Defence Secretary (India)
The Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence. This post is held by a senior Indian Administrative Service of the rank of secretary to the Government of India; the current Defence Secretary is Sanjay Mitra. As a secretary to the Government of India, the Defence Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian order of precedence. Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence, is the principal adviser to the Minister of Defence on all matters of policy and administration within the Ministry of Defence; the role of Defence Secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the Department of Defence. The responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the Defence Minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the Ministry of Defence before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the Defence Secretary is responsible for coordinating the activities of the other departments in the Ministry of Defence.
To act as the first among equals among the secretaries in the Ministry of Defence. The Defence Secretary is eligible for a diplomatic passport; the official earmarked residence of the Defence Secretary is 9, New Moti Bagh, New Delhi, a Type-VIII bungalow. The salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff/commanders and officers in the rank of full general and its equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces. Cabinet Secretary of India Home Secretary Foreign Secretary Chief Secretary
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service abbreviated to I. A. S. or IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services. Considered the premier civil service of India, the IAS is one of the three arms of the All India Services along with the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service. Members of these three services serve the Government of India as well as the individual states. IAS officers may be deployed to various public sector undertakings; as with other countries following the Westminster parliamentary system of government, the IAS is a part of the permanent bureaucracy of the nation, is an inseparable part of the executive of the Government of India. As such, the bureaucracy remains politically neutral and guarantees administrative continuity to the ruling party or coalition. Upon confirmation of service, an IAS officer serves a probationary period as a sub-divisional magistrate. Completion of this probation is followed by an executive administrative role in a district as a district magistrate and collector which lasts several years, as long as sixteen years in some states.
After this tenure, an officer may be promoted to head a whole state division, as a divisional commissioner. On attaining the higher scales of the pay matrix, IAS officers may lead government departments or ministries. In these roles, IAS officers represent the country at the international level in bilateral and multilateral negotiations. If serving on a deputation, they may be employed in intergovernmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, or the United Nations, or its agencies. IAS officers are involved in the conduct of elections in India as mandated by the Election Commission of India. During the occupation of India by the East India Company, the civil services were classified into three – covenanted and special civil services; the covenanted civil service, or the East India Company's Civil Service, as it was called comprised British civil servants occupying the senior posts in the government.
The uncovenanted civil service was introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians onto the lower rung of the administration. The special service comprised specialised departments, such as the Indian Forest Service, the Imperial Police and the Indian Political Service, whose ranks were drawn from either the covenanted civil service or the British Indian Army; the Imperial Police included many British Indian Army officers among its members, although after 1893 an annual exam was used to select its officers. In 1858 the HEICCS was replaced by the Indian Civil Service, which became the highest civil service in the British Raj between 1858 and 1947; the last British appointments to the ICS were made in 1942. With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Indian civil services—under the general oversight of the Secretary of State for India—were split into two arms, the All India Services and the Central Services; the Indian Civil Service was one of the ten All India Services.
In 1946 at the Premier's Conference, the Central Cabinet decided to form the Indian Administrative Service, based on the Indian Civil Service. There is no alternative to this administrative system... The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work... If you do not adopt this course do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else... these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all over the country; when India was partitioned following the departure of the British in 1947, the Indian Civil Service was divided between the new dominions of India and Pakistan. The Indian remnant of the ICS was named the Indian Administrative Service, while the Pakistani remnant was named the Pakistan Administrative Service; the modern Indian Administrative Service was created under Article 312 in part XIV of the Constitution of India, the All India Services Act, 1951.
There are three modes of recruitment into the Indian Administrative Service. IAS officers may enter the IAS by passing the Civil Services Examination, conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. Officers recruited; some IAS officers are recruited from the state civil services, and, in rare cases, selected from non-state civil service. The ratio between direct recruits and promotees is fixed at 2:1. All IAS officers, regardless of the mode of entry, are appointed by the President of India. Only about 180 candidates out of over 1 million applicants, who apply through the Civil Services Examination, are successful, a success rate of less than 0.01 per cent. As a result, the members of the service are referred as "heaven-born". Unlike candidates appointed to other civil services, a successful IAS candidate is rendered ineligible to re-enter the Civil Services Examination. From 1951 to 1979, an IAS candidate was required to submit two additional papers, as well as three optional papers to be eligible for the Indian Administrative Service or the Indian Foreign Service.
The two additional papers were postgraduate level submissions, compared to the graduate level of the optional papers, it was this distinction that resulted in a higher status for the IAS and IFS. The two postgraduate level submissions were removed, but this has not changed the perceived higher status of the IAS and IFS. After the selection process, the su
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin
The Finance Secretary is the Permanent Secretary-level civil servant, who plays a leadership role in the bureaucracy of the Finance Ministry, Government of India. Subhash Chandra Garg is the present finance secretary of India; the Ministry of Finance is composed of five departments the Department of Economic Affairs, the Department of Revenue, the Department of Expenditure, the Department of Financial Services and Department of Investment and Public Asset Management. Each of the departments is headed by a secretary; each of the five secretaries directly reports to the finance minister. The "Finance Secretary" is a tag given to one of the five secretaries, it only denotes a first among equals. The other four secretaries do not report to the FS. By default, the FS tends to be the senior most of the five, where seniority is defined by the year of entry into the civil service and not age. Sometimes, none of the five is labelled FS. Most finance secretaries have been members of the Indian Administrative Service or IAS, but some of them have been career economists.
The last finance secretary of India was Hasmukh Adhiya. Ashok Lavasa, Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Duvvuri Subba Rao, Bimal Jalan, Manmohan Singh, K. G. Ambegaokar, S Venkitaraman,and Vijay Kelkar are some of the best known finance secretaries. Edmund James Sinkinson BCS LLD born Kendal, UK, 16 July 1849, was Financial Secretary to the Government of India, he died at Darjeeling 1 Jan 1892. One rupee note is signed by Finance Secretary of India and it does not have the word'I promise to pay the bearer'; the Coinage act 2011 which took over Coinage act 1940 says "necessary provisions for inclusion of Government of India one rupee note within the meaning of ‘Coin’ have been consciously incorporated in the Coinage Act, 2011. Further, the RBI, as per Section 24 of the RBI Act, 1934, is not empowered to issue bank note of denomination of value of one rupee" Further, "apart from the metal, the coin may be made of any other material," Hence according to the act One Rupee Note is a'coin'. In accordance with the RBI Act 1934, RBI can not mint coins.
What are the implications of One Rupee note to be classified as a coin. One Rupee Note is an asset, just like other coins. So "I promise to pay the bearer." is not written on the note. You hold an asset. While RBI Notes are a liability. One Rupee Note and One Rupee coins are legal tenders for unlimited amounts. One rupee defines the unit of the currency! It is the base of the currency system. A 1000 rupees RBI note says "I promise to pay the bearer the sum on one thousand rupees". Hence RBI notes which are a liability promises to pay you an asset; this asset is defined by "One rupee" So, the Government of India has the power to mint/print 1 Rupee coin/note which are an asset and define the unit of currency. RBI notes get the value from the asset known as'Rupee'. Finance Ministry, Official website
Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Indian Foreign Service
The Indian Foreign Service is the administrative diplomatic civil service under Group A and Group B of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India. It is considered to be one of the two premier Civil Services, as appointment to IFS renders a person ineligible to reappear in Civil Services Examination, it is a Central Civil service as Foreign policy is the subject matter and prerogative of Union Government. The Ambassador, High Commissioner, Consul General, Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations and Foreign Secretary are some of the offices held by the members of this service; the service is entrusted to manage foreign relations of India. It is the body of career diplomats serving in more than 162 Indian Diplomatic Missions and International Organisations around the world. In addition, they serve at the headquarters of the Ministry of External affairs in Delhi and the Prime Minister's Office, they head the Regional Passport Offices throughout the country and hold positions in the President's Secretariat and several ministries on deputation.
Foreign Secretary of India is the administrative head of the Indian Foreign Service. IFS was created by the Government of India in October 1946 through a Cabinet note but its roots can be traced back to the British Raj when the Foreign Department was created to conduct business with the "Foreign European Powers". IFS Day is celebrated on October 9 every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS. Officers of the IFS are recruited by the Government of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Service Commission. Fresh recruits to the IFS are trained at the Foreign Service Institute after a brief foundation course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie. On 13 September 1783, the board of directors of the East India Company passed a resolution at Fort William, Calcutta, to create a department, which could help "relieve the pressure" on the Warren Hastings administration in conducting its "secret and political business." Although established by the Company, the Indian Foreign Department conducted business with foreign European powers.
From the beginning, a distinction was maintained between the foreign and political functions of the Foreign Department. In 1843, the Governor-General of India, Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough carried out administrative reforms, organizing the Secretariat of the Government into four departments: Foreign, Home and Military; each was headed by a secretary-level officer. The Foreign Department Secretary was entrusted with the "conduct of all correspondence belonging to the external and internal diplomatic relations of the government."The Government of India Act 1935 attempted to delineate more functions of the foreign and political wings of the Foreign Department, it was soon realized that it was administratively imperative to bifurcate the department. The External Affairs Department was set up separately under the direct charge of the Governor-General; the idea of establishing a separate diplomatic service to handle the external activities of the Government of India originated from a note dated 30 September 1944, recorded by Lieutenant-General T. J. Hutton, the Secretary of the Planning and Development Department.
When this note was referred to the Department of External Affairs for comments, Olaf Caroe, the Foreign Secretary, recorded his comments in an exhaustive note detailing the scope and functions of the proposed service. Caroe pointed out that as India emerged as autonomous, it was imperative to build up a system of representation abroad that would be in complete harmony with the objectives of the future government. On 9 October 1946, on the eve of Indian independence, the Indian government established the Indian Foreign Service for India's diplomatic and commercial representation overseas. With independence, there was a near-complete transition of the Foreign and Political Department into what became the new Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations. In 1948, the first group of Indian Foreign Service officers recruited under the combined Civil Services Examination administered by the Union Public Service Commission joined the service; this exam is still used to select new foreign service officers.
The Civil Services Examination is used for recruitment for the Indian Foreign Service. The entire selection process lasts for about 12 months. Only a rank among toppers guarantees an IFS selection— an acceptance rate of 0.02 percent and is known to be the'heaven borne service'. In recent years, the intake into the Indian Foreign Service has averaged between 8-12 persons annually; the present cadre strength of the service stands at 600 officers manning around 162 Indian missions and posts abroad and the various posts in the Ministry at home On acceptance to the Foreign Service, new entrants undergo significant training,which is considered to be one of the most challenging and longest service trainings in the Government of India and nearly takes more than 3 years to graduate from. The entrants undergo a probationary period. Training begins at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie, where members of many elite Indian civil services are trained. After completing a 15-week training at the LBSNAA, the probationers join the Foreign Service Institute in New Delhi for a more intensive training in a host of subjects important to diplomacy, including international relat
Secretary to the Government of India
Secretary to the Government of India abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post rests with the Union Council of Ministers; the position holder is a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service, a government official of high seniority. The post of the secretary, however, is an ex-cadre post, anyone can occupy it, but the office-bearers are either from All India Services or Central Civil Services. All promotions and appointments to this rank and post are directly made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. In the structure of the Indian government, a secretary is the administrative head of a ministry or department, is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and Vice Chief of the Army Staff, officers of the rank of full four-star general and their equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, are listed as such on the Indian order of precedence, ranking twenty-third.
In mid-1930s, the Central Secretariat contained only twenty-nine secretaries, who were all members of the Indian Civil Service. The salary for a member of this rank and post was fixed at Rs. 48,000 per annum in the 1930s. As per warrant or precedence of 1905, secretaries to the Government of India was listed together with joint secretaries to the Government of India and were ranked above the rank of chief secretaries of provincial governments. N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar had once suggested "A secretary should not be immersed in files and burdened with routine, it is essential that he should have time to grasp the overall picture, size up the problems facing the government in the field allotted to his charge, think and plan ahead. All these must be efficiently performed. Failure to make adequate provision in this respect cannot be compensated by a mere increase in the establishment under his control."The Administrative Reforms Commission visualised the role of secretary as one of "coordinator, policy guide and evaluator."
A secretary to the Government of India is the administrative head of a ministry or department and is the principal adviser to the minister-in charge on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry or department. The role of a secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the ministry or department; the responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the ministry or department before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the prime minister-led Appointments Committee of the Cabinet is the final authority on posting and transfer of officers of secretary level. Secretaries report to the prime minister. In the Indian government, secretaries head departments or ministries of the government and hold positions such as Finance Secretary, Defence Secretary, Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Defence Production Secretary, emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies, members of the Railway Board and members of the Telecom Commission.
According to the report of the Seventh Central Pay Commission of India, seventy-three out of ninety-one secretaries to the Government of India are from the Indian Administrative Service. All secretaries to the Government of India are eligible for a diplomatic passport. Secretaries are allotted either type-VII or type-VIII bungalows in areas like New Moti Bagh and Lutyens' across Delhi by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs' Directorate of Estates; the salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff and officers in the rank of full general, its equivalents, in the Indian Armed Forces. Out of the secretaries to the Government of India, most are IAS officers, twelve are either from scientific or from legal background, four are Indian Foreign Service officers, two are Indian Police Service officers and one officer belongs to the Indian Postal Service while two secretary-level positions are vacant. Additionally, the chairman of Railway Board is ex-officio Principal Secretary to the Government of India, while the members of the Railway Board are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India.
In addition, the members of the Telecom Commission are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India. Media articles and others have argued in favour of lateral entrants being recruited to this rank/post to infuse fresh energy and thinking into an insular and archaic bureaucracy. Non-IAS civil services have complained to the Government of India because of lack of empanelment in the rank/post of secretary on numerous occasions. Federal Secretary