Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta is a Kenyan politician and businessman, the fourth and current President of the Republic of Kenya. He served as the Member of Parliament for Gatundu South from 2002 to 2013; the party leader and a member of the Jubilee Party of Kenya, he was involved with The National Alliance and before that the Kenya African National Union. He is the son of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's first President, his fourth wife Mama Ngina Kenyatta. Uhuru was re-elected for a second term in the August 2017 general election, winning 54% of the popular vote; the win was formally declared on national television by the Chairman of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission Wafula Chebukati. However, Uhuru's election was challenged in the Supreme Court of Kenya by his main competitor, Raila Odinga. On 1 September 2017, the court declared the election invalid and ordered a new presidential election to take place within 60 days from the day of the ruling. A new presidential election was held on 26 October, which he won, with 39% participation due to voter fatigue, voter apathy and being boycotted by the opposition.
Uhuru is the son of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's founding father and the first president of the republic of Kenya, with his fourth wife, Mama Ngina Kenyatta. His family hails from a Bantu ethnic group, his given name "Uhuru" is from the Swahili term for "freedom", was given to him in anticipation of Kenya's upcoming independence. Uhuru attended St Mary's School in Nairobi. Between 1979 and 1980, he briefly worked as a teller at the Kenya Commercial Bank. After St. Mary's school, Uhuru went on to study economics, political science and government at Amherst College in the United States. Upon his graduation, Uhuru returned to Kenya, started a company Wilham Kenya Limited, through which he sourced and exported agricultural produce. Uhuru was nominated to Parliament in 2001, he became Minister for Local Government under President Daniel Arap Moi and, despite his political inexperience, was favoured by Moi as his successor. Kenyatta ran as KANU's candidate in the December 2002 presidential election, but lost to the opposition candidate Mwai Kibaki by a big margin.
He subsequently became Leader of the Opposition in Parliament. He backed Kibaki for re-election in the December 2007 presidential election and was named Minister of Local Government by Kibaki in January 2008, before becoming Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Trade in April 2008 as part of a coalition government. Subsequently, Kenyatta was Minister of Finance from 2009 to 2012, while remaining Deputy Prime Minister. Accused by the International Criminal Court of committing crimes against humanity in relation to the violent aftermath of the 2007 election, he resigned as Minister of Finance on 26 January 2012, he was elected as President of Kenya in the March 2013 presidential election, defeating Raila Odinga with a slim majority in a single round of voting. Uhuru Kenyatta initial entry into politics came through his election as the chairman of his hometown branch of the ruling party, KANU, in 1997; this came with the tacit approval of President Daniel Toroitich Arap Moi. At the time, many saw the election as a calculated move to prepare Uhuru for bigger things to come.
In the 1997 general election, Uhuru Kenyatta contested the Gatundu South Constituency parliamentary seat, once held by his father, but lost to Moses Mwihia, a Nairobi architect. In 1999, Moi appointed Uhuru to chair a government parastatal, he was nominated to parliament in 2001, subsequently appointed to the cabinet as Minister for Local Government. Following this, he was elected as one of the four national vice-chairmen of KANU in the same year. In 2001, he was nominated as a Member of Parliament, he joined the Cabinet as Minister for Local Government, he would later be elected First Vice Chairman of KANU. In the nomination process in 2002 in what was thought as undemocratic and underhand, Moi influenced Uhuru Kenyatta's nomination as KANU's preferred presidential candidate, sparking an outcry from other interested contenders and a massive exit from the party; this move by Moi was seen as a ploy to install Uhuru as a puppet so that in retirement, Moi would still rule the country through Uhuru and insulate himself against charges of abuse of office that plagued his presidency.
Uhuru finished second with 31 % of the vote. He took up an active leadership role as Leader of the Opposition. In January 2005, Uhuru Kenyatta defeated Nicholas Biwott for chairmanship of KANU, taking 2,980 votes among party delegates against Biwott's 622 votes. Uhuru led his party KANU in the referendum campaigns against the draft constitution in 2005, having teamed up with the Liberal Democratic Party, a rebel faction in the Kibaki government, to form the Orange Democratic Movement; the result of this was a vote against the adoption of the draft constitution by a noticeable margin, a great political embarrassment to Emilio Mwai Kibaki. In November 2006, Kenyatta was displaced as KANU leader by Biwott. On 28 December 2006, the High Court of Kenya reinstated Uhuru Kenyatta as KANU chairman. However, further court proceedings followed. On 28 June 2007, the High Court confirmed Kenyatta as party leader, ruling that there was insufficient evidence for Biwott's argument that Kenyatta had joined another party.
In the run up to the 2007 general election, he led KANU to join a coalition with President Mwai Kibaki, running for a second term against Raila Odinga. PNU won the controversial 2007 elections but the dispute over the poll resulted in the 2007-08 Kenyan crisis. Under an agreement betw
Orange Democratic Movement
The Orange Democratic Movement is a centre-left political party in Kenya. It is the successor of a grassroots people's movement, formed during the 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum campaign; this movement separated in August 2007 into the Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya and the Wiper Democratic Movement – Kenya. The name "orange" originates from the ballot cards in the referendum, in which the banana represented a'yes' vote, the orange represented a'no' vote, thus the parties demonstrates. The original linchpins of the ODM were Uhuru Kenyatta's KANU party and Raila Odinga's LDP. KANU has since pulled out; as of March 2018 the ODM is led by Raila Odinga. In the 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum the'no' vote, which the ODM campaigned for, won with 58.12% of Kenyans voting down the proposed constitution. Following this President Mwai Kibaki dismissed his entire cabinet; the response of the ODM was to say that this was a step in the right direction and to call for an immediate general election, claiming that the Kibaki regime, which had campaigned vigorously in favour of a yes vote in the referendum, had lost its mandate.
Kibaki's government resisted this. The ODM emerged as a major opposition party, along with KANU, organized a number of rallies asking for elections and a new constitution; the ODM protested against the Liberal Democratic Party, which opposed the referendum, being dropped from Kibaki's new cabinet. After the 2002 elections, KANU was in opposition, while the LDP was a partner in the ruling NARC coalition until it was removed after the 2005 referendum; the LDP had supported no vote at the referendum, contorary to the policy of president Kibaki. Following their united stand in the referendum debate and responding to a threat by the newly formed Narc-Kenya party the leaders of KANU, LDP and some smaller parties decided to campaign jointly for the upcoming 2007 Kenya general election, they forming the Orange Democratic Movement, named after the symbol used to represent "no" in the referendum – an orange. An opportunist lawyer, Mugambi Imanyara, registered the name "Orange Democratic Movement" as a party before the coalition did, forcing them to use the name "Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya" instead.
As 2007 progressed the coalition proved unstable, with various factions defecting. Uhuru Kenyatta's KANU was the first, pulling out in July 2007 and endorsing President Kibaki's re-election, although some individual KANU politicians stayed with the ODM. Due to an internal rivalry between Kalonzo Musyoka and Raila Odinga, the ODM split into two factions in mid-August 2007. Raila's group, which included Musalia Mudavadi, William Ruto, Joseph Nyagah and Najib Balala defected from ODM-Kenya and took over the ODM party registered by Mugambi Imanyara, while Kalonzo's group, led by himself and Dr. Julia Ojiambo remained in the original ODM-Kenya; the two factions held their elections for presidential candidates on consecutive days at the Kasarani sports complex in Nairobi. On 31 August 2007, Kalonzo Musyoka defeated Julia Ojiambo for the ODM–Kenya ticket on 1 September Raila Odinga defeated Ruto, Mudavadi and Nyagah. There were allegations. Raila and Kalonzo faced president Kibaki in the general election.
The International Republican Institute described election day as "generally calm and transparent". Kibaki was declared winner of the elections in circumstances that were described as "highly questionable" by various observers. Samuel Kivuitu, chairman of the now disbanded Electoral Commission of Kenya could not explain why votes from nearby constituencies had not reached the tallying centre in Nairobi while those from far-flung parts of the country were tallied on time. Many polling stations had more votes cast than the number of registered voters. Maragua constituency, a PNU stronghold, turnout was 115%; the ODM disputed the results. Violence erupted in the country with ODM supporters in Kibera and Nakuru being targeted for attack by Mungiki-supporting gangs backed by police. PNU supporters were targeted for attack by ODM supporters. People from the Luo ethnic group were shot dead in Kisumu and Nakuru in large numbers while many ethnic Kikuyu were killed in the Rift Valley; the ODM won the largest number of seats with 99 in the 210 seat parliament.
It won three out of five by-elections in early 2008. No sooner had the by-elections been conducted in the constituencies of two ODM MPs who were killed at the beginning of the year than two more MPs died in an aircraft crash; some ODM MPs whose elections were contested in court lost their seats. Following the passing of the Political Parties Act months earlier, the ODM held its internal elections in late December 2008 with Prime Minister Raila Odinga emerging as party leader and Industrialisation Minister Henry Kosgey as party chairman. Due to agitation over regional and gender representation, some party posts had to be created on the day of the vote. Raila has since fallen out with William Ruto, Ababu Namwamba, Najib Balala, Henry Kosgey among others. In the lead up to the 2013 general elections the ODM entered a coalition with FORD-Kenya and the Wiper Democratic Movement to support a single presidential candidate, known as the Coalition for Reforms and Democracy ODM leader's personal site ODM Official website ODM Official Community Portal ODM 2007 Manifesto ODM 2007 Parliamentary Candidates
David Kenani Maraga is a Kenyan lawyer and jurist. He is President of the Supreme Court of Kenya, he is the 14th Chief Justice of Kenya. Maraga was born in Bonyamatuta, Nyamira County, on 12 January 1951, he studied law at the University of Nairobi, was awarded a Bachelor of Laws in 1977. He obtained a Master of Laws from the university, he holds a post graduate diploma awarded in 1978 by the Kenya School of Law. Court of appeals judge David Maraga told the Judicial Service Commission that he wouldn't enter the courtroom on Sabbath during a presidential election dispute. "It would be difficult for me to sit on a Saturday to hear a case," Maranga said to a commission members question. "I would rather talk with my colleagues in the court to accommodate me and exempt me from sitting if the hearing extends to a Saturday." Being a staunch Seventh-day Adventist, Maraga would rather worship God in church on Saturday. Justice Maraga joined the bench as a High Court Judge in October 2003 having been appointed by retired President Mwai Kibaki.
He was elevated to the Court of Appeal in 2012 following an interview process by the Judicial Service Commission. Since he was appointed to a judicial office before the 2010 Constitution of Kenya came into force, Justice Maraga went through the mandatory vetting by the Judges & Magistrates Vetting Board in 2012; the Vetting Board unanimously declared him fit to continue serving in office, though his vetting took a dramatic twist when he demanded a Bible and swore before the vetting panel that he had never taken a bribe in his judicial career and would never take bribes in future. A year after joining the Court of Appeal, he vied for the position of President of the Court of Appeal, losing by a solitary vote to the current President, Justice Kihara Kariuki. Justice Maraga was appointed by retired Chief Justice Willy Mutunga in May 2012 to chair the Kenya Judiciary Working Committee on Election Preparations, constituted in 2012 to ensure the Judiciary was prepared to deal in a timely manner, with any disputes that would arise from the March 2013 General Election.
As a result of the Committee's work, the Judiciary is in position to deal with all election petitions within the strict statutory timelines. The Committee was thus reconstituted as the standing Judiciary Committee on Elections in 2015, still under the Chairmanship of Justice Maraga. In 2013, the President of Kenya named Justice Maraga as the Chair of a Tribunal, constituted to investigate the conduct of High Court Judge Joseph Mutava after complaints emerged that the Judge had been compromised to deliver a judgment which cushioned Goldenberg suspect Kamlesh Pattni from prosecution over his involvement in the Goldenberg scandal; the Tribunal submitted a report in September 2016, recommending to the President that Justice Mutava be removed from office for improperly allocating himself the Kamlesh Pattni file when it did not fall under his docket, proceeding to write a judgment in the case though the Judicial Service Commission was investigating his conduct. Before being appointed as the Chief Justice, David Maraga served as the Presiding Judge of the Court of Appeal in Kisumu.
Prior to his appointment to the High Court of Kenya in 2003, he worked as lawyer in private practice for over 25 years. Following the voluntary early retirement of Dr. Willy Mutunga in June 2016, Justice Maraga was among the ten people who applied to replace him. Judge Maraga emerged victorious from a list of eminent judges, legal practitioners and scholars, including law professor Makau Mutua, Supreme Court of Kenya Judges Jackton Ojwang and Smokin Wanjala, East Africa Court of Justice Judge Aaron Ringera, his Court of Appeal colleague Alnashir Visram. Having been nominated for appointment by the Judicial Service Commission, his name was forwarded to the President who transmitted it to the National Assembly for vetting before formal appointment; the National Assembly voted unanimously to approve his appointment as the Chief Justice on 18 October 2016. He was appointed by President Uhuru Kenyatta on 19 October 2016, when he took the oath of office as the 14th Chief Justice of independent Kenya and the second Chief Justice in Kenya's new constitutional dispensation.
He took over the reins as President of the Supreme Court from Dr Willy Mutunga, who retired after the expiry of his term. He is expected to retire on 12 January 2021 upon the attainment of 70 years as stipulated in the Kenyan constitution. Chief Justice David Maraga, three other judges made history by cancelling the 2017 presidential election because of hacking. President Kenyatta was in the lead with 54% of the vote, but opponent Raila Odinga reported the evidence of the hacking to the Supreme Court; the Chief Justice ruling acquitted Kenyatta of any misconduct. The supporter's of the president were disappointed with the ruling, while many Kenyans praised the ruling against President Uhuru Kenyatta, restoring the independence of the judiciary. President Kenyatta told media outlets that he doesn't agree with a ruling that disappointed millions of his supporters, but he would respect and tolerate the ruling. Judiciary of Kenya Philomena Mbete Mwilu Website of the Judiciary of Kenya Website of the Supreme Court of Kenya
History of Kenya
A part of Eastern Africa, the territory of what is now Kenya has seen human habitation since the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic. The Bantu expansion from a West African centre of dispersal reached the area by the 1st millennium AD. With the borders of the modern state at the crossroads of the Bantu, Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic ethno-linguistic areas of Africa, Kenya is a multi-ethnic state; the European and Arab presence in Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period, but European exploration of the interior began only in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, from 1920 known as the Kenya Colony; the independent Republic of Kenya was formed in 1964. It was ruled as a de facto one-party state by the Kenya African National Union, it was an alliance led by Jomo Kenyatta during 1963 to 1978. Kenyatta was succeeded by Daniel arap Moi, who ruled until 2002. Moi attempted to transform the de facto one-party status of Kenya into a de jure status during the 1980s, but with the end of the Cold War, the practices of political repression and torture, "overlooked" by the Western powers as necessary evils in the effort to contain communism were no longer tolerated.
Moi came under pressure, notably by US ambassador Smith Hempstone, to restore a multi-party system, which he did by 1991. Moi won elections in 1992 and 1997, which were overshadowed by politically-motivated killings on both sides. During the 1990s, evidence of Moi's involvement in human rights abuses and corruption was uncovered, he was constitutionally barred from running in the 2002 election, won by Mwai Kibaki. Reported electoral fraud on Kibaki's side in the 2007 elections resulted in the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis. Kibaki was succeeded by Uhuru Kenyatta in the 2013 general elections. There were allegations that his rival Raila Odinga won the contest, however the supreme Court through a thorough review of evidence adduced found no malpractice during the conduct of the 2013 General Election both from the IEBC and the Jubilee Party of Uhuru Kenyatta. In 1929, the first evidence of the presence of ancient early human ancestors in Kenya was discovered when Louis Leakey unearthed 1 million year old Acheulian handaxes at the Kariandusi Prehistoric Site in southwest Kenya.
Subsequently, many species of early hominid have been discovered in Kenya. The oldest was found by Martin Pickford in the year 2000 and is the 6 million years old Orrorin tugenensis, named after the Tugen Hills where it was unearthed, it is the second oldest fossil hominid in the world after Sahelanthropus tchadensis. In 1995 Meave Leakey named a new species of hominid Australopithecus anamensis following a series of fossil discoveries near Lake Turkana in 1965, 1987 and 1994, is around 4.1 million years old. In 2011, 3.2 million year old stone tools were discovered at Lomekwi near Lake Turkana - these are the oldest stone tools found anywhere in the world and pre-date the emergence of Homo. One of the most famous and complete hominid skeletons discovered was the 1.6 million year old Homo erectus known as Nariokotome Boy, found by Kamoya Kimeu in 1984 on an excavation led by Richard Leakey. The oldest Acheulean tools discovered anywhere in the world are from West Turkana, were dated in 2011 through the method of magnetostratigraphy to about 1.76 million years old.
The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers. For the most part, these communities were assimilated into various food producing societies that began moving into Kenya from the 3rd millennium BCE. Linguistic evidence points to a relative sequence of population movements into Kenya that begins with the entry into northern Kenya of a Southern Cushitic speaking population around the 3rd millennium BCE, they were pastoralists who kept domestic stock, including cattle, sheep and donkeys. Remarkable megalithic sites from this time period include the archaeoastronomical site Namoratunga on the west side of Lake Turkana. By 1000 BCE and earlier, pastoralism had spread into central Kenya and northern Tanzania. In present times the descendants of the Southern Cushitic speakers are located in north central Tanzania near Lake Eyasi, their past distribution, as determined by the presence of loanwords in other languages, encompasses the known distribution of the Highland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic culture.
Beginning around 700 BCE, Southern Nilotic speaking communities whose homelands lay somewhere near the common border between Sudan, Uganda and Ethiopia moved south into the western highlands and Rift Valley region of Kenya. The arrival of the Southern Nilotes in Kenya occurred shortly before the introduction of iron to East Africa; the past distribution of the Southern Nilotic speakers, as inferred from place names, loan words and oral traditions includes the known distribution of Elmenteitan sites. The Bantu expansion is thought to have reached western Kenya around 1000 BCE; the walled settlement of Thimlich Ohinga in Nyanza Province is an important site dating to the eastern African Iron Age. Migrations through Tanzania led to settlement on the Kenyan coast where these communities established links with Arabian and Indian traders leading to the development of the Swahili culture; the Kenyan coast had hosted communities of ironworkers and communities of Southern Cushitic subsistence-farmers and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, metal production and trade with outside areas.
These communities formed the earliest city-states in the region which were collectively known to the Roman Empire as "Azania". By the 1st century CE, many of the city-states - such as Mombasa and Zanzibar - began to establish trade relations with Arabs; this led ul
Deputy President of Kenya
The Deputy President of Kenya is the second-highest executive official in the Kenyan government. There has been one vacancy in the office, from January 8, 1998 until April 3, 1999. Parties Kenya African National Union National Rainbow Coalition / Party of National Unity Wiper Democratic Movement – Kenya Jubilee Alliance Key† Died in office Kenya President of Kenya Heads of Government of Kenya Colonial Heads of Kenya Lists of incumbents
2013 Kenyan general election
General elections were held in Kenya on 4 March 2013. Voters elected the President, members of the National Assembly and new Senate, as well as County Governors and Representatives, they were the first elections held under the new constitution, approved in a 2010 referendum, were the first run by the new Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. The presidential elections were a contest between Uhuru Kenyatta of the National Alliance and Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement, with incumbent President Mwai Kibaki having served two terms and not being eligible for re-election. Kenyatta was backed by the Jubilee Alliance, whilst Odinga was supported by the Coalition for Reforms and Democracy. Kenyatta was declared the winner with 50.5% of the vote, meaning a second round of voting was not needed. Odinga unsuccessfully contested the results in the Supreme Court; the elections were scheduled for 14 August 2012 or December 2012 were planned for the election, depending on a court ruling to be issued.
The court ruled that presidential and parliamentary elections should be held in March 2013. This resulted in the resignation of several civil servants who wished to enter politics, as required by the Elections Act. On 28 December 2012, the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission announced the Notice of General Elections which confirmed polling day as 4 March; the nomination deadlines were set over a period between 29 January and 1 February, with presidential candidates submitting their nomination papers on 29 and 30 January. On 13 January, the Judiciary indicated it would hear and determine within two weeks disputes on Presidential Election results; the Judiciary Working Committee on Election Preparations announced that election petitions would be certified urgent. These rules were developed in pursuance of Article 163 of the constitution which mandates the Supreme Court to make rules for the exercise of its exclusive jurisdiction of hearing presidential election petition. Voter registration ran from 19 November 2012 for 30 days.
Problems were reported during the first few days of the registration exercise included availability of electricity, military operations in some areas and logistical challenges caused by rains. Another subsequent challenge was the inability to register prospective voters who were still awaiting issuance of their formal identity documents by the government. On 27 November, the government announced that, due to time and logistics constraints, there would be no attempts to register Kenyan voters in the diaspora; the IEBC announced a decision to register Kenyan diaspora voters living within the East African Community Countries. The ten-day exercise concluded on 25 December 2012 with low turnout attributed to "logistical challenges"; the IEBC estimate was. Voter registration was carried out using Biometric Voter Registration Kits which would reduce certain incidents of fraud; the purchase of the BVR Kits was financed through a loan from Standard Chartered Kenya in a government-to-government deal involving Kenya and Canada made cheaper by a guarantee from the Canadian government.
The Canadian government arranged to have its owned parastatal, Canadian Commercial Corporation, sign a contract with the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. A case was filed in court seeking to extend the voter registration period arguing that Section 5 of the Elections Act was in conflict with the Constitution to the extent that it limited continuous registration of voters; the courts however declined request to extend the deadline. After the 18 December deadline, the IEBC released the provisional voter numbers showing a registered base of 14.3 million voters. The IEBC indicated that they had missed their target of 18 million voters, citing voter apathy as one of reasons for this; the IEBC begun an exercise to clean up the voters’ roll with a target of opening it for verification early January 2013. On 13 January 2013 the IEBC opened its voter register for inspection; the options include visiting respective registration centers, the IEBC website or the use of mobile phone numbers via an SMS service.
The IEBC announced on 23 February 2013 that it had removed 20,000 voters who had registered more than once from the voter roll. The names were identified during continuing activities to clean up the register; the 2010 constitution provided for a two-round system for presidential elections, the president having been elected on a first-past-the-post basis. In order to win in the first round, a candidate was required to receive over 50% of the vote, as well as 25% of the vote in at least 24 counties; the law required all Kenyan political parties to register any coalition agreements with the Registrar of Political Parties by 4 December 2012. This resulted in several publicised discussions among key political players and their respective parties who aimed to form pre-election coalitions prior to the deadline. Another effect considered was a reduction in the number of prospective candidates. Four coalitions formed by the deadline include: The Coalition for Reforms and Democracy: ODM, Wiper Party, Ford-Kenya and the Federal Party of Kenya The Jubilee Alliance: TNA, URP and UDF Parties.
UDF left the coalition. Machel Waikenda was the director of communications and secretary of arts and entertainment of the National Alliance, from April 2012 to August 2013 and he led the media and communications department of the party during the 2013 elections. Eagle Alliance: KNC and POA Parties Pambazuka Coalition: New FORD Kenya, Nation
William Kipchirchir Samoei Arap Ruto is a Kenyan politician, Deputy President of Kenya since 2013. He served as the Acting President of Kenya between 5 and 8 October 2014 while President Uhuru Kenyatta was away at the Hague, he served in various ministerial positions including the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Higher Education Science and Technology. He was Secretary General of KANU, the former ruling political party, MP for Eldoret North Constituency between December 1997 and January 2013, he won the seat in the 1997 Kenyan election after defeating Reuben Chesire. He was appointed to the position of Assistant Minister in the Office of the President by President Daniel arap Moi in 1998, he was promoted to be Minister for Home Affairs in August 2002. He previously served as the Chairman of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Constitutional Reform in the 9th Parliament. On 4 March 2013, he was elected as Deputy President alongside President Uhuru Kenyatta.
They won on a Jubilee Coalition ticket. Ruto was among the list of people who were tried at the International Criminal Court for their involvement in Kenya's 2007-8 electoral violence. However, the case was faced with challenges concerning withdrawal of key prosecution witnesses. In April 2016, the prosecution of Ruto was abandoned by the International Criminal Court. Ruto was born 21 December 1966 in Sambut village, Uasin Gishu County to Daniel Cheruiyot and Sarah Cheruiyot, he attended Kerotet Primary School for his primary school education joined Wareng Secondary School for his Ordinary Levels education before proceeding to Kapsabet Boys High School in Nandi County for his Advanced Levels. He went on to receive a BSc from the University of Nairobi, graduating in 1990. Ruto enrolled for MSc in Plant Ecology, graduating in 2011; the following year, He enrolled for PhD and after several setbacks, he completed and was awarded a PhD from the University of Nairobi graduating in 21 December 2018. The title of his doctoral thesis was ‘Influence of human activities on land use changes on environmental quality of riparian ecosystems: A case study of Saiwa Swamp watershed, Western Kenya’.
Ruto authored several papers including a paper titled'Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya' During his time in campus for the undergraduate course, Ruto was an active member of Christian Union where he served as Chairman Ruto was Organising Secretary of Youth for Kanu'92, a group, formed to drum up support for President Daniel arap Moi in the 1992 election. In January 2006, Ruto declared publicly that he would stand for the presidency in the next general election, scheduled for December 2007, his statement was condemned by some including former president Moi. Ruto sought the nomination of the Orange Democratic Movement as its presidential candidate, but in the party's vote on 1 September 2007, he placed third with 368 votes, behind the winner, Raila Odinga and Musalia Mudavadi. Ruto expressed his support for Odinga after the vote, he resigned from his post as KANU secretary general on 6 October 2007. The presidential election of December 2007 ended in an impasse.
Kenya's electoral commission declared Kibaki the winner. In a scene, replicated all over Africa, Mwai Kibaki was hurriedly sworn in as the president December 2007 presidential election. Following the election and dispute over the result Kenya was engulfed by a violent political crisis. Kibaki and Odinga agreed to form a power-sharing government. In the grand coalition Cabinet named on 13 April 2008 and sworn in on 17 April, Ruto was appointed as Minister for Agriculture. On 21 April 2010, Ruto was transferred from the agriculture ministry and posted to the higher education ministry, swapping posts with Sally Kosgei. On 24 August 2011, Ruto was relieved of his ministerial duties, remaining a member of parliament, he joined with Uhuru Kenyatta to form the Jubilee alliance for the 2013 presidential election. On 6 October 2014 Ruto was appointed acting president of Kenya by President Uhuru Kenyatta following his summons to appear before the ICC, it is believed he will succeed Kenyatta and run for the party presidency in 2022.
In December 2010, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court announced that he was seeking summonses of six people, including Ruto over their involvement in the 2007-8 electoral violence. The ICC's Pre-Trial Chamber subsequently issued a summons for Ruto at the prosecutor's request. Ruto is accused of planning and organising crimes against supporters of President Kibaki's Party of National Unity, he is charged with three counts of crimes against humanity, one of each of murder, forcible transfer of population and persecution. On 23 January 2012, the ICC confirmed the charges against Ruto and Joshua Sang, in a case that involved Uhuru Kenyatta, Francis Muthaura, Henry Kosgey and Major General Mohammed Hussein Ali, he told the American government that the Kiambaa church fire on 1 January 2008 after the 2007 Kenyan general election was accidental. The Waki Commission report stated in 2009 that "the incident which captured the attention of both Kenyans and the world was the deliberate burning alive of Kikuyu women and children huddled together in a church" in Kiambaa on 1 January 2008.
The death toll was 17 burned alive in the church, 11 dying in or on the way to hospital, 54 others suffered various injuries and were treated and discharged. In April 2016, the prosecution of Ruto was abandoned by the International Criminal Court. Ruto was on trial charged with defrauding the Kenya Pipeline Company of huge amo