Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Defence promote Denmark's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the creation of a standing military in 1510, the armed forces have seen action in many wars, most involving Sweden, but involving the world's great powers, including the Thirty Years' War, the Great Northern War, the Napoleonic Wars. Today, Danish Defence consists of: Denmark's principal land warfare branch; the Defence include the Home Guard. The Queen is the Commander-in-chief in accordance with the Danish constitution, under the Danish Defence Law the Minister of Defence serves as the commander of Danish Defence and the Danish Home Guard. De facto the Danish Cabinet is the commanding authority of the Defence, though it cannot mobilize the armed forces, for purposes that are not defence oriented, without the consent of parliament.
The modern Danish military can be traced back with the creation of the Royal Danish Navy. During this time, the Danish Kingdom held considerable territories, including Schleswig-Holstein and colonies in Africa and the Americans. Following the defeat in the Second Schleswig War, the military became a political hot-button issue, with many wanting the disarm the military. Denmark managed to maintain its neutrality during the First World War, with a relative strong military force. However, following the Interwar period, a more pacifistic government came to power, decreasing the size of the military; this resulted in Denmark having a limited military, when Denmark was invaded in 1940. After World War II, the different branches were reorganized, collected under Danish Defence; this was to ensure a unified command as learned from the War. With the defeat in 1864, Denmark had adopted a policy of neutrality; this was however abandoned after World War Two, when Denmark decided to support the UN peacekeeping forces and become a member of NATO.
During the Cold War, Denmark began to rebuild its military and to prepare for possible attacks by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. During this time Denmark participated in a number of UN peacekeeping missions including UNEF and UNFICYP. Following the end of the Cold War, Denmark began a more active foreign policy, deciding to participate in international operations; this began with the participation in the Bosnian War, where the Royal Danish Army served as part of the United Nations Protection Force and were in two skirmishes. This was the first time the Danish Army was a part of a combat operation since World War 2. On April 29, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to relieve an observation post as part of the United Nations Protection Force, the Jutland Dragoon Regiment came under artillery fire from the town of Kalesija; the United Nations Protection Force returned fire and eliminated the artillery positions. On October 24, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to reinforce an observation post in the town of Gradačac, were fired upon by a T-55 Bosnian Serb tank.
One of the three Danish Leopard 1 tanks experienced slight damage, but all returned fired and put the T-55 tank out of action. With the September 11 attacks, Denmark joined US forces in the War on terror, participating in both the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War. In Afghanistan, 37 soldiers have been killed in various hostile engagements or as a result of friendly fire, 6 have been killed in non-combat related incidents, bringing the number of Danish fatalities to 43, being the highest loss per capita within the coalition forces. Denmark has since participated in Operation Ocean Shield, the 2011 military intervention in Libya and the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War; the purpose and task of the armed forces of Denmark is defined in Law no. 122 of February 27, 2001 and in force since March 1, 2001. It defines six tasks, its primary purpose is to prevent conflicts and war, preserve the sovereignty of Denmark, secure the continuing existence and integrity of the independent Kingdom of Denmark and further a peaceful development in the world with respect to human rights.
Its primary tasks are: NATO participation in accordance with the strategy of the alliance and repel any sovereignty violation of Danish territory, defence cooperation with non-NATO members Central and East European countries, international missions in the area of conflict prevention, crises-control, peacemaking, participation in Total Defence in cooperation with civilian resources and maintenance of a sizable force to execute these tasks at all times. Total Defence is "the use of all resources in order to maintain an organized and functional society, to protect the population and values of society"; this is achieved by combining the military, Home Guard, Danish Emergency Management Agency and elements of the police. The concept of total defence was created following Word War 2, where it was clear that the defence of the country could not only rely on the military, but there need to be other measures to ensure a continuation of society; as a part of the Total Defence, all former conscripts can be recalled to duty, in order
Home Guard Command (Denmark)
Home Guard Command, is the Danish Home Guard's top authority and is a level one authority reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence. The Home Guard is a volunteer military organization offering a permanent state of readiness; the task of the Home Guard is to support the armed forces - nationally as well as internationally. In addition to this, the Home Guard supports the police, the emergency services, other civilian authorities; the Home Guard contributes internationally with guard duty, build-up of military capacity, support to civilian reconstruction. The Home Guard has a combined civilian leadership; the Commanding General of the Home Guard is responsible for the training and posting of units and managing the Home Guard. The Commissioner of the Home Guard is responsible for recruitment and the public support to the Home Guard in Denmark and general defence in the Danish community. In times of tension and war the Danish Defence Command assume command over the activated Home Guard units.
Until 2014, the Home Guard Command was located at Generalstok in Copenhagen. It was temporarily relocated to Søkvæsthuset in central Copenhagen. From August 2015, it will be placed at Vordingborg Barracks
Home Guard (Denmark)
The Danish Home Guard is the fourth service of the Danish military, it was concerned only with the defence of Danish territory, but since 2008, it has supported the Danish military efforts in Afghanistan and Kosovo. Service is voluntary and unpaid, though members' loss of income from time taken off work, transport expenses and other basic expenses are compensated; however and depot staff plus clerks and senior officers are all paid. The unarmed Women's Army Corps was merged in 1989 with the all-male Home Guard to form the present, armed unisex Home Guard, its top authority is the General Command, managed directly by the Danish Ministry of Defence. Only in times of tension and war will the Danish Defence Command assume command over the Home Guard; the Danish Home Guard is jointly headed by Major General Jens Garly and a political leader, a member of the Danish Parliament. On November 1, 2013 MP Bjarne Laustsen became the political leader. Created after World War II, the Danish Home Guard was inspired by the Danish Resistance Movement during the war.
It was always implied that the primary objective was defence and guerrilla activity against a Soviet invasion. When founded on June 11, 1945 in the city of Odense, the 250 representatives of resistance movements and those of the government, both had demands to the new Home Guard; the resistance movements were not interested in a people's army run by the government and the government was not interested in a people's army being independent and run by a military figure without parliament representation. Because of these bi-lateral demands, a simple solution to the problem was made; the Home Guard would have two chief executives: A Major General and a representative chosen by parliament. The organization would be funded by parliament, but organized directly under the Ministry of Defence, so that both sides had an overview of what the Home Guard was doing. For some simple reasons, the Danish Home Guard would owe its loyalty to the will of the people, not the government; the reason for this was, that if a situation like that of World War II was to occur again, whether in peace or wartime, the Home Guard would be a guarantee brought by the people, for the people, that the organization do all in its power to protect the individual citizen from crimes against humanity.
Among these would be persecution due to political and religious stands, direct oppression and genocide. It would above all ensure that people's rule, would be enforced; the Home Guard was well respected among the public. With the creation of the Home Guard, the founding members swore to protect the Danish people against all enemies, both foreign and domestic, this referring to the Danish government during the occupation that supported Nazi Germany by handing over Danish citizens to the Gestapo. Despite this, members who had a seat in the government during the occupation claim in their defence that such actions were performed to protect the rest of the people from further war crimes; the Home Guard would be a military wing aiding the defence of Denmark from foreign aggressors and a constant reminder for politicians who would be tempted by their political powers and influence that they cannot do whatever they please. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the Home Guard, with its costly training and equipment, was by many Danes perceived as a useless expense, an obsolete organization, referring to people's attention that for the past four decades had been drawn outside of Denmark to an enemy that swayed at the back of everyone's mind.
Little attention had therefore been accredited the Home Guard as an organization providing a stabilizing factor between the people's will and government power. In response to the people's view on the Home Guard, the Danish government entrusted the organization with additional responsibilities in 2004, it should be trained for defence of Danish territory in wartimes but be able to take on tasks to help civilians during disasters of most kinds, thereby rebalancing the expenses many had thought of as unnecessary. All this was against the values of the Home Guard. In recent years, changes within the Danish political system, which owes some of its structure to Montesquieu's separation of powers, has brought new times for the Home Guard. On its English webpage, the organization states that: "The overall mission for the Home Guard is to reinforce and to support the Army, the Navy, the Air Force in fulfilling their missions". With the Home Guard being included in the government's Defence Act along with the Home Guard's own public commercials drawing emphasis on emergency relief, as opposed to being an armed counter-weight ensuring that any Danish government, now or in the future, stays in place, a debate can be initiated of whether or not this organization now voluntarily owes its loyalty to the government rather than the people.
The Home Guard has made certain changes that mean some departure from the popular roots of yesteryear. The Home Guard is still an all-volunteer force, will continue to be, but developments have made it necessary to split the force into two basic parts. To be eligible for active status, one must serve at least 24 documented hours in a calendar year. In addition, other criteria need to be met in order to retain your weapon; the reserve force do not have weapons or equipment issued. Additionally, a force element call
Hans Jesper Helsø
Hans Jesper Helsø, is a former Danish Chief of Defence. Helsø served his conscription in 1968 and became sergeant and officer of the reserve. In 1974 he served the following four years at King's Artillery Regiment. In 1982-83 he is - as a captain - at the General Staff Course in the United States. In 1990 he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel and come back to the artillery as Head of Department for a few years. After a short staff service at the Army Operational Command, he became Head of the King's Artillery Regiment between 1994 and 1996. In 2000-02, he is Chief of the Army Operational Command, Chief of Operations and Planning Staffs until his appointment as Chief of Defence. In August 2008 Helsø was replaced by Tim Sloth Jørgensen, his service has been supplemented with a few international missions. In 2002 - a few months before planned - Helsø had to step in as Chief of Defence as a result of Christian Hvidt's early resignation, his period as Chief of Defence is marked by the Defence moving from being a mobilization defense to be a conscription based professional defense, in which overseas missions form a significant part of the effort.
The planning of this change occurred in the Defence's own management and is described in the episode K-notatet in the TV series Magtens Billeder. After his time as Chief of Defense Helsø engaged in organizations related to the military, including as a member of Soldier Scholarship Award Committee and on the board of the YMCA Soldiers Mission. Helsø has four children. General Hans Jesper Helsø's CV
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Minister of Defence (Denmark)
The Minister of Defence of Denmark is the politically appointed head of the Danish Ministry of Defence. The Minister of Defence is responsible for the Danish armed forces, the Danish Defence Intelligence Service and the Danish Emergency Management Agency; the Minister of Defence follows the directions given by the Prime Minister of Denmark and the decisions of the Folketing. The Danish Defence Law designates in article 9 the Minister of Defence as the supreme authority in Defence. Under the Minister is the Chief of Defence, the senior-ranking professional military officer heading the Defence Command, who commands the Army, the Navy, the Air Force and other units not reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence; the main responsibilities of the Minister of Defence are to prevent armed conflicts and war, to safeguard the sovereignty of Denmark and integrity of Danish territory and to promote global peace and stability. Since 2002 these responsibilities have included the political leadership of the Danish contribution to the NATO led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.
The current Defence Minister is Claus Hjort Frederiksen. In 1905, the offices of the Minister of the Navy and the War Minister were merged to create the current office of Defence Minister. Commander-in-chief#Denmark List of Minister of Defence of Denmark