A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has changed over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia and North America. Strong 9,000 year old ancient Han Chinese cultural influences, including the 8,000 year old ancient Han Chinese writing script, are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had been a global superpower, which has resulted in Japan absorbing many elements of ancient Han Chinese culture first through what as the Imperial Chinese tributary vassal state of Korea later through direct cultural exchanges during China's Sui and Tang dynasties; the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world during the Tokugawa shogunate after Japanese missions to Imperial China, until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled; the earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 252 AD. Japanese is written with a combination of three scripts: hiragana, derived from the Chinese cursive script, derived as a shorthand from Chinese characters, kanji, imported from China; the Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is often used in modern Japanese for company names and logos and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are very common. Shintoism and Buddhism are the primary religions of Japan, though a secular Christmas is widespread, minority Christian and Islamic communities exist. Shintoism is an ethnic religion that focuses on rituals. In Shintoism, followers believe that kami, a Shinto deity or spirit, are present throughout nature, including rocks and mountains.
Humans can be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shintoism is to maintain a connection between humans and kami; the religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami. Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and spread through China and Korea, it arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, die, be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra; the suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are the concerns of sociology, history and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism. Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so; the flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, stories, or single characters; the style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter to the point of texture and stroke speed.
In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as'shodō' which means'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more known as'shūji"learning how to write characters'. Confused with calligraphy is the art form known as'sumi-e' meaning'ink painting', the art of painting a scene or object. Painting has been an art in Japan for a long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was natural. Japanese painters are categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West.
Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Kabuki is a classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers; the individual kanji, from left to right, mean sing and skill. Kabuki is therefore sometimes translated as "the art of singing and dancing"; these are, ateji characters which do not reflect actual etymology. The kanji of'skill' refers to a performer in kabuki theatre. Since the word kabuki is believed to derive from the verb kabuku, meaning "to lean" or "to be out of the ordinary", kabuki can be interpreted as "avant-garde" or "bizarre" theatre; the expression kabukimono referred to those who were bizarrely dressed. It is translated into English as "strange things" or "the crazy ones", referred to the style of dress worn by gangs of samurai. In 2005, the Kabuki theatre was proclaimed by UNESCO as an intangible heritage possessing outstanding universal value. In 2008, it was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The history of kabuki began in 1603 when Izumo no Okuni a miko of Izumo-taisha, began performing a new style of dance drama in the dry riverbeds of Kyoto. It originated in the 17th century. Japan was under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate, enforced by Tokugawa Ieyasu; the name of the Edo period derives from the relocation of the Tokugawa regime from its former home in Kyoto to the city of Edo, present-day Tokyo. Female performers played both women in comic playlets about ordinary life; the style was popular, Okuni was asked to perform before the Imperial Court. In the wake of such success, rival troupes formed, kabuki was born as ensemble dance and drama performed by women—a form different from its modern incarnation. Much of its appeal in this era was due to the suggestive themes featured by many troupes. For this reason, kabuki was called "遊女歌舞妓" during this period. Kabuki became a common form of entertainment in the ukiyo, or Yoshiwara, the registered red-light district in Edo. A diverse crowd gathered under something that happened nowhere else in the city.
Kabuki theaters were a place to see and be seen as they featured the latest fashion trends and current events. The stage provided good entertainment with exciting new music, patterns and famous actors. Performances went from morning until sunset; the teahouses surrounding or connected to the theater provided meals and good company. The area around the theatres was filled with shops selling kabuki souvenirs. Kabuki, in a sense, initiated pop culture in Japan; the shogunate was never partial to kabuki and all the mischief it brought the variety of the social classes which mixed at kabuki performances. Women’s kabuki, called onna-kabuki, was banned in 1629 for being too erotic. Following onna-kabuki, young boys performed in wakashū-kabuki, but since they too were eligible for prostitution, the shōgun government soon banned wakashū-kabuki as well. Kabuki switched to adult male actors, called yaro-kabuki, in the mid-1600s. Male actors played both male characters; the theatre remained popular, remained a focus of urban lifestyle until modern times.
Although kabuki was performed all over ukiyo and other portions for the country, the Nakamura-za, Ichimura-za and Kawarazaki-za theatres became the top theatres in ukiyo, where some of the most successful kabuki performances were and still are held. The modern all-male kabuki, known as yarō-kabuki, was established during these decades. After women were banned from performing, cross-dressed male actors, known as onnagata or oyama, took over. Young men were preferred for women's roles due to their less masculine appearance and the higher pitch of their voices compared to adult men. In addition, wakashū roles, played by young men selected for attractiveness, became common, were presented in an erotic context. Along with the change in the performer's gender came a change in the emphasis of the performance: increased stress was placed on drama rather than dance. Performances were ribald, the male actors too were available for prostitution. Audiences became rowdy, brawls broke out, sometimes over the favors of a handsome young actor, leading the shogunate to ban first onnagata and wakashū roles.
Both bans were rescinded by 1652. During the Genroku era, kabuki thrived; the structure of a kabuki play was formalized during this period. Conventional character types were established. Kabuki theater and ningyō jōruri, the elaborate form of puppet theater that came to be known as bunraku, became associated with each other, each has since influenced the other's development; the famous playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon, one of the first professional kabuki playwrights, produced several influential works, though the piece acknowledged as his most significant, Sonezaki Shinjū, was written for bunraku. Like many bunraku plays, it was adapted for kabuki, it spawned many imitators—in fact, it and similar plays caused so many real-life "copycat" suicides that the government banned shinju mono in 1723. Ichikawa Danjūrō I lived during this time. Male actors played both male characters. In the 1840s, fires started to affect E
A rope is a group of yarns, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than constructed cord and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, fibrous material, but is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibre ropes are stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, they have a higher tensile strength, they are more resistant to rotting than ropes created from natural fibers, can be made to float on water, but synthetic rope possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness, some can be damaged more by UV light. Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, linen, coir, jute and sisal. Synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, polyesters, polyethylene and acrylics; some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk and hair, but such ropes are not available.
Rayon is a regenerated fibre used to make decorative rope. The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, but enables the rope to more evenly distribute tension among the individual strands. Without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load; the long history of rope means. In systems that use the "inch", large ropes over 1 inch diameter such as are used on ships are measured by their circumference in inches. In metric systems of measurement, nominal diameter is given in millimetres; the current preferred international standard for rope sizes is to give the mass per unit length, in kilograms per metre. However sources otherwise using metric units may still give a "rope number" for large ropes, the circumference in inches. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, exploration, sports and communications, has been used since prehistoric times. To fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses.
Pulleys redirect the pulling force to another direction, can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes; the modern sport of rock climbing uses so-called "dynamic" rope, which stretches under load in an elastic manner to absorb the energy required to arrest a person in free fall without generating forces high enough to injure them. Such ropes use a kernmantle construction, as described below. "Static" ropes, used for example in caving and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch. The UIAA, in concert with the CEN, oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing. Despite the hundreds of thousands of falls climbers suffer every year, there are few recorded instances of a climbing rope breaking in a fall. Climbing ropes, however, do cut when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative. Rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for double or twin use.
A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, as a single strand. Single ropes range in thickness from 9 mm to 11 mm. Smaller ropes wear out faster. Double ropes are thinner ropes 9 mm and under, are intended for use as a pair; these ropes offer a greater margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading. Double ropes are reserved for ice and mixed climbing, where there is need for two ropes to rappel or abseil, they are popular among traditional climbers, in the UK, due to the ability to clip each rope into alternating pieces of protection. Twin ropes are not to be confused with doubles; when using twin ropes, both ropes are clipped into the same piece of protection, treating the two as a single strand. This would be favourable in a situation; however new lighter-weight ropes with greater safety have replaced this type of rope. The butterfly coil is a method of carrying a rope used by climbers where the rope remains attached to the climber and ready to be uncoiled at short notice.
Another method of carrying a rope is the alpine coil. Rope is an aerial acrobatics circus skill, where a performer makes artistic figures on a vertical suspended rope. Tricks performed on the rope are, for example, drops and hangs, they must be strong. See Corde lisse; the use of ropes for hunting, fastening, carrying and climbing dates back to prehistoric times. It is that the earliest "ropes" were occurring lengths of plant fibre, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Impressions of cordage found on fired
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. Unlike garments described as capes or cloaks, robes have sleeves; the English word robe derives from Middle English robe, borrowed from Old French robe, itself taken from the Frankish word *rouba, is related to the word rob. There are various types of robes, including: A gown worn as part of the academic regalia of faculty or students for ceremonial occasions, such as a convocations, congregations or graduations. A gown worn as part of the attire of a barrister. A wide variety of long, flowing religious dress including pulpit robes and the robes worn by various types of monks. A gown worn as part of the official dress of a royalty. Any of several women's fashions of French origin, as robe de style. A gown worn in fantasy role-playing games by wizards and other magical characters. A "bathrobe" worn after bathing or swimming. Any long flowing garment. Thawb Abaya Academic stole Kaftan Clothing Seamless robe of Jesus - Biblical relic Senegalese kaftan The Robe - 1953 American film Black Robe - film about a robed Jesuit priest Tricivara - Buddhist monastic robe The dictionary definition of robe at Wiktionary
A sleeve is the part of a garment that covers the arm, or through which the arm passes or slips. The pattern of the sleeve is one of the characteristics of fashion in dress, varying in every country and period. Various survivals of the early forms of sleeve are still found in the different types of academic or other robes. Where the long hanging sleeve is worn it has, as still in China and Japan, been used as a pocket, whence has come the phrase to have up one's sleeve, to have something concealed ready to produce. There are many other proverbial and metaphorical expressions associated with the sleeve, such as to wear one's heart upon one's sleeve, to laugh in one's sleeve. Sleeve length varies from over the shoulder to floor-length. Most contemporary shirt sleeves end somewhere between the wrist. Early medieval sleeves were cut straight, underarm triangle-shaped gussets were used to provide ease of movement. In the 14th century, the rounded sleeve cap was invented, allowing a more fitted sleeve to be developed.
The names applied to sleeves in historical costume are modern. Kandys Oxford English Dictionary Picken, Mary Brooks: The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls, 1957. Media related to Sleeves at Wikimedia Commons
A waistcoat, or vest, is a sleeveless upper-body garment. It is worn over a dress shirt and necktie and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear, it is sported as the third piece in the traditional three-piece male lounge suit. Any given vest can be ornate or for leisure or luxury; the vest can be worn either in the place of or underneath a larger coat dependent upon the weather and setting. The term waistcoat is used in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries; the term vest is used in the United States and Canada and is worn as part of formal attire or as the third piece of a lounge suit in addition to a jacket and trousers. The term vest derives from the French language veste “jacket, sport coat," the term for a vest-waistcoat in French today being "gilet", the Italian language veste "robe, gown," and the Latin language vestis; the term vest in European countries refers to a type of athletic vest. The Banyan, a garment of India, is called a vest in Indian English. A waistcoat has a full vertical opening in the front, which snaps.
Both single-breasted and double-breasted waistcoats exist, regardless of the formality of dress, but single-breasted ones are more common. In a three piece suit, the cloth used matches trousers. Waistcoats can have lapels or revers depending on the style. Before wristwatches became popular, gentlemen kept their pocket watches in the front waistcoat pocket, with the watch on a watch chain threaded through a buttonhole. Sometimes an extra hole was made in line with the buttonholes for this use. A bar on the end of the chain held it in place to catch the chain if it were pulled. Waistcoats are now worn less, so the pocket watch may more be stored in a trouser pocket. Wearing a belt with a waistcoat, indeed any suit, is not traditional. To give a more comfortable hang to the trousers, the waistcoat instead covers a pair of braces underneath it. A custom still sometimes practised; this is said to have been started by King Edward VII. Variations on this include that he forgot to fasten the lower button when dressing and this was copied.
It has been suggested that the practice originated to prevent the waistcoat riding up when on horseback. Undoing the bottom button avoids stress to the bottom button when sitting down; this convention only applies to single-breasted day waistcoats and not double breasted, straight-hem or livery waistcoats that are all buttoned. Waistcoats worn with lounge suits match the suit in cloth, have four to six buttons. Double breasted waistcoats are rare compared to single; as formalwear, it used to be common to wear a contrastingly coloured waistcoat, such as in buff or dove linen. This is still seen in morning dress; the waistcoats worn with white- and black- tie are different from standard daytime single-breasted waistcoats, being much lower in cut. The much larger expanse of shirt compared to a daytime waistcoat allows more variety of form, with "U" or "V" shapes possible, there is large choice of outlines for the tips, ranging from pointed to flat or rounded; the colour matches the tie, so only black barathea wool, grosgrain or satin and white marcella, grosgrain or satin are worn, although white waistcoats used to be worn with black tie in early forms of the dress.
Waiters, sometimes waitresses, other people working at white-tie events, to distinguish themselves from guests, sometimes wear gray tie, which consists of the dress coat of white tie with the black waistcoat and tie of black tie. The variant of the clergy cassock may be cut as a vest, it differs in style from other waistcoats in that the garment buttons to the neck and has an opening that displays the clerical collar. In the Church of England, a particular High Church clerical vest introduced in the 1830s was nicknamed the "M. B. Waistcoat" with "M. B." standing for the Mark of the Beast. In the Girl Scouts of the USA, vests are used as an alternative to the sash for the display of badges. In many stock exchanges, traders who engage in open outcry may wear colored sleeveless waistcoats, or trading jackets, with insignia on the back. Waistcoats, alongside bowties, are worn by billiard players during a tournament, it is worn in snooker and blackball tournaments in the United Kingdom. The predecessors to the waistcoat are gambeson.
Various types of waistcoats may have been worn in theatrical manners such as performances and masquerades prior to what is said to be the early origins of the vest. During the 17th century, the forerunner to the three-piece suit was appropriated from the traditional dress of diverse Eastern European and Islamic countries; the justacorps frock coat was copied from the long zupans worn in Poland and the Ukraine, the necktie or cravat was derived from a scarf worn by Croatian mercenaries fighting for King Louis XIII of France, the brightly coloured silk waistcoats popularised by King Charles II of England were inspired by exotic Turkish and Persian attire acquired by wealthy English travellers. On October 7th of the year 1666, King Charles II of England revealed that he would be launching a new type of fashion piece in men’s wear. Scholar Diana De Marly suggests that the f