Northeast (Washington, D.C.)
Northeast is the northeastern quadrant of Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. It encompasses the area east of North Capitol Street. Northeast includes the 35 neighborhoods of: A significant section of Capitol Hill is located in Northeast, as is part of NoMa. Northeast is home to Gallaudet University, a federally chartered private university for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing located in the Trinidad neighborhood, it is home to The Catholic University of America and Trinity Washington University, two of the Catholic institutions which give the Brookland neighborhood its nickname of "Little Rome" or "Little Vatican." Others include the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, the Saint John Paul II National Shrine, the Mount St. Sepulchre Franciscan Monastery, the headquarters of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops; the quadrant is home to two large public gardens located below the waistline of the Anacostia River: the United States National Arboretum and Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens.
The headquarters of The Heritage Foundation and The Washington Times are located in Northeast. Northeast is bounded by North Capitol Street on the west, Eastern Avenue to the east, East Capitol Street to the south. Other principal roads include the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. Northeast is served by all six lines of the Washington Metro: the Orange, Red, Blue and Green Lines. Union Station is a major intermodal hub; the DC Streetcar's H Street NE/Benning Road Line serves the area. Politically, Northeast includes most of Ward 5, much of Ward 6 and Ward 7, parts of Ward 4; the population of Northeast is predominantly African-American east of the Anacostia River. SW—Southwest, Washington, D. C. SE—Southeast, Washington, D. C. NW—Northwest, Washington, D. C. Stanton Park Report on WAMU: Northeast DC Heritage Trail Opening
John James Marshall was an American politician who served as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835. Marshall remains the longest-serving chief justice and fourth-longest serving justice in Supreme Court history, he is regarded as one of the most influential justices to sit on the Supreme Court. Prior to joining the Supreme Court, Marshall served as the United States Secretary of State under President John Adams. Marshall was born in Fauquier County, Virginia in 1755. After the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he joined the Continental Army, serving in numerous battles. During the stages of the war, he was admitted to the state bar and won election to the Virginia House of Delegates. Marshall favored the ratification of the United States Constitution, he played a major role in Virginia's ratification of that document. At the request of President Adams, Marshall traveled to France in 1797 to help bring an end to attacks on American shipping. In what became known as the XYZ Affair, the government of France refused to open negotiations unless the United States agreed to pay bribes.
After returning to the United States, Marshall won election to the United States House of Representatives and emerged as a Federalist leader in Congress. He was appointed secretary of state in 1800 after a cabinet shake-up, becoming an important figure in the Adams administration. In 1801, Adams appointed Marshall to the Supreme Court. Marshall emerged as the key figure on the court, due in large part to his personal influence with the other justices. Under his leadership, the court moved away from seriatim opinions, instead issuing a single majority opinion that elucidated a clear rule; the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison presented the first major case heard by the Marshall Court. In his opinion for the court, Marshall upheld the principle of judicial review, whereby courts could strike down federal and state laws if they conflicted with the Constitution. Marshall's holding avoided direct conflict with the executive branch, led by Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson. By establishing the principle of judicial review while avoiding an inter-branch confrontation, Marshall helped cement the position of the American judiciary as an independent and co-equal branch of government.
After 1803, many of the major decisions issued by the Marshall Court confirmed the supremacy of the federal government and the federal Constitution over the states. In Fletcher v. Peck and Dartmouth College v. Woodward, the court invalidated state actions because they violated the Contract Clause; the court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland upheld the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States and established the principle that the states could not tax federal institutions; the cases of Martin v. Hunter's Lessee and Cohens v. Virginia established that the Supreme Court could hear appeals from state courts in both civil and criminal matters. Marshall's opinion in Gibbons v. Ogden established that the Commerce Clause bars states from restricting navigation. In the case of Worcester v. Georgia, Marshall held that the federal government had the sole power to deal with Native Americans, he ordered the release of prisoners held by the state of Georgia. President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the order, but his administration avoided a confrontation with the Marshall Court by arranging for the pardon of the prisoners.
Marshall died in 1835, Jackson appointed Roger Taney as his successor. John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755 in a log cabin in Germantown, a rural community on the Virginia frontier, close to present-day near Midland, Fauquier County. In the mid-1760s, the Marshalls moved west to the present-day site of Virginia, his parents were Thomas Marshall and Mary Randolph Keith, the granddaughter of politician Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe and a first cousin of U. S. President Thomas Jefferson. Despite her ancestry, Mary was shunned by the Randolph family because her mother, Mary Isham Randolph, had eloped with a man believed beneath her station in life. After his death, Mary Isham Randolph married a Scottish minister. Thomas Marshall was employed in Fauquier County as a surveyor and land agent by Lord Fairfax, which provided him with a substantial income. Nonetheless, John Marshall grew up in a two-room log cabin, which he shared with his parents and several siblings. One of his younger brothers, James Markham Marshall, would serve as a federal judge.
Marshall was a first cousin of U. S. Senator Humphrey Marshall. From a young age, Marshall was noted for his good humor and black eyes, which were "strong and penetrating, beaming with intelligence and good nature". With the exception of one year of formal schooling, during which time he befriended future president James Monroe, Marshall did not receive a formal education. Encouraged by his parents, the young Marshall read reading works such as William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England and Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man, he was tutored by the Reverend James Thomson, a ordained deacon from Glasgow, who resided with the Marshall family in return for his room and board. Marshall was influenced by his father, of whom he wrote, "to his care I am indebted for anything valuable which I may have acquired in my youth, he was my only intelligent companion. Thomas Marshall prospered in his work as a surveyor, in the 1770s he purchased an estate known as Oak Hill. After the 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord and John Marshall volunteered for service in the 3rd Virginia Regiment.
In 1776, Marshall became a lieutenant in the Eleventh Vi
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes
United States Supreme Court Building
The Supreme Court Building houses the Supreme Court of the United States. Completed in 1935, it is in Washington, D. C. at 1 First Street, NE, in the block east of the United States Capitol. The building is under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol. On May 4, 1987, the Supreme Court Building was designated a National Historic Landmark; the building is the official residence and workplace of the Supreme Court Justices of the United States. This building was referred to as The Marble Palace by John P. Frank, is located at One First Street within a mile proximity of the Library of Congress, NE Washington; the physical construction of this building began in 1932 and was completed in 1935, however the idea to create this building originated from William Howard Taft in 1912 and was completed under the guidance of Chief Justice Hughes. The building was designed by Cass Gilbert, a well-known architect and friend to Justice Taft; the Supreme Court Building is the official residence and workplace of the Supreme Court Justices of the United States.
The building was referred to as The Marble Palace by John P. Frank. Prior to the establishment of the Federal City, the United States government resided in New York City; the Supreme Court met there in the Merchants Exchange Building. When the capital moved to Philadelphia, the Court moved with it and began meeting in Independence Hall, before settling in Old City Hall at 5th and Chestnut Streets from 1791 until 1800. After the federal government moved to Washington, D. C. the court had no permanent meeting location until 1810. When the architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe had the second U. S. Senate chamber built directly on top of the first US Senate chamber, the Supreme Court took up residence in what is now referred to as the Old Supreme Court Chamber from 1810 through 1860, it remained in the Capitol until 1935, with the exception of a period from 1812 to 1819, during which the Court was absent from W ashington because of the British invasion and the destruction of the Capitol during the War of 1812.
In 1810, the Supreme Court first occupied the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol. As the Senate expanded, it progressively outgrew its quarters. In 1860, after the new wings of the Capitol for the Senate and the House of Representatives had been completed, the Supreme Court moved to the Old Senate Chamber where it remained until its move to the current Supreme Court building; the physical construction of this building began in 1932 and was completed in 1935, however the idea to create this building originated from Chief Justice William Howard Taft in 1912 and was completed under the guidance of Chief Justice Hughes. In 1929, Chief Justice Taft argued for the Court to have its own headquarters to distance itself from Congress as an independent branch of government, but he did not live to see it built; the court was designed by Cass Gilbert, a well-known architect and friend to Justice Taft, created many other structures in the United States. From 1860 to 1935, the Supreme Court Justices were designated to conduct their work within the cramped space of the old Senate Chamber alongside other federal government employees.
This environment discouraged the Supreme Court Justices from travelling to Washington, so they conducted most of their work from their homes. Before the Supreme Court building was approved, Charles Evans Hughes, an Associate Justice from 1910 to 1914, was vocally outspoken about the poor conditions of the justices's working environment and described the Old Senate Chamber as small and barren. Through the rigorous lobbying efforts of Chief Justice Taft, he was able to secure the funding needed from Congress for a Supreme Court building in 1929. Taft's motivations for a Supreme Court building were fueled by the relationship between the judicial branch and the other branches of government, as well as the drastic differences in his working environment from when he served as President of the United States to when he served as the Chief Supreme Court Justice; as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Taft envisioned the judicial branch of government to embody a persona of independence, therefore saw the Supreme Court building as a means of establishing his vision.
The Supreme Court building would not have been completed without the further commitment of Charles Evans Hughes, who succeeded Taft as Chief Justice in 1930. Chief Justice White was part of the initial resistance to the idea of a Supreme Court building, he argued. Many Justices in addition to Justice White refused to conduct their work within the building, remained in their homes; the familiarity of their work spaces at home discouraged the justices from operating in a new location, they were given funding by Congress to work from their homes. Justices Harlan Stone and Louis Brandeis did not move into the new Supreme Court Building during their service on the court. Brandeis believed that Taft's intentions behind the new building represented a conflict between the judicial branch and the executive and legislative branches of government. Brandeis opposed Taft's efforts to secure a new Supreme Court building by suggesting that a new wing should be added to the capitol to avoid having to work from his home.
A decade after the Supreme Court building was complete, all nine justices occupied an office within its body. This is because the justices that did not favor the new Supreme Court Building were replaced by new justices who were not as familiar with working from home; the main opposition to the crea
Judiciary Square is a neighborhood in Northwest Washington, D. C. the vast majority of, occupied by various federal and municipal courthouses and office buildings. Judiciary Square is located between Pennsylvania Avenue to the south, H Street to the north, 6th Street to the west, the Interstate 395 access tunnel to the east; the center of the neighborhood is an actual plaza named Judiciary Square. The square itself is bounded by 4th Street to east, 5th Street to the west, D Street to the south, F Street to the north; the neighborhood is served by the Judiciary Square station on the Red Line of the Washington Metro. Judiciary Square is home to Georgetown University Law Center, located on New Jersey Avenue NW. During the first half of the 19th century, Judiciary Square had a residential population, its proximity to the courthouses attracted lawyers and clerks to the neighborhood, while its location between the White House and the United States Capitol made it ideal for government employees. Among its most prominent residents were Senator Thomas Hart Benton, Vice President John C.
Calhoun, Daniel Webster. As of 2006, nearly all of the rowhouses in the area were gone, with the remaining houses centered on the intersection of 5th and D Streets. Around the turn of the 20th century, the eastern side of Judiciary Square became an enclave of Italian immigrants in Washington; the Italian neighborhood rested on the eastern edge of the square proper, stretching eastward to about 2nd Street NW. The heart of the community was Holy Rosary Church, a chapel built at 3rd and F Streets NW; the neighborhood grew throughout the 20th century, with a particular surge of Italian immigrants in the 1950s and 60s. However, the construction of Interstate 395 through the city in the 1970s razed about half of the neighborhood and forced its remaining residents to move away from the heavy commuter traffic. Today, the former Italian enclave is dominated by Federal office buildings and law offices; the Holy Rosary Church remains standing and continues to draw a Italian congregation along with its "Casa Italiana" cultural center next door.
Among the buildings in Judiciary Square are: District and State buildings: H. Carl Moultrie Courthouse, which houses the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, the local trial court District of Columbia City Hall, which now houses the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, the District's highest court Henry J. Daly Building, Metropolitan Police Department Headquarters Jackson Graham Building, headquarters of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Federal buildings: E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse, which houses both the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims United States Tax Court Building, which houses the United States Tax Court United States Court of Military Appeals building, which houses the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington field office Frances Perkins Building, which houses the United States Department of Labor US General Accounting Office Building, which houses the headquarters of the Government Accountability Office and of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Other buildings: One Judiciary Square, a modern glass structure which houses various D.
C. government offices. The plaza is flanked on the East and West by the District of Columbia Courts Buildings B and A respectively. Located within the grounds are the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial and the F Street entrance to the Judiciary Square station; the District government finalized a deal in 2010 with the Louis Dreyfus Group to construct a 2,100,000-square-foot mixed-use development in the airspace over the Center Leg Freeway. The $425 million office and retail project at the east end of the Judiciary Square neighborhood will restore the area's original L'Enfant Plan street grid by reconnecting F and G Streets over the freeway; the project awaited final regulatory approval for several years and was underway in 2016
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite was an attorney and politician from Ohio. He served as the seventh Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to his death in 1888. During his tenure, the Waite Court took a narrow interpretation of federal authority related to laws and amendments that were passed during the Reconstruction Era to expand the rights of freedmen and protect them from attacks by vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Born in Lyme, Waite established a legal practice in Toledo, Ohio after graduating from Yale University; as a member of the Whig Party, Waite won election to the Ohio Senate. An opponent of slavery, he helped establish the Ohio Republican Party, he served as a counsel in the Alabama Claims and presided over the 1873 Ohio constitutional convention. After the May 1873 death of Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, President Ulysses S. Grant underwent a prolonged search for Chase's successor. With the backing of Secretary of the Interior Columbus Delano, Grant nominated Waite in January 1874.
The nomination of the obscure Waite was poorly received by some prominent politicians, but the Senate unanimously confirmed Waite and he took office in March 1874. Despite some support for his nomination, he declined to run for president in the 1876 election, arguing that the Supreme Court should not serve as a mere stepping stone to higher office, he served on the court until his death of pneumonia in 1888. Waite did not emerge as an important intellectual force on the Supreme Court, but he was well regarded as an administrator and conciliator, he sought a balance between federal and state power and joined with most other Justices in narrowly interpreting the Reconstruction Amendments. His majority opinion in Munn v. Illinois upheld government regulation of grain elevators and railroads and influenced constitutional understandings of government regulation, he helped establish the legal concept of corporate personhood in the United States. Morrison Remick Waite was born on November 29, 1816, at Lyme, the son of Henry Matson Waite, an attorney, his wife Maria Selden.
His father was appointed as a judge of the Superior Court and associate judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut, serving 1834–1854. Morrison had a brother Richard, with whom he practiced law. Waite attended Bacon Academy in Colchester, where one of his classmates was Lyman Trumbull, he graduated from Yale University in 1837 in a class with Samuel J. Tilden, the 1876 Democratic presidential nominee; as a student at Yale, Waite became a member of the Skull and Bones and Brothers in Unity societies, was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 1837. Shortly after graduating, Waite became a law clerk for his father in 1837. Soon afterward Waite moved to Maumee, where he studied law as an apprentice in the office of Samuel L. Young, he was admitted to the bar in 1839, went into practice with his mentor. The law firm became prominent in property law, he was elected to one term as mayor of Maumee. He married Amelia Champlin Warner on September 21, 1840 in Connecticut, they had three sons together: Henry Seldon, Christopher Champlin, Edward Tinker.
In 1850, Waite and his family moved to Toledo, where he set up a branch office of his law firm with Young. He soon came to be recognized as a leader of the state bar; when Young retired in 1856, Waite built a prosperous new firm with his brother Richard Waite. An active member of the Whig Party, Waite was elected to a term in the Ohio Senate in 1849–1850, he made two unsuccessful bids for the United States Senate, was offered a seat on the Ohio Supreme Court. In the mid-1850s, because of his opposition to slavery, Waite joined the fledgling Republican Party and helped to organize it in his home state. By 1870, he was known as one of the best lawyers in Ohio. In 1871, Waite received an invitation to represent the United States as counsel before the Alabama Tribunal at Geneva. In his first national role, he gained acclaim. In 1872, he was unanimously selected to preside over the Ohio 1873 constitutional convention. President Ulysses S. Grant nominated Waite as Chief Justice on January 19, 1874, after a political circus related to the appointment.
Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase died in May 1873, Grant waited six months before first offering the seat in November to the powerful Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York, who declined. After ruling out a promotion of a sitting Associate Justice to Chief, Grant offered the Chief Justiceship to senators Oliver Morton of Indiana and Timothy Howe of Wisconsin to his Secretary of State, Hamilton Fish, he submitted his nomination of Attorney General George H. Williams to the Senate on December 1. A month however, Grant withdrew the nomination, at Williams' request, after charges of corruption made his confirmation all but certain to fail. One day after withdrawing Williams, Grant nominated Democrat and former Attorney General Caleb Cushing, but withdrew it after Republican Senators alleged Civil War-era connections between Cushing and the Confederate President Jefferson Davis. After persistent lobbying from Ohioans, including Interior Secretary Columbus Delano, on January 19, 1874, Grant nominated the little-known Waite.
He was notified of his nomination by a telegram. The nomination was not well received in political circles; the former Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, remarked of Waite that, "It is a wonder that Grant did not pick up some old acquaintance