The Portuguese Navy, tracing back to the 12th century, is one of the oldest continuously serving navies in the world. The navy played a key role at the beginning and during the voyages of the Age of Discoveries in the 15th and 16th centuries. Bartolomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa and Vasco da Gama reached India, linking Europe and Asia for the first time by ocean route, as well as the Atlantic. The Portuguese Navy participates in missions related with international commitments assumed by Portugal, the first known battle of the Portuguese Navy happened in 1180, during the reign of Portugals first king, Afonso I. The battle occurred when a Portuguese fleet commanded by the knight Fuas Roupinho defeated a Muslim fleet near Cape Espichel, Fuas Roupinho made two incursions at Ceuta, in 1181 and 1182, and died during the latter of these attempts to conquer the North African city. During the 13th century, in the Portuguese Reconquista, the Navy helped in the conquest of several coastal Moorish towns, like Alcácer do Sal and Faro.
It was used in the battles against Castile through incursions in Galicia and Andalusia, in 1317, King Denis decided to give, for the first time, a permanent organization to the Royal Navy, appointed Manuel Pessanha of Genoa to be the first Admiral of the Kingdom. In 1321, the Navy successfully attacked Muslim ports in North Africa, Maritime insurance began in 1323 in Portugal, and between 1336 and 1341 the first attempts at maritime expansion are made, with the expedition to Canary Islands, sponsored by King Afonso IV. In the context of the 1383–85 Crisis, the Portuguese Navy took a participation in the war against Castile. In July 1384, the Portuguese Navy was able to break the Castilian siege of Lisbon and to supply the city, defeating the Castilian Navy in the naval battle of the Tagus. At the end of the 14th century, more Portuguese discoveries were made, with the Navy playing a role in the exploration of the oceans. Portugal became the first naval world power, in the beginning of the 15th century, the country entered a period of peace and stability.
Europe was still involved in wars and feudal conflicts which allowed Portugal to be the only country to methodically and successfully start the exploration of the Atlantic. Exploration in the west African coast started in 1412 and ended with the crossing of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, after his return from Ceuta, Henry the navigator founded a school of navigation in Sagres, which was a place to discuss the art of navigation. The vessel employed in the beginning of the Discoveries was the caravel, the first results came soon and Gonçalves Zarco discovers the Porto Santo Island in 1419 and the Madeira Island in 1420, Diogo de Silves discovers the azorean island of Santa Maria in 1427. In 1424, Gil Eanes crosses the Cape Bojador, Diogo Cão and Bartolomeu Dias arrived to the mouth of the Zaire River in 1482. In the same year, the São Jorge da Mina castle is built in the coast of Western Africa, by Diogo de Azambuja, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European to sail around the southernmost tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope.
João Vaz Corte-Real arrives to Newfoundland in 1473, part of the coast of Newfoundland would be charted by the Corte-Real brothers, sons of João Vaz Corte-Real, in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage in 1501
Armed Forces of the Philippines
The Armed Forces of the Philippines are composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force. In 2014, a senior AFP officer reported it had 90,000 members, of which 30,000 were in the Army and this figure matches closely with the International Institute for Strategic Studies 2011 figure of 40,000,10,000, and 10,000. In 2012, the AFP Chief of Staff said that there had been no increase in the number of soldiers over a period. In 2013 the IISS listed reserves as 40,000 Army,30,000 Navy and Marine Corps, in 2014, manpower figures of 125,000 active and 131,000 reserve were reported by the IISS. Pre-Hispanic Philippines maintained local militia groups under the barangay system, reporting to the datu, these groups, aside from maintaining order in their communities, served as their defense forces. With the arrival of Islam, the system of forces in the Mindanao regions sultanates under Muslim control mirrored those other existing sultanates in the region. These local warriors who were in the service of the Sultan were responsible to qualified male citizens appointed by him.
In accordance with the National Defense Act of 1935, the Armed Forces of the Philippines was officially established on December 21,1935, General Douglas MacArthur was asked to supervise its foundation and training. President Quezon officially conferred the title of Field Marshal on MacArthur in a ceremony at Malacañan Palace on August 24,1936 when he appeared with a marshals baton. The Army of the Philippines included naval and air assets directly reporting to Army headquarters, in 1938 the Constabulary Division was separated from the army and reorganized into a national police force. In 1940-41, most soldiers of the Philippine military were incorporated in the U. S. Army Forces Far East, USAFFE made its last stand on Corregidor Island, after which Japanese forces were able to force all remaining Filipino and American troops to surrender. After Japan was defeated in World War II, the Philippines gained its independence in 1946, in 1947 the modern AFP first emerged with the upgrade of the PAAC to the Philippine Air Force.
In 1966, an AFP battalion was sent into South Vietnam during the Vietnam War to ameliorate the economic. AFP units were sent at the same time to the Spratly Islands. 1963 would see the first women join the ranks of the forces with the raising of the Womens Auxiliary Corps. A missile development program known as the Sta and Marcos extended the tour of duty of those military officers who should have been effectively retired, to the dismay of the younger officers. Consequently, discontent in the AFP ensued, the 1989 coup attempt, the bloodiest of all coup attempts against her was crushed with US help. The AFP, during her term launched a campaign against the CPP-NPA after a brief hiatus
Joint Chiefs of Staff
After the 1986 reorganization of the military undertaken by the Goldwater-Nichols Act, the Joint Chiefs of Staff does not have operational command of U. S. military forces. Today, their responsibility is to ensure the personnel readiness, policy. The Joint Chiefs of Staff act in an advisory capacity for the President of the United States. However, the Coast Guard is always a service and may operate under the Department of the Navy during wartime. The commandant of the Coast Guard is however, occasionally invited by the chairman to attend meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. As the military of the United States grew in size following the American Civil War, the Army and Navy were unsupportive of each other at either the planning or operational level and were constrained by disagreements during the Spanish–American War in the Caribbean campaigns. The Joint Board acting as a committee was created to plan joint operations. Yet, the Joint Board accomplished little as its charter gave it no authority to enforce its decisions, the Joint Board lacked the ability to originate its own opinions and was thus limited to commenting only on the problems submitted to it by the Secretaries of War and Navy.
As a result, the Joint Board had little to no impact on the manner the United States conducted World War I, after World War I, in 1919 the two Secretaries agreed to reestablish and revitalize the Joint Board. The mission of the General staff was to develop plans for mobilization for the next war, the US was always designated Blue and potential enemies were assigned various other colors. This time, the Joint Boards membership would include the Chiefs of Staff, their deputies, under the Joint Board would be a staff called the Joint Planning Committee to serve the Board. Along with new membership, the Joint Board could initiate recommendations on its own initiative, the Joint Board still did not possess the legal authority to enforce its decisions. President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill established the Combined Chiefs of Staff during the 1942 Arcadia Conference, the CCS would serve as the supreme military body for strategic direction of the combined US-British Empire war effort.
The UK portion of the CCS would be composed of the British Chiefs of Staff Committee, the Joint Board had little influence during the war and was ultimately disbanded in 1947. Modeled on the British Chiefs of Staff Committee, the JCS first formal meeting was held on 9 February 1942, to coordinate U. S. military operations between War and Navy Departments. On 20 July 1942, Admiral Leahy became the Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, with the chiefs of staff of the services serving under his leadership. The first members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff were, As the table indicates, by the end of the war, each had been promoted and King to Fleet Admiral and Arnold to General of the Army. Arnold was appointed to the grade of General of the Air Force, one of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs committees was the Joint Strategic Survey Committee
Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)
Chief of the General Staff has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964. The CGS is a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Army Board, prior to 1964 the title was Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Since 1959, the post has been subordinate to the Chief of the Defence Staff. The current Chief of the General Staff is General Sir Nick Carter – having succeeded his predecessor, the title was used for five years between the demise of the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in 1904 and the introduction of Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 1909. The post was held by General Sir Neville Lyttelton and, briefly. Throughout the existence of the post the Chief of the General Staff has been the First Military Member of the Army Board, Chief of the Defence Staff First Sea Lord / Chief of the Naval Staff Chief of the Air Staff Deputy Chief of the General Staff
Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom)
The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister. The Chief of the Defence Staff is based at the Ministry of Defence and works alongside the Permanent Under Secretary, the Chief of the Defence Staff is the British equivalent position of what in NATO and the European Union is known as the Chief of Defence. Constitutionally, the Sovereign is the de jure Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the current Chief of the Defence Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach, who succeeded General Sir Nicholas Houghton on 14 July 2016. Chiefs of the Defence Staff are appointed on the recommendation of the Secretary of State for Defence to the Prime Minister before being approved by HM The Queen. The CDS is supported by a deputy, the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, there are several Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff posts who support the VCDS. The CDS focusses on military operations and strategy while the Permanent Under Secretarys remit concerns administrative, the post was created in 1959 to reflect the new concept of joint operations that had come to the fore in the Second World War.
The first incumbent was Marshal of the RAF Sir William Dickson, prior to the creation of the post, he had served as the chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, from 1956 onwards. Before 1956, although no permanent post of chairman existed, the three service chiefs took it in turn to act as chairman at meetings, from the posts inception until the mid-to-late 1970s, CDS appointments were granted on a strict rotational basis between the three services. The first break in order was precipitated by the unexpected death of Marshal of the RAF Sir Andrew Humphrey. During the 1980s, two Royal Navy officers held the post covering a period of six years. However, during the 2010s Guthrie, Boyce and Stirrup were honorarily promoted to their respective services senior ranks, although there is no policy against a Royal Marines officer being appointed, few officers in the Corps attain a high enough rank to be considered for the post. However, in 2016, Gordon Messenger was promoted to the four star rank of general, former Chiefs of Defence Staff receive a life peerage on retirement, sitting in the House of Lords as non-political crossbench peers.
Sir Jock Stirrup was introduced to the House of Lords on 1 February 2010 as Baron Stirrup of Marylebone in the City of Westminster
Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom)
The Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board. The post was created in 1918 with Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard as the first incumbent, the current and 31st Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, who succeeded Sir Andrew Pulford in July 2016. The post was established in January 1918, just prior to the formation of the RAF. Following Trenchards resignation in March 1918 after disagreements with the first air minister, for political reasons Trenchards resignation did not take effect until late April in order that he would be CAS when the RAF was formed. With Churchills post-War appointment as Secretary of State for War and Air, Sykes was moved sideways to head up the nascent Civil Aviation ministry and Trenchard returned as Chief of the Air Staff. In the early 1920s Trenchard had to fight to keep the RAF from being divided and being absorbed back into the Royal Navy, after Lord Trenchard retired in 1930 there were still suggestions that the RAF should be broken up, but Trenchards foundations proved solid.
Newall gave way in 1940 to Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Portal was a tireless defender of the RAF and extremely able in administration and strategy. The Chiefs of the Air Staff of the day had to fight a constant battle to keep the British aircraft industry alive, in the end only minimal success was achieved, with only a rump aviation industrial base left by the 1970s. The first eight chiefs of the air staff were originally commissioned in the Army, with four coming from the infantry, of these both Lord Trenchard and Sir John Salmond each held the post over two separate periods. In 1956 Sir Dermot Boyle became the first chief to have originally been commissioned in the RAF, however, in the case where the officer was promoted on the day before he was posted or retired, the lower rank is shown. Chief of the Defence Staff First Sea Lord / Chief of the Naval Staff Chief of the General Staff Chief of Air Force Chief of the Air Staff CAS Air Power Workshop
Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
The CAS is a senior and permanent member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The CAS heads the Air Staff of the Air Force and reports directly to the President of Pakistan, under the authority of the President, the CAS is responsible for the organisation and equipping of Reserve and civilian forces serving in the Pakistan Air Force and overseas. The CAS allocates Air Force personnel and resources to the commanders of the Air Force. Constitutionally, the CAS is subordinated to the President and the Prime Minister, the CAS is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The appointment does not require the Senate Secretariats confirmation, by statute, the CAS is the equivalent of a four-star general and holds the rank of Air Chief Marshal. As of March 19,2015 the Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman, Pakistan Air Force Chief of the Air Staff-for commanders prior to 1947
Chiefs of Staff Committee
The Chiefs of Staff Committee was initially established as a sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence in 1923. It remained as such until the abolition of the CID upon the outbreak of World War II in 1939. The initial composition of the committee was the heads of the three services, the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff. Each service head took turns being chairman of the committee, subcommittees of the Committee were formed, including the Joint Planning Staff and Joint Intelligence Committee. The Chiefs of Staff committee was responsible for the conduct of the British Armed Forces part of the war effort. The Combined Chiefs of Staff were based in Washington, so for most of the time the Chiefs of Staff were represented at meetings by the British Joint Staff Mission, following World War II, the Chiefs of Staff Committee was transferred to the Ministry of Defence. In 1955 the Government decided to create the post of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, the CDS remained as chairman of the committee and was recognized as the professional head of the British Armed Forces.
In 1964, the post of Chief of the Imperial General Staff was discontinued, the current membership of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, The role of the Committee is to provide advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations. Defence Council of the United Kingdom Admiralty Board Army Board Air Force Board Ministry of Defence - Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is, by U. S. The post of a statutory and permanent Joint Chiefs of Staff chair was created by the 1949 amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act elevated the Chairman from the first among equals to becoming the principal military advisor to the President and Secretary of Defense. The National Military Command Center is part of the Joint Staff operations directorate, the Goldwater-Nichols Act places the chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands. However the services chiefs do have authority over personnel assignments and oversight over resources, the Chairman may transmit communications to the combatant commanders from the President and Secretary of Defense as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. He performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U. S. C. §153 or allocates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in the joint staff under his name.
The principal deputy to the Chairman is the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, another 4-star general or admiral, who among many duties chairs the Joint Requirements Oversight Council. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is assisted by the Joint Staff, led by the Director of the Joint Staff, the National Military Command Center is part of the Joint Staff operations directorate. Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, served as the Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief from July 20,1942 to March 21,1949. He presided over meetings of what was called the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chairman is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. The Chairman and Vice Chairman may not be members of the armed force service branch. However, the President may waive that restriction for a period of time in order to provide for the orderly transition of officers appointed to serve in those positions. However, in a time of war or national emergency, there is no limit to how many times an officer can be reappointed to serve as Chairman, the Chairman has served two terms.
By statute, the Chairman is appointed as a general or admiral while holding office. All pay for officers, however, is limited by Level II of the Executive Schedule which is $15,125.10.1, Functions of the Department of Defense. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense, office of the Secretary Defense, Director of Administration and Management, Directorate for Organizational & Management Planning. Official Joint Chiefs of Staff site
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals, a teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology, some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology, Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organisations, by health insurance companies, or by charities, including direct charitable donations.
Historically, hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals. During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions, Middle Ages hospitals were almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools. The word hospital comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guests lodging, hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel. The German word Spital shares similar roots, the grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight, while others are admitted and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months. Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others.
Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities, some hospitals, especially in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. In California, district hospital refers specifically to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of beds in many local communities. Twenty-eight of Californias rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are District hospitals, Californias District hospitals are formed by local municipalities, have Boards that are individually elected by their local communities, and exist to serve local needs
Portuguese Air Force
The Portuguese Air Force is the aerial warfare force of Portugal. Locally, it is referred to by the acronym FAP, and it is the youngest of the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces. The Portuguese Air Force was formed on July 1,1952, the CEMFA is the only officer in the Air Force with the rank of general. Presently, the FAP is a professional force made of career personnel. As 2015, the FAP employed a total of 5957 military personnel, the Air Force further included 842 civilian employees. Besides its warfare role, the FAP has public service roles, namely assuring the Portuguese Air Search, until 2014, the FAP integrated the National Aeronautical Authority. The AAN is now a body, but continues to be headed by the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, with the Air Force assuring most of its activities. Its aerobatic display teams are the Asas de Portugal jet aircraft display team, the remote origins of the Portuguese Air Force lay in the origins of the Portuguese military aeronautics. Portugal was directly linked with the history of the aeronautics since its early beginnings, in 1709, the Portuguese priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão requested a patent for a device to move through the air, which consisted in a kind of hot air balloon.
The patent was granted on the 19 April 1709 and small models of this device were tested with success in several occasions. Accordingly, with some opinions, a real device would have performed a crewed flight over Lisbon, taking off from the São Jorge Castle. This may have been the first manned flight in history, the AeCP becomes one of the major boosters of the development of the aviation in Portugal in the early 20th century, including of its military use. Despite the previous use of balloons by the Portuguese Army, its first air unit was created in 1911. This unit was the Aerostation Company, which was part of the Army Telegraphic Service and was intended to operate observation aerostats and this unit would receive a handful of airplanes. In 1912, the Portuguese Government receives its first airplane, a Deperdussin B, the Government further receives a Maurice Farman MF4 offered by the O Comércio do Porto newspaper and an Avro 500 offered by the Portuguese Republican Party. These aircraft would be integrated in the Aerostation Company, but remained years without use because of the inexistence of pilots, still in 1912, midshipman Miguel Freitas Homem of the naval purser branch applied for admission to any course that would qualify him as an aviator.
He was so the first so the first member of the Portuguese Military to formally request to be an aircraft pilot. In the same year, by request of the AeCP, the legislator António José de Almeida presents a bill to the Portuguese Parliament for the creation of a Military Aviation Institute