consequences of the Battle of Britain, in August 1941, local brigades and the AFS were absorbed into one organisation called The National Fire Service. It was in 1941 that the current Headquarters house The Godlands was requisitioned for use by the National Fire Service. World War II brought dark days indeed for Kent fire-fighters, of the 122 Kent names listed,15 were pre-1939,16 were post-1939 and 91 died during World War II. The last death on duty of a Kent fire-fighter was in 1990, the County of Kent and the City and County Borough of Canterbury combined to form Kent Fire Brigade, taking over 79 fire stations from the National Fire Service.
Further reorganisation in 1974 saw Canterbury lose its county borough status, in 1998, the structure of local government changed again and Kent combined with the new Medway Towns unitary authority for fire brigade provision. On 1 October 2003, Kent Fire Brigade was renamed Kent Fire and these changes were reflected nationally by the enactment of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 which came into effect on 1 October 2004. Each group consists of a number of clusters, which are made up of a number of stations where resources are locally managed. Dymchurch, Eastry and Paddock Wood, have identified as having a greater need for ambulance cover. The aim of a team is to preserve life until the arrival of either a Rapid Response Vehicle or an Ambulance
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
In some areas, they are trained in Emergency Medical Services and operate ambulances in addition to being a firefighter. The fire service, or fire and rescue service, known in countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, from wildlands to urban areas, according to Merriam-Websters Dictionary, the English word firefighter has been used since 1903. In urban areas across the world the population is protected by paid full time firefighters. The goals of firefighting are, As such, the skills required for operations are regularly practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighters career. In the United States, the preeminent fire training and standards organization is the National Fire Protection Association, often initial firefighting skills are taught during a local, regional, or state approved fire academy. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue, Firefighters work closely with other emergency response agencies, most particularly local and state police departments.
The increasing role of firefighters in providing medical services brings firefighters into common overlap with law enforcement. One example of this is a state law requiring all gunshot wounds to be reported to law enforcement agencies. Fire fighting has some skills, self-preservation, preservation of property, basic first aid. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, ventilation, wildland firefighting includes size up, containment and mop up. Search and Rescue, which has already mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing. Fire suppression systems have a record for controlling and extinguishing unwanted fires. Many fire officials recommend that every building, including residences, have sprinkler systems. Correctly working sprinklers in a residence greatly reduce the risk of death from a fire, with the small rooms typical of a residence, one or two sprinklers can cover most rooms. Other methods of prevention are by directing efforts to reduce known hazardous conditions or by preventing dangerous acts before tragedy strikes.
Tools are generally carried at all times and are important for not only forcible entry, a self-contained breathing apparatus delivers air to the firefighter through a full face mask and is worn to protect against smoke inhalation, toxic fumes, and super heated gases. The PASS device sounds an alarm that can assist another firefighter, Firefighters often carry personal self-rescue ropes
7 July 2005 London bombings
The explosions were caused by homemade organic peroxide-based devices packed into backpacks. The bombings were followed two weeks by a series of attempted attacks that failed to cause injury or damage, the 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games, which had highlighted the citys multicultural reputation. The train had left Kings Cross St. Pancras about eight minutes earlier, at the time of the explosion, the trains third car was approximately 100 yards along the tunnel from Liverpool Street. The parallel track of the Hammersmith & City line between Liverpool Street and Aldgate East was damaged in the blast, the train had left Kings Cross St. Pancras about eight minutes previously. There were several other nearby at the time of the explosion. Two other trains were at Edgware Road, a train on platform 2. A third bomb was detonated on a 6-car London Underground 1973 Stock Piccadilly line deep-level Underground train, number 311, the device exploded approximately one minute after the service departed Kings Cross, by which time it had travelled about 500 yards.
The explosion occurred at the rear of the first car of the train—number 166—causing severe damage to the rear of car as well as the front of the second one. The surrounding tunnel sustained damage and it was originally thought that there had been six, rather than three, explosions on the Underground network. The bus bombing brought the total to seven, this was clarified in the day. Police revised the timings of the blasts, initial reports had indicated that they occurred during a period of almost half an hour. This was due to initial confusion at London Underground, where the explosions were believed to have been caused by power surges. An early report, made in the minutes after the explosions, involved a person under a train, while another described a derailment. A code amber alert was declared by LU at 09,19, as the tunnel contains two parallel tracks, it is relatively wide. The two explosions on the Circle line were able to vent their force into the tunnel. The Piccadilly line is a tunnel, up to 30 m below the surface and with narrow single-track tubes.
This confined space reflected the blast force, concentrating its effect, the bus had passed through the Kings Cross area as it travelled from Hackney Wick to Marble Arch. At its final destination, the bus turned around and started the route to Hackney Wick
Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service
The service is led by the Chief Fire Officer, currently Paul Hancock, and the Service Management Team. It is managed by the Cheshire Fire Authority, which is composed of councillors from the communities of Cheshire. They make decisions on such as policy and resources. Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service employs over 980 staff and looks after a population of 984,300 people spread across an area of 2,334 square kilometres and it has 27 fire stations and a headquarters in Winsford. The region features several large areas such as Warrington and Chester. It is in proximity to two major airports and Liverpool. At that time there were 23,500 firemen in England and Wales, with an additional 18,000 part-time personnel and it was recognised that these numbers were to prove too small for future requirements. Cheshire County Fire Department was formed on 1 April 1948 after a period of nationalisation spanning six, the years following the Second World War were a time of great shortages. A plea was made to the new Fire Brigades from His Majestys Stationery Office that when disposing of NFS documents all pins, paperclips, severe problems arose in finding suitable housing for the firemen and their families.
This continued to be a problem into the next decade, the summer of 1949/50 was exceptionally dry and this led to a considerable increase in the number of fires, with a 33% rise in the number of calls. There was an increase of malicious calls, with 53 being noted in that year and it was a worrying trend that was to continue until 1956/57. At that time about a third of fires were either chimney fires or were caused by playing with matches. Sparks from railway locomotives were a problem, a growing area of work was special service calls, many involving the rescue of animals from precarious positions. Fire prevention was stepped up with the number of inspections almost doubling in 1950, in 1952 a Fire Safety campaign was launched with films shown in every cinema including Every Five Minutes and Fire The Enemy. Recruitment was an issue facing the Brigade. A major recruitment drive was launched in 1950 but many officers were leaving the service for more employment in industry. Another problem was the suitability of candidates, in 1953/54, of the 102 who applied to join only 20 were found to be satisfactory.
After protracted negotiations with the Police, limited participation in a trial of wireless communication was agreed, for the first time fire stations would be linked by radio and by the mid-50s 25 fire appliances had radio communications
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Fire Service College
The Fire Service College is responsible for providing leadership and advanced operational training courses for senior fire officers from the United Kingdom and foreign fire authorities. It is located at Moreton-in-Marsh in Gloucestershire, the nearest railway station is Moreton-in-Marsh. It has been owned by Capita since February 2013, having previously been an agency and trading fund of the Department for Communities. The College provides the range of training for firefighters at all levels. Whilst Scotland has its own Fire Service College at Gullane near Edinburgh, many Scottish fire officers go to Moreton on the more specialist, the College has a wide range of facilities for theoretical education and practical training in fire fighting, fire safety and accident and emergency work. Under the Fire Brigades Act 1938, the UK Government set up a centre at Saltdean near Brighton in 1941. With the return to local authority control after World War II, the college at Saltdean became too small and the Home Office opened the Senior Staff College at Wotton House, Dorking in Surrey in 1949, to train senior officers from all over the country.
On 4 June 1966, they decided to do the same for the lower ranks, the College was built on a disused RAF wartime airfield about 3 km outside the village of Moreton-in-Marsh. RAF Moreton-in-Marsh was, as the station of 21 Operational Training Unit. The Station flew operations, and sent aircraft on the bomber raids on the German cities of Cologne, Dresden. The airbase remained operational until the late 1950s, the government used the base to teach fire fighting to military personnel undergoing their National Service. The Home Office opened the College on the 500 acre site in 1968, the Staff College at Dorking was closed in 1981 and all training was transferred to Moreton. In April 1992, the College became an agency and trading fund under The Fire Service Trading Fund Order 1992. On 16 May 2009, fire broke out at one of the workshops in the college, in December 2012 Capita was selected as the preferred bidder and the sale was completed for £10 million on 28 February 2013. Educationally, the college boasts state of the art facilities and specialised areas such as IT suites.
The tutors are drawn from both the world and from officers serving in fire and rescue services around the country. Courses available range from Firefighter recruits through junior officer development to senior management courses right up to Chief Officer level. To support the side, there as a large administration complex
London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers
West Midlands Fire Service
The service was created in 1974 when the West Midlands county came into being. Prior to its creation, each of the county boroughs in the West Midlands area had their own fire brigade, the largest of these brigades was the City of Birmingham Fire Brigade. WMFS was created by a merger of these, plus parts of Warwickshire Fire Brigade, the service was originally headquartered in the former City of Birmingham Fire Brigade headquarters at Lancaster Circus which were opened on 2 December 1935 by HRH Duke of Kent. It is now a Listed building, the service moved to purpose built, modern headquarters on Vauxhall Road, Nechells, in 2008. Firefighters are part of a Watch system that consists of core crews, staff that are part of the core crews will be on duty for two days from 8am until 6pm, two nights from 6pm until 8am. Late crews are on duty from 10am until 10pm for four days in a row. Firefighters that are part of the crews will belong to either a Red, White or Blue Watch. As with many other services, West Midlands Fire Service uses a rank structure that has evolved over time – the original titles are still used some brigades.
A further four watches are based at Wednesbury, with shifts running along the same colour watches as the core fire crews, watch based personnel work a 96-hour duty period with 48 hours on full duty and the remainder on retained cover. Retained personnel can respond to base within 30 minutes of being required for multiple incident deployment, the unit makes use of a wide range of vehicles and equipment to carry out their role. Technical Response Pump - based on a modified Volvo FL Pump Rescue Relay and this will respond to life-threatening incidents in the local station ground alongside the regular TRU callouts. 5 Urban Search and Rescue Modules - see http, //www. romar. org. uk/page132. html for more information, there are 18 team members in West Midland Fire Services UK-ISAR, split into a Red Team and a Blue Team. The role of the team is to respond to support the UK Government when deploying personnel, the team should arrive in the affected country within 24 hours of the disaster occurring and be self-sufficient for periods of up to 10 days.
Extensive specialist training over and above that required for firefighters is given to all team members. 12 members of the West Midlands team were deployed as part of the UKISAR mission to Haiti in the wake of the earthquake there on 12 January 2010. The team were joined by 2 further members who had been in Sweden as part of an exercise at the time of the earthquake. The team were involved in the rescue of people, including two-year-old Mia. The West Midlands Fire Research and Investigation Section was the first one formed in the United Kingdom in 1983, FRIS works closely with the Police, other Services and organisations such as insurance companies, when investigating fires