Gubbi Town 20 km from Tumakuru and 90 km from Bengaluru along NH-206. Gubbi ULB Contains equal number of Councilors; the population of the Gubbi Town is 18,457 as per Census 2011. The total area of the Town is 6.67 sq. km. Gubbi was earlier known by the name Amaragonda. Gubbi is famous for Gosala Sri Channabasaveshwara Swamy Temple of Veerashaiva sect and Sri Chidambarashrama. Due to good transport infrastructure, it is a major business hub for neighboring small villages and towns, it has both rail station and National Highway connectivity, a major attraction for people to settle or look for accommodation. The Mission Station at Goobbe was started in April 1837, with Thomas Hodson and his wife moving to Goobbe, they lived in tents, after a while built mud cottages with thatched roof. The mud walls of the house were 6 ft. high, the house had a few small rooms. The house leaked during the rains. Further, Hodson provides a description of the village life at Goobbe. Low flat lands well irrigated from a tank grew paddy.
There were large clumps of trees and large tracts of un-cultivated land, used as common pasture lands for sheep and cows. The shepherd boys had a hand made flute and played a sweet tone. Deer were seen fleeting outside the mission house. Description of the Gubbi Town in the early / mid 19th century is narrated by William Arthur in his book A Mission to the Mysore, with Scenes and Facts Illustrative of India, its People, its Religion, published in 1847 Goobbee town was located about 60 miles NW of Bangalore and had a population of between 6000-7000 people; the town people traded items such as coffee, betel-nut, etc. which were purchased from Nuggur and sold in the markets of Bangalore and Wallajanuggur. The residents were prosperous from this town had its weekly market. At that time, the exchange rate for the British Indian Rupee was 2 British shillings. Labour was cheap; the cost of grains and spices and rent was minimal. Fuel used for cooking was cow dung. 1 meal was cooked hot and eaten, the other meal eaten cold.
A man with BINR 10 was comfortable, one with BINR 20 respectable, one with BINR 50 was prosperous and one with BINR 100 was wealthy. However the cost of living and salaries were much higher in British Indian cities. Goobbee like other Indian cities was surrounded by a mud wall, used to repel wild thugs; the term town applied only to places with both a market and a wall, village was one with a wall but not a market, hamlet consisted of houses with neither market or wall, city was the seat of power. Villages had towns 2 gates at opposite ends; the town of Goobbee had 2 main streets, intersected with minor streets. At one end of the mud fort, there lived the rich merchants. On the other side of the village lived the lower caste people, avoided by the higher caste. There was a clear de-markataion between the higher castes and the lower castes, with the higher caste people refusing to cross into what they considered as a polluted land; the William Arthur Memorial Church is located on the Bangalore-Honavar Road at Gubbi Town, about 80 km from Bangalore.
The church is painted turquoise blue and built in the Gothic style, being completed in 1904. The church is named after William Arthur, an Irish Wesleyan missionary and Canarese Scholar, who served in Gubbi; the present structure replacing the old Gobbee Chapel, built by William Arthur. Gubbi has educational institutes to Bachelor's degree. Major educational institutions are Priya English school, Government junior college, Stella Marys English school, Srinivasa school, Sri Chidambara ashrama, Greenwood International School, Shubhodaya English School, Government First Grade College,Gubbi. Government Junior College, Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology Gubbi Veeranna Sri Chi. Udayashankar Nirmalananda Swamiji G. S. Paramashivaiah There are six hoblis and their headquarters in Gubbi taluk, they are following: Hagalavadi Cheluru. Nittur. Gubbi. Kadaba. C S Pura. Thomas Hodson William Arthur William Arthur Memorial Church, Gubbi Hagalavadi Bukkapatna Official website of Gubbi Town Panchayath Census 2011
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Davangere is a city in the centre of the southern Indian state of Karnataka. It is the sixth largest city in the state, the administrative headquarters of eponymous Davangere District. Hitherto being a cotton hub and hence popularly known before as the Manchester of Karnataka, the commercial ventures of the city is now dominated by education and agro-processing industries. Davanagere became a separate district in 1997, when it was separated from the erstwhile undivided district of Chitradurga for administration conveniences. Davanagere is known for rich culinary traditions which encompass the diversity of entire Karnataka's dishes due to its geographical position in the state as its epicenter. Notable among them is its aromatic benne dose, associated with the name of the city. Davangere has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's ambitious flagship Smart Cities Mission, it went on to be featured in the list of first 20 cities to be developed under the mission by Urban development ministry, released on 28 January 2016, after being scrutinized stringently for several parameters.
Davanagere has been a pioneer in municipal administration with the city attaining the status of a municipality as early as 1870. The Imperial Gazetteer of India says that the receipts and expenditure of the municipality, during the ten years ending 1901, averaged Rs 14,200 and Rs 12,600 respectively; the civic administration of the city was managed by the Davangere City Corporation, before it was established as a municipality on 7 August 1951. It now has the status of a City Corporation, gained this on 6 January 2007, it is headed by a mayor, assisted by commissioners and council members. The city is divided into 41 wards, the council members are elected by the people of the city. Davanagere is the "Heart of Karnataka". Davanagere is surrounded from Chitradurga, Shivamogga and Haveri districts. Davanagere is at the centre of Karnataka, 14°28' N latitude, 75°59' longitude and 602.5 metres above sea level. Davanagere District receives average annual rainfall of 644 mm. Davanagere lies in the Maiden region on the Deccan Plateau.
The district is bounded by Shivamogga Area of Hills, Chitradurga and Ballari districts. The southern and western parts of the district are irrigated by the waters of the Bhadra reservoir, it has the Asia's 2nd largest irrigation tank called Shanti sagar, a major water source for farmers in the district. As of 2011 census, Davanagere city had a population of 435,125. Males constitute 52% of the population, females 48%. Davanagere has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 89% and, female literacy is 81%. In Davanagere, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Davanagere has mixed communities with majority being Hindus. Though the city experienced religious riots in the 1990s, the communities have made efforts to bridge the misunderstanding and demonstrating solidarity towards maintaining peace. Kannada is the major language spoken. Transportation Davanagere is well-connected by road to Bengaluru, Pune, Mangaluru and Chennai through NH 47.
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation, has a divisional office situated in Davanagere City. The city is well-connected to other cities in the state by KSRTC buses. Many operated buses offer overnight services to other places within the state; the city's railway station comes under South Western Railway zone and was constructed during the British period and has been renovated recently. The station code is DVG; the railway station is quite conveniently located in the centre of the city. Regular train services are available to travel towards Bengaluru and Mysore; the nearest airport to Davanagere is Hubballi Airport, 143 kilometres from the city. The ubiquitous Autorickshaws are the backbone for travelling within the city; the city bus services are operated by both private as well as state owned buses. Davangere district Kadalbal Shamanur Benne dose
Hosadurga is a town in the Chitradurga district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the Taluk centre of the tehsil with the same name. Hosadurga is located in Karnataka, with an average elevation of 739 meters above sea level; as of the 2011 India census, Hosadurga has a population of 28,370. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Hosadurga has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%, with a male literacy rate of 76% and a female literacy rate of 70%. In Hosadurga, 12% of the population is under seven years of age. Hosadurga had a strong cement industry in the 1990s, but many factories have closed over time due to shortages of limestone. Only one remains, the Ramco Cement Factory in Mathodu Village. Huliyar Hagalavadi Bukkapatna Gubbi Birur
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Tumkur is one of the industrial cities located in the state of Karnataka known as Shaikshanika Nagari and Kalpatharu Nadu. Since 28 August 2010, Tumkur has been accorded the status of a City Corporation, it is situated at a distance of 70 km northwest of Bangalore, along National Highway NH-4 and NH-206. It is the headquarters of the Tumkur district. Tumkur hosts a project of the ministry of food processing; the India Food Park was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in September 2014. Etymologically, the name of the city is believed to have been mutated from "Tumbe ooru" because of the abundance of tumbe huuvu, a kind of flower, or tamate ooru because of the folk musical percussion instrument tamate, that might have been used most here, it is called the coconut city. Another story says. Since Tumkur is at high elevation the guards used to be there on any hill with tumaki and used to make sound in case of any alerts, hence the name; the Indian central government approved the request to rename the Tumkur and 12 other cities in October 2014.
The city became "Tumakuru" on 1 November 2014. Tumkur is located at 13.34°N 77.1°E / 13.34. It has an average elevation of 822 metres; the city has a station on the South Western railway, 43 km northwest from Bangalore, 130 km southeast from Chitradurga city and 130 km from Kolar City. As of 2011 India census, Tumkur had a population of 305,821. More than 5,00,000 people lived in the corporation limit. At the 2001 census, males constitutes 52% of the population and females 48%. Tumkur had an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, female literacy was 70%. About 11% of the population was under 6 years of age; the most common language in the city is Kannada. The known history of the Tumkur district begins with the Gangas; the Ganga family ruled over the southern and eastern districts of the state from early in the Christian era to 1025 AD. The earliest record of The Ganga family found in this district belongs to about 400 A. D. After the Gangas, Tumkur was ruled by the Rastrakutas and The Chalukyas.
The Nolambas under these rulers ruled the area for a long time. The cholas ruled some parts of the district; the Vijayanagara Empire ruled supreme for the latter part of the 13th to 17th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Tumkur was ruled by The Wodeyars of Mysore until independence; the Tumkur town municipality was set up by the Mysore Wodeyars in the 1916. Self-rule of the residents of Tumkur started after the setting up of the municipality. Tumkur was converted into a city corporation only in 2010 by adding 22 villages adjoining the city; the population is 3,05,877 as per the 2011 census. Tumkur is now a middle class majority city, with a literacy rate of 80% traders, government employees and medium industrialists, self-employed individuals; the GDP of Tumkur is around 16600 crores and the total collection of income tax in the last financial year was 80 crores. Being an Agrarian economy, the major plantation crops of Tumkur are arceanut; the major cash crops are paddy and groundnut. Iron ore and granite are the major minerals found in the Tumkur district.
Due to its proximity to Bengaluru, it acts as a gateway to North Karnataka, being on the Chennai – Mumbai industrial corridor and the infrastructure that Tumkur provides, it has the potential to be the satellite city to decongest the state capital Bengaluru. It has been identified as National Investment and Manufacturing Zone. NIMZ of 13500 acres and the HAL helicopter manufacturing facility 610 acres are being developed as integrated industrial townships with state-of-the art infrastructure and land use on the basis of zoning and energy efficient technology, necessary social infrastructure, skill development facilities, for promoting world class manufacturing activity. Tumkur is home to 24 large scale industries with an investment of 911.42 crores and generating an employment for 6445 persons. The existing 15 medium scale industries and 23804 micro and small industries employ 132994 persons and account for an investment of close to 790 crores. A 2000 MW of solar power plant on 11000 acres is being developed near Pavagada to cater to the power needs of Tumkur and adjoining districts.
Tumkur is a knowledge hub in the south interior of Karnataka. It has Tumkur University, two medical colleges, five engineering colleges, 38 degree and postgraduate colleges, one dental college and many polytechnics, high schools and primary schools; the Indian budget for the year 2014-2015 held on 10 July 2014 announced that Tumkur was one of the cities in south India to be developed as an "Industrial Smart" city. The city was selected as one among the 100 in the country shortlisted for the Smart City project. Tumkur is competing now to be one among the 20 to be taken up for development this year; the government of India has promised 100 crores each as a matching grant for five years and the local body with assistance from the state government has to match another 100 crores. Thus, in five years, development in the amount of 1000 crores will happen in Smart City; the Tumkur District Chamber of Commerce and Industry under the leadership of Surendra Shah, President - 2014-16 is striving to make the City of Tumkur the most aspired city in India.
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation, KSRTC, has a divisional office situated in Tumkur City. The city is well-connected to other cities in the state by KSRTC buses. Volvo buses are available for the city, Bangalore
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle