V for Vendetta
V for Vendetta is a British graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by David Lloyd. Published in black and white as an ongoing serial in the short-lived UK anthology Warrior, it morphed into a ten-issue limited series published by DC Comics. Subsequent collected editions have been published under DC's more specialized imprint Vertigo; the story depicts a dystopian and post-apocalyptic near-future history version of the United Kingdom in the 1990s, preceded by a nuclear war in the 1980s which had devastated most of the rest of the world. The White supremacist, neo-fascist and outwardly Christofascistic Norsefire political party has exterminated its opponents in concentration camps and rules the country as a police state; the comics follow its title character and protagonist, V, an anarchist revolutionary dressed in a Guy Fawkes mask, as he begins an elaborate and theatrical revolutionist campaign to kill his former captors, bring down the fascist state and convince the people to abandon fascism in favour of anarchy, while inspiring a young woman, Evey Hammond, to be his protégé.
DC Comics had sold more than 500,000 copies of the books in the United States as of 2006. Warner Bros. released a film adaptation of the same title in 2005. The first episodes of V for Vendetta appeared in black-and-white between 1982 and 1985, in Warrior, a British anthology comic published by Quality Communications; the strip was one of the least popular in that title. But with five or six strips an issue, regular only needed two or three favorites to justify their buying the title."When the publishers cancelled Warrior in 1985, several companies attempted to convince Moore and Lloyd to let them publish and complete the story. In 1988, DC Comics published a ten-issue series that reprinted the Warrior stories in colour continued the series to completion; the first new material appeared in issue No. 7, which included the unpublished episodes that would have appeared in Warrior No. 27 and No. 28. Tony Weare contributed additional art to two others; the entire series has appeared collected in paperback and hardback form, including Moore's "Behind the Painted Smile" essay and two "interludes" outside the central continuity.
Collections include reissued paperbacks, published in the US by DC's Vertigo imprint and in the UK by Titan Books. A new hardback edition was published in 2005 coloring. In August 2009 DC published a slipcased Absolute Edition. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401208417. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401223618. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401238582. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401285005. David Lloyd's paintings for V for Vendetta in Warrior first appeared in white. In writing V for Vendetta, Moore drew upon a comic strip idea submission that the DC Thomson scriptwriting competition rejected in 1975. "The Doll" involved a transsexual terrorist in white face makeup who fought a totalitarian state during the 1980s. Years Skinn invited Moore to create a dark mystery strip with artist David Lloyd. V for Vendetta was intended to recreate something similar to their popular Marvel UK Night Raven strip in a 1930s noir, they chose against doing historical research and instead set the story in the near future rather than the recent past.
V for Vendetta emerged, putting the emphasis on "V" rather than "Vendetta". David Lloyd developed the idea of dressing V as Guy Fawkes after previous designs followed the conventional superhero look. During the preparation of the story, Moore made a list of what he wanted to bring into the plot, which he reproduced in "Behind the Painted Smile":Orwell. Huxley. Thomas Disch. Judge Dredd. Harlan Ellison's "Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman and The Prowler in the City at the Edge of the World by the same author. Vincent Price's Dr. Theatre of Blood. David Bowie; the Shadow. Night Raven. Batman. Fahrenheit 451; the writings of the New Worlds school of science fiction. Max Ernst's painting "Europe After the Rain". Thomas Pynchon; the atmosphere of British Second World War films. The Prisoner. Robin Hood. Dick Turpin... The influence of such a wide number of references has been demonstrated in academic studies, above which dystopian elements stand out the similarity with George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four in several stages of the plot.
The political climate of Britain in the early 1980s influenced the work, with Moore positing that Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government would "obviously lose the 1983 elections", that an incoming Michael Foot-led Labour government, committed to complete nuclear disarmament, would allow the United Kingdom to escape unscathed after a limited nuclear war. However, Moore felt that fascists would subvert a post-holocaust Bri
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology is an attached agency of the Department of the Interior and Local Government mandated to direct and control the administration and operation of all district and municipal jails in the Philippines with pronged tasks of safekeeping and development of its inmates. It was created on January 2, 1991 by virtue of Republic Act No. 6975 known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990. Prior to its creation, the Office of Jail Management and Penology of Philippine Constabulary - Integrated National Police was the agency handling the local penology of the Philippines, it aimed to separate the agency from the national police, reporting directly to the Secretary of the Interior and Local Government. The Jail Bureau, pursuant to Section 60 to 65, Chapter V, Republic Act No. 6975 amended by Republic Act No. 9263, is headed by a Chief, assisted by two Deputy Chiefs, one for Administration and another for Operations, one Chief of Directorial Staff, all of whom are appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior and Local Government from among the qualified officers with the rank of at least Senior Superintendent in the Jail Bureau.
The Chief of the Jail Bureau carries the rank of Director and serves a tour of duty that must not exceed four years, unless extended by the President in times of war and other national emergencies. The Jail Bureau operates and maintains Regional Offices in each of the administrative regions of the country, headed by a Regional Director for Jail Management and Penology, with the rank of at least Senior Superintendent; the Regional Director is assisted by an Assistant Regional Director for Administration, Assistant Regional Director for Operations, Regional Chief of Directorial Staff, who are all officers with the rank of at least Superintendent. In every province, the Jail Bureau operates and maintains a Provincial Jail Administrator’s Office headed by a Provincial Administrator, who oversee the implementation of jail services of all district and municipal jails within its territorial jurisdiction. In large cities or a group of clustered municipalities, a District Jail headed by a District Warden may be established.
The City and Municipal Jails, each headed by a Municipal Warden. 1. President of the Republic 2. Secretary of the Interior and Local Government 3. Chief of the Jail Bureau 4. Deputy Chief for Administration 5. Deputy Chief for Operation 6. Chief of Directorial Staff Directorate for Personnel and Records Management Directorate for Human Resource Development Directorate for Operations Directorate for Inmates Welfare and Development Directorate for Logistics Directorate for Comptrollership Directorate for Program Development Directorate for Intelligence Directorate for Investigation and Prosecution Office of Program Management Office of Legal Services Office of General Services Office of Accounting Services Office of Finance Services Office of Supply Accountable Officer Office of Internal Audit Office of Chaplaincy Services Office of Community Relations Services Office of Information & Communications Tech. Services Office of Health Services NESJO The following ranks are in force in the BJMP, with their equivalents in the National Police as of 2019: Director - Police Major General Chief Superintendent - Police Brigadier General Senior Superintendent - Police Colonel Superintendent - Police Lieutenant Colonel Chief Inspector - Police Major Senior Inspector - Police Captain Inspector - Police Lieutenant Senior Jail Officer 4 – Police Executive Master Sergeant Senior Jail Officer 3 – Police Chief Master Sergeant Senior Jail Officer 2 – Police Senior Master Sergeant Senior Jail Officer 1 – Police Master Sergeant Jail Officer 3 – Police Staff Sergeant Jail Officer 2 – Police Corporal Jail Officer 1 – Police Jail Warden Official Website Republic Act No. 6975 from the LawPhil Project Republic Act No. 6975 from the LawPhil Project
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Sussex Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Sussex in southern England. Its headquarters is located in Malling House, East Sussex. Policing in the county can be traced back to the first force established in Brighton in 1830. A few years on 13 March 1844 Chief Constable Henry Solomon was murdered in his office by a prisoner he was interviewing, he is believed to be the only chief officer to have suffered such a fate. Prior to 1830 local watchmen were appointed to provide some degree of law enforcement in the area. In 1812, there were some 12 watchmen. By 1814 the number had grown at this time the title of constable was in use for them. By 1868 the force had grown to 100 officers and helmets replaced top hats. In 1918 the first woman was appointed as a police officer in this force and by 1930 it had grown to 216 officers. On 14 September 1933, Brighton Police were the first force to introduce police radios. Forces were established for the counties of East Sussex and West Sussex, as well as separate forces in the boroughs of Brighton, Hove and Hastings.
These forces amalgamated temporarily during the Second World War, from 1943 until 1947, but with the exception of Hove, policing reverted to the old system for another two decades. Hove remained part of East Sussex Constabulary. On 1 January 1968 Sussex Constabulary was created from the amalgamation of Brighton Borough Police, Eastbourne Borough Police, Hastings Borough Police, West Sussex Constabulary and East Sussex Constabulary. In 1974 the amalgamated forces became Sussex Police. Brighton ConstabularyHenry Solomon appointed 18 May 1838 Thomas Hayter Chase appointed 22 May 1844 George White appointed 21 December 1853 Owen Crowhurst appointed 7 December 1876 Isaiah Barnden appointed 8 August 1877 James Terry appointed 6 April 1881 Thomas Carter appointed 27 January 1894 Sir William Gentle appointed 26 September 1901 Charles Griffin appointed 5 June 1920 William James Hutchinson appointed 1 December 1933 Charles Field Williams Ridge appointed 1 July 1956 Albert Edgar Rowsell appointed 28 October 1957 William Thomas Cavey appointed 8 October 1963 Brighton amalgamated with East Sussex Constabulary, West Sussex Constabulary and Eastbourne Constabularies to form Sussex Constabulary, 1968Sussex Constabulary1968–??: Thomas Christopher Williams 1973–1983: George Terry 1983–1993: Roger Birch 1993–2001: Paul Chapple Whitehouse 2001–2006: Kenneth Lloyd Jones 2006–2007: Joseph Edwards 2008–2014: Martin Richards 2014–: Giles York Sussex Police is commanded by Chief Constable Giles York.
The remainder of the command team consists of Deputy Chief Constable Bernie O'Reilly, Assistant Chief Constable Steve Barry, Assistant Chief Constable Laurence Taylor. Forming part of the command team are the Assistant Chief Officer, the Director of Finance and Chief Information Officer although these roles are filled by civilian members of staff; the force consists of each being led by a chief superintendent. As at April 2017 West Sussex was led by Chief Superintendent Steve Whitton, East Sussex by Chief Superintendent Di Roskilly and Brighton & Hove by Chief Superintendent Lisa Bell. Divisions are sub-divided into districts, each led by a chief inspector, providing a local identity for policing; these districts are Chichester, Horsham, Adur & Worthing, Crawley, Mid Sussex, Brighton & Hove, Lewes, Eastbourne and Hastings. Sussex Police is responsible for Gatwick Airport under the command of Superintendent Brian Bracher. Districts are further divided into each led by an inspector; the NPTs are responsible for the bulk of the community work undertaken in an area, look to deal with long term local issues including anti-social behaviour.
Their role stems from the traditional view of'bobbies on the beat' with police community support officers providing a high visibility profile on the street, albeit with limited policing powers. Special Constables serve alongside various teams including NRT, Prevention and on specialist teams such as RPU and Dogs units. Sussex police stated they would try to solve less serious crimes online or by phone and focus resources only on offences with the “biggest impact”. Funding cuts are blamed for this. Police response is covered by Neighborhood Response Teams operating from a number of "hub" stations across the area and providing the initial response to most emergency and prompt attendance calls; these teams are led locally by a sergeant and overall they are managed by an inspector. These teams work seven days a week, 365 days a year. Secondary investigation of crime not dealt with by specialist teams - for example CID - is managed by Response Investigation Teams who work with the NRT. Oversight of Sussex Police was provided by Sussex Police Authority until November 2012, when this role was taken over by a police and crime commissioner following the first elections.
Katy Bourne was elected police and crime commissioner for Sussex Police on 15 November 2012, with a majority of 24,426. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Sussex Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Sussex Police used to operate an MD-902 helicopter, callsign Hotel 900 jointly with the South East Coast Ambulance Service, providing both policing and emergency medical support to Sussex and beyond. Today all police aviation in Wales is conducted by the National Police Air Service; the closest NPAS base to Sussex Police is at Redhill Aerodrome in neighbouring Surrey. The helicopters cal
Police ranks of the United Kingdom
Most of the police forces of the United Kingdom use a standardised set of ranks, with a slight variation in the most senior ranks for the Metropolitan Police Service and City of London Police. Most of the British police ranks that exist today were chosen by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the Metropolitan Police, enacted under the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829; the ranks at that time were deliberately chosen so that they did not correspond with military ranking, because of fears of a paramilitary force. In short, the ranks are from bottom to top: Constable and sergeant Inspector and chief inspector Superintendent and chief superintendent Assistant chief constable, deputy chief constable and chief constable. See the variations section below for the ranks in London, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Badges of rank are worn on the epaulettes. However, when in their formal uniform sergeants wear their rank insignia on their upper sleeves; when police tunics had closed collars and sergeants did not wear epaulettes but had their divisional call number on their collar.
Sergeants wore their stripes on their upper sleeve. Inspectors and more senior ranks wore epaulettes at a much earlier stage, although they once wore their rank insignia on their collars. Most forces no longer use divisional call numbers, retain only the collar number and rank insignia. Senior officers wear distinguishing marks around the outer edge of the peaks of their caps; this is a raised black band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver band for superintendents and chief superintendents, a row of silver oakleaves for chief officers. Chief constables, the Commissioner of the City of London Police, all commissioner ranks of the Metropolitan Police wear oakleaves on both the outer and inner edges of their peaks. In Scotland, the mark is a silver band for inspectors and chief inspectors, a silver band and silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak for superintendents and chief superintendents, silver oakleaves on the outer and inner edges of the peak for all chief officers.
Additionally, officers at or above the rank of commander or assistant chief constable wear gorget patches on the collars of their tunics. The gorget patches are patterned after those worn by general officers of the British Army and Royal Marines; the above ranks are used by all territorial forces in the United Kingdom, the specialist national forces: the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, Civil Nuclear Constabulary. Other specialist forces, those outside of the United Kingdom use the same general system, but have fewer senior ranks. Chief Constable is the title of the head of each United Kingdom territorial police force except the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police, which are headed by commissioners. Ranks above chief superintendent are non-operational management roles, are referred to as "chief officer" ranks but the longer phrase "chief police officer" or similar in legislation is a commissioner or chief constable, a "senior police officer" being their immediate deputy.
The Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police is considered to be the highest police rank within the United Kingdom, although in reality every chief constable and the two commissioners are supreme over their own forces and are not answerable to any other officer. Epaulettes are black with white sewn on or silver metal insignia, although high-visibility uniforms are yellow with black insignia; the rank of an officer can be found in varying details of the uniform such as headgear, sleeve patches and tunic collar details, although these details do not vary for every rank. The City of London Police has different ranks above chief superintendent: Commander Assistant commissioner CommissionerCity of London Police insignia is gold where that of other forces is silver. For example, rank insignia and collar numbers on epaulettes are gold, as are the bands and oakleaves on the caps of senior officers, officers of or above the rank of commander wear gold-on-black gorget patches on the collars of their tunics.
The City of London Police previously had variations for some acting ranks such as sergeant and inspector: acting sergeants wore their chevrons above their divisional letters, whereas substantive sergeants wear them below their collar number. Acting inspectors were denoted by a crown in the place of their divisional letters, whilst keeping their collar number and chevrons; the Royal Ulster Constabulary was headed by an Inspector-General and had a different rank structure until 1 June 1970, when it adopted the rank system used elsewhere in the United Kingdom. The RUC has now been succeeded by the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which uses the same ranks, but has a differ