Turkish invasion of Cyprus
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus. It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974; the coup had been ordered by the military Junta in Greece and staged by the Cypriot National Guard in conjunction with EOKA-B. It installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson; the aim of the coup was the Union of Cyprus with Greece, the Hellenic Republic of Cyprus to be declared. In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared; the Greek military junta was replaced by a democratic government. In August 1974 another Turkish invasion resulted in the capture of 40% of the island; the ceasefire line from August 1974 became the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus and is referred to as the Green Line. Around 150,000 people were expelled from the occupied northern part of the island, where Greek Cypriots constituted 80% of the population.
A little over a year in 1975 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, amounting to half the Turkish Cypriot population, were displaced from the south to the north. The Turkish invasion ended in the partition of Cyprus along the UN-monitored Green Line, which still divides Cyprus, the formation of a de facto autonomous Turkish Cypriot administration in the north. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus declared independence, although Turkey is the only country that recognizes it; the international community considers the TRNC's territory as Turkish-occupied territory of the Republic of Cyprus. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of European Union territory since Cyprus became its member; the invasion's Turkish Armed Forces code name was Operation Atilla. Among Turkish speakers the operation is referred as "Cyprus Peace Operation" or "Operation Peace" or "Cyprus Operation", as they claim that Turkey took military action on the pretext of a peacekeeping operation.
In 1571 the Greek-populated island of Cyprus was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, following the Ottoman–Venetian War. After 300 years of Ottoman rule the island and its population was leased to Britain by the Cyprus Convention, an agreement reached during the Congress of Berlin in 1878 between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire. Britain formally annexed Cyprus on 5 November 1914 as a reaction to the Ottoman Empire's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. Article 20 of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 marked the end of the Turkish claim to the island. Article 21 of the treaty gave Turkish nationals ordinarily resident in Cyprus the choice of leaving the island within 2 years or to remain as British subjects. At this time the population of Cyprus was composed of both Greeks and Turks, who identified themselves with their respective "mother" countries. However, the elites of both communities shared the belief that they were more progressive and therefore distinct from the mainlanders.
Greek and Turkish Cypriots lived side by side for many years. Broadly, three main forces can be held responsible for transforming two ethnic communities into two national ones: education, British colonial practices, insular religious teachings accompanying economic development. Formal education was the most important as it affected Cypriots during childhood and youth. British colonial policies promoted ethnic polarization; the British, many believe, applied the principle of "divide and rule", setting the two groups against each other to prevent combined action against colonial rule. For example, when Greek Cypriots rebelled in the 1950s, the colonial office expanded the size of the Auxiliary Police and in September 1955, established the Special Mobile Reserve, made up of Turkish Cypriots, to crush EOKA; this and similar practices contributed to inter-communal animosity. Although economic development and increased education reduced the explicitly religious characteristics of the two communities, the growth of nationalism on the two mainlands increased the significance of other differences.
Turkish nationalism was at the core of the revolutionary program promoted by the father of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and affected Turkish Cypriots who followed his principles. President of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938, Atatürk attempted to build a new nation on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire and elaborated the program of "six principles" to do so; these principles of secularism and nationalism reduced Islam's role in the everyday life of individuals and emphasized Turkish identity as the main source of nationalism. Traditional education with a religious foundation was discarded and replaced with one that followed secular principles and, shorn of Arab and Persian influences, was purely Turkish. Turkish Cypriots adopted the secular program of Turkish nationalism. Under Ottoman rule Turkish Cypriots had been classified as a distinction based on religion. Being secular, Atatürk's program made their Turkish identity paramount, may have further reinforced their division from their
History of Cyprus
Human habitation of Cyprus dates back to the Paleolithic era. Cyprus's geographic position has caused Cyprus to be influenced by differing Eastern Mediterranean civilisations over the millennia. Periods of Cyprus's history from 1050 BC have been named according to styles of pottery found as follows: Cypro-Geometric I: 1050-950 BC Cypro-Geometric II: 950-850 BC Cypro-Geometric III: 850-700 BC Cypro-Archaic I: 700-600 BC Cypro-Archaic II: 600-475 BC Cypro-Classical I: 475-400 BC Cypro-Classical II: 400-323 BC Cyprus was settled by humans in the Paleolithic period who coexisted with various dwarf animal species, such as dwarf elephants and pygmy hippos well into the Holocene. There are claims of an association of this fauna with artifacts of Epipalaeolithic foragers at Aetokremnos near Limassol on the southern coast of Cyprus; the first undisputed settlement occurred in the 9th millennium BC from the Levant. The first settlers did not yet produce pottery; the dog, sheep and cattle and pigs were introduced, as well as numerous wild animals such as foxes and Persian fallow deer that were unknown on the island.
The PPNB settlers built round houses with floors made of terrazzo of burned lime and cultivated einkorn and emmer. Pigs, sheep and cattle were kept but remained, for the most part, behaviourally wild. Evidence of cattle such as that attested at Shillourokambos is rare, when they died out in the course of the 8th millennium they were not re-introduced until the ceramic Neolithic. In the 6th millennium BC, the aceramic Khirokitia culture was characterised by roundhouses, stone vessels and an economy based on sheep and pigs. Cattle were unknown, Persian fallow deer were hunted; this was followed by the ceramic Sotira phase. The Eneolithic era is characterised by stone figurines with spread arms. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old, putting them in the Stone Age, they are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, their heightened appreciation for the environment. In 2004, the remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its human owner at a Neolithic archeological site in Cyprus.
The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. In the Bronze Age the first cities, such as Enkomi, were built. Systematic copper mining began, this resource was traded. Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the island's Greek name is attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script; the Cypriot syllabic script was first used in early phases of the late Bronze Age and continued in use for ca. 500 years into the LC IIIB, maybe up to the second half of the eleventh century BC. Most scholars believe it was used for a native Cypriot language that survived until the 4th century BC, but the actual proofs for this are scant, as the tablets still have not been deciphered; the LCIIC was a time of local prosperity. Cities such as Enkomi were rebuilt on a rectangular grid plan, where the town gates correspond to the grid axes and numerous grand buildings front the street system or newly founded.
Great official buildings constructed from ashlar masonry point to increased social hierarchisation and control. Some of these buildings contain facilities for processing and storing olive oil, such as Maroni-Vournes and Building X at Kalavassos-Ayios Dhimitrios. A Sanctuary with a horned altar constructed from ashlar masonry has been found at Myrtou-Pigadhes, other temples have been located at Enkomi and Kouklia. Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria in Ugarit. Rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Palestine as well; the practice of writing spread and tablets in the Cypriot syllabic script have been found at Ras Shamra, the Phoenician city of Ugarit. Ugaritic texts from Ras Shamra and Enkomi mention Ya, the Assyrian name of Cyprus, that thus seems to have been in use in the late Bronze Age. Copper ingots shaped like oxhides have been recovered from shipwrecks such as at Ulu Burun and Cape Gelidonya which attest to the widespread metal trade.
Weights in the shape of animals found in Enkomi and Kalavassos follow the Syro-Palestinian, Mesopotamian and Aegean standards and thus attest to the wide-ranging trade as well. Late Bronze Age Cyprus was a part of the Hittite empire but was a client state and as such was not invaded but rather part of the empire by association and governed by the ruling kings of Ugarit; as such Cyprus was "left alone with little intervention in Cypriot affairs". However, during the reign of Tudhaliya, the island was invaded by the Hittites for either reasons of securing the copper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Although Achaean Greeks were living in Cyprus from the 14th century, most of them inhabited the island after the Trojan war. Achaeans were colonizing Cyprus from 1210 to 1000 BC. Dorian Greeks arrived around 1100 BC and, unlike the pattern on the Greek mainland, the evidence suggests that they settled on Cyprus peacefully.
Another wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place in the following century, amon
Sir Elliot Charles Bovill was a British lawyer and judge. He served as Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements in the late 19th century. Bovill was born in Clapham, the fourth son of William John Bovill, Q. C. of Lincoln's Inn, his wife, Lavinia Ann I'Anson, daughter of architect Edward I'Anson. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, graduating from the latter with honours in 1871, he was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1873. He married the daughter of John Tahourdin White on 27 July 1876 at Kensington. Bovill was appointed assistant Judicial Commissioner in Cyprus in 1875 soon after its cessation from Turkey to Britain, he was legal adviser to the government from 1877 to 1881. He was appointed Judicial Commissioner in 1881 and Chief Justice in 1883 on creation of that position, he was knighted the following year, in 1884. In 1890, it was reported, he declined the appointment. Instead, in 1892, he was appointed Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements on the departure of Edward Loughlin O'Malley.
He first sat as Chief Justice in October 1892. His family made up of his wife and two boys and a daughter remained in Cyprus, planning to join him in Singapore later. Bovill died at the age of 45 of cholera on 24 March 1893 at his residence in Paterson Road, after returning from a trip to Malacca, he was buried at the Bukit Timah Cemetery. His gravestone was moved to Fort Canning Green. There is a commemorative plaque placed by Bovill's wife in St Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore
Trove is an Australian online library database aggregator. It is one of the most well-respected and accessed GLAM services in Australia, with over 70,000 daily users. Trove's origins can be seen in the development of earlier services such as the Australian Bibliographic Network, it was known as the Single Business Discovery Service, a project, launched in August 2008. The intention was to create a single point of entry for the public to the various online discovery services developed by the library between 1997 and 2008-2009 including Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Picture Australia, Libraries Australia, Music Australia, Australia Dancing, PANDORA search service, ARROW Discovery Service and the Australian Newspapers Beta service; the key features of the service were designed to create a faceted search system for Australian content. Tight integration with the provider databases has allowed "Find and Get" functions. Important extra features include the provision of a "check copyright" tool and persistent identifiers.
The scope of the project is to help "you find and use resources relating to Australia" and therefore the content is Australian-focused. Much of the material may be difficult to retrieve with other search tools as it is part of the deep web, including records held in collection databases, or in projects such as Picture Australia, Music Australia, the Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Australia Dancing, Australian Research Online and the PANDORA web archive. Trove includes content from many libraries, museums and other organisations; the site's content is split into "zones" designating different forms of content which can be searched all together, or separately. Books: allows searching of the collective catalogues of institutions findable in Libraries Australia using the Australian National Bibliographic Database. Diaries People: allows searching of biographical information and other resources about associated people and organisations, from resources including the Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Journals: searching of academic periodicals. Maps Music and videos: allows searching of digitised historic sheet music and audio recordings. Replacing the previous "Music Australia" website. Includes searchable transcripts from many Radio National programs. Newspapers: allows text-searching of digitised historic newspapers. Replacing the previous "Australian Newspapers" website. Pictures: Including digitised photographs, posters, postcards etc. Considerable numbers of images on Flickr with the appropriate licensing are donated as well. Replacing the previous "Pictures Australia" website. Websites: the primary search portal of the PANDORA web-archiving service, which itself includes the "Australian Government Web Archive". Government Gazettes: allows searching of official publications written for the purpose of notifying the public of government business. A final "zone" called Lists allows logged-in users of Trove to make their own public compilations of items found in Trove searches. There is a facility to join the Trove community and make contributions to the resources such as tags and corrections.
The book zone provides access to books, audio books, conference proceedings and pamphlets listed in Australia's National Bibliographic Database, a union catalogue of items held in Australian libraries and a national bibliographic database of resources including Australian online publications. Bibliographic records from the ANBD are uploaded into the WorldCat global union catalogue; the results can be filtered by format if searching for braille, audio books, theses or conference proceedings and by decade and language of publication. A filter for Australian content is provided. Trove provides text-searchable access to over 700 historic Australian newspapers from each State and Territory. By 2014, over 13.5 million digitised newspaper pages had been made available through Trove as part of the Australian Newspaper Plan, a "collaborative program to collect and preserve every newspaper published in Australia, guaranteeing public access" to these important historical records. The extent of digitised newspaper archives is wide reaching and includes now defunct publications, such as the Australian Home Companion and Band of Hope Journal and The Barrier Miner in New South Wales and The Argus in Victoria.
It includes the earliest published Australian newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, some community language newspapers. Included is The Australian Women's Weekly; the Canberra Times is the only major newspaper available beyond 1957. It allowed publication of its in-copyright archive up to 1995 as part of the "centenary of Canberra" in 2013, the digitisation costs were raised with a crowdfunding campaign. Crowdfunded, the Australian feminist magazine The Dawn was included on International Women's Day 2012. On 25 July 2008 the "Australian Newspapers Beta" service was released to the public as a standalone website and a year became a integrated part of the newly launched Trove; the service contains millions of articles from 1803 onwards, with more content being added regularly. The website was the public face of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Project, a coordination of major libraries in Australia to convert historic newspapers to text-searchable digital files; the Australian Newspapers website allowed users to search the database of digitised newspapers from 1803 to 1954 which are now in the public domain.
The newspapers (frequent
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
Geography of Cyprus
Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the world's 80th largest island by area, it is located south of Asia Minor, the Anatolian peninsula of the Asian mainland, so it may be included in Western Asia or the Middle East: Cyprus is close to Southern Europe, Northern Africa, has had lengthy periods of Greek and intermittent Anatolian, Byzantine and Western European influence. The island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the Kyrenia Mountains or Pentadaktylos, the central plain, the Mesaoria, between them; the Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for half its area. The narrow Kyrenia Range extends along the northern coastline, it is not as high as the Troodos Mountains, it occupies less area. The two mountain ranges run parallel to the Taurus Mountains on the Turkish mainland, the outlines of which are visible from northern Cyprus. Coastal lowlands, varying in width, surround the island.
Geopolitically, the island is divided into four segments. The Republic of Cyprus, the only internationally recognized government, occupies the southern 60% of the island, has been a member state of the European Union since 1 May 2004; the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", is diplomatically recognized only by Turkey, occupies the northern one-third of the island, around 36% of the territory. The United Nations-controlled Green Line is a buffer zone that separates the two and it is about 4%. Lastly, two areas—Akrotiri and Dhekelia—remain under British sovereignty for military purposes, collectively forming the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia; the SBAs are located on the southern coast of the island and together encompass 254 km2, or 2.8% of the island. The rugged Troodos Mountains, whose principal range stretches from Pomos Point in the northwest to Larnaca Bay on the east, are the single most conspicuous feature of the landscape. Intensive uplifting and folding in the formative period left the area fragmented, so that subordinate ranges and spurs veer off at many angles, their slopes incised by steep-sided valleys.
In the southwest, the mountains descend in a series of stepped foothills to the coastal plain. While the Troodos Mountains are a massif formed of molten igneous rock, the Kyrenia Range is a narrow limestone ridge that rises from the plains, its easternmost extension becomes a series of foothills on the Karpass Peninsula. That peninsula points toward Asia Minor; the highest peaks of the Kyrenia Range are hardly more than half the height of the great dome of the Troodos massif, Mount Olympus, but their inaccessible, jagged slopes make them more spectacular. British writer Lawrence Durrell, in Bitter Lemons, wrote of the Troodos as "an unlovely jumble of crags and heavyweight rocks" and of the Kyrenia Range as belonging to "the world of Gothic Europe, its lofty crags studded with crusader castles." Rich copper deposits were discovered in antiquity on the slopes of the Troodos. The massive sulfide deposits formed as a part of an ophiolite complex at a spreading center under the Mediterranean Sea, tectonically uplifted during the Pleistocene and emplaced in its current location.
In much of the island, access to a year-round supply of water is difficult. This is traditionally attributed to deforestation which damaged the island's drainage system through erosion, but Grove and Rackham question this view. A network of winter rivers flows out from them in all directions; the Yialias River and the Pedhieos River flow eastward across the Mesaoria into Famagusta Bay. All of the island's rivers, are dry in the summer. An extensive system of dams and waterways has been constructed to bring water to farming areas; the Mesaoria is the agricultural heartland of the island, but its productiveness for wheat and barley depends much on winter rainfall. Little evidence remains that this broad, central plain, open to the sea at either end, was once covered with rich forests whose timber was coveted by ancient conquerors for their sailing vessels; the now-divided capital of the island, lies in the middle of this central plain. Despite its small size, Cyprus has a variety of natural vegetation.
This includes forests of conifers and broadleaved trees such as Pinus brutia, cedar and oaks. Ancient authors write that most of Cyprus Messaoria, was forested, there are still considerable forests on the Troodos and Kyrenia ranges, locally at lower altitudes. About 17% of the whole island is classified as woodland. Where there is no forest, tall shrub communities of golden oak, strawberry tree, olive, kermes oak and styrax are found, but such maquis is uncommon. Over most of the island untilled ground bears a grazed covering of garrigue composed of low bushes of Cistus, Genista sphacelata, Calycotoime villosa, Lithospermum hispidulum, Phaganalon rupestre and, Pistacia lentiscus. Where grazing is excessive this covering is soon reduced, an impoverished batha remains, consisting principally of Thymus capitatus, Sarcopoterium spinosum, a few stunted herbs; the Mediterranean climate and rather dry, with rainfall between November and March, favors agriculture. In general, the island experiences mild wet winters a