Egg as food
Some eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell and vitellus, contained within various thin membranes; the most consumed eggs are chicken eggs. Other poultry eggs including those of duck and quail are eaten. Fish eggs are called caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, are used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorized eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from cholesterol content, salmonella contamination, allergy to egg proteins. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are kept throughout the world and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of 6.4 billion hens.
There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens. Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated; the chicken was domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, dating to 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods and meals started with an egg course; the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness; the word mayonnaise was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.
Egg scrambled. The dried egg industry developed in the nineteenth century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and egg white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process; the production of dried eggs expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies. In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a common one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking, they are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs. Smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are used as a gourmet ingredient in Western countries. Eggs are a common everyday food in many parts of Asia, such as China and Thailand, with Asian production providing 59 percent of the world total in 2013.
The largest bird eggs, from ostriches, tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are seen in marketplaces in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are edible, but less available, sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild bird eggs are protected by laws which prohibit the collecting or selling of them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year. In 2013, world production of chicken eggs was 68.3 million tonnes. The largest four producers were China at 24.8 million of this total, the United States at 5.6 million, India at 3.8 million, Japan at 2.5 million. A typical large egg factory ships a million dozen eggs per week. For the month of January 2019, the United States produced 9.41 billion eggs, with 8.2 billion for table consumption and 1.2 billion for raising chicks.
Americans are projected to each consume 279 eggs in 2019, the highest since 1973, but less than the 405 eggs eaten per person in 1945. During production, eggs are candled to check their quality; the size of its air cell is determined, the examination reveals whether the egg was fertilized and thereby contains an embryo. Depending on local regulations, eggs may be washed before being placed in egg boxes, although washing may shorten their length of freshness; the shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other and has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a hard shell. Thin membranes exist inside the shell; the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The larger end of the egg contains an air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA.
As the size of the air cell increases and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of t
Pozole, which means "hominy", is a traditional soup or stew from Mexico. It is made from hominy, with meat, can be seasoned and garnished with shredded lettuce, chile peppers, garlic, avocado, salsa or limes. Pozole is served on New Year's Eve to celebrate the new year, it is a typical dish in various states such as Nayarit, Michoacán, Zacatecas and Morelos. Pozole is served in Mexican restaurants worldwide. Pozole is served as a celebratory dish throughout Mexico and by Mexican communities outside Mexico. Common occasions include Mexico Independence Day, birthdays and other holidays. Pozole was mentioned in the Florentine Codex by Bernardino de Sahagún. Since maize was a sacred plant for the Aztecs and other inhabitants of Mesoamerica, pozole was made to be consumed on special occasions; the conjunction of maize and meat in a single dish is of particular interest to scholars, because the ancient Americans believed the gods made humans out of masa. According to research by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, on these special occasions, the meat used in the pozole was human.
After the prisoners were killed by having their hearts torn out in a ritual sacrifice, the rest of the body was chopped and cooked with maize, the resulting meal was shared among the whole community as an act of religious communion. After the Conquest, when cannibalism was banned, pork became the staple meat as it "tasted similar", according to Bernardino de Sahagún. Pozole can be prepared in many ways. All variations include a base of cooked hominy in broth. Pork, or sometimes chicken, is included in the base. Vegetarian recipes substitute beans for the meat; the three main types of pozole are verde/green and rojo/red. White pozole is the preparation without any additional red sauce. Green pozole adds a rich sauce based on green ingredients including tomatillos, cilantro, jalapeños, or pepitas. Red pozole is made without the green sauce, instead adding a red sauce made from one or more chiles, such as guajillo, piquin, or ancho; when pozole is served, it is accompanied by a wide variety of condiments including chopped onion, shredded lettuce, sliced radish, avocado, oregano, chicharrón, or chiles.
Fricasé List of maize dishes List of Mexican dishes List of soups List of stews Menudo - a similar dish made with tripe Mexican cuisine
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,460,148 inhabitants, it is Mexico's second most populous municipality; the Guadalajara metropolitan area has a reported population of 5,002,466 inhabitants, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico, it is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest Latin American city in population, urban area and gross domestic product; the city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, its economy is based on services and industry information technology, with a large number of international firms having regional offices and manufacturing facilities in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, several domestic IT companies headquartered in the city.
Other, more traditional industries, such as shoes and food processing are important contributing factors. Guadalajara is a cultural centre of Mexico, considered by most to be the home of mariachi music and host to a number of large-scale cultural events such as the Guadalajara International Film Festival, the Guadalajara International Book Fair, globally renowned cultural events which draw international crowds, it is home to the C. D. Guadalajara, one of the most popular football clubs in Mexico; this city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005. Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games; the city was established in five other places before moving to its current location. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Zacatecas; this site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests and defending them against the still-hostile natives. The settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water.
Four years Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán. While the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today; this settlement was ferociously attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan and Zacateco peoples under the command of Tenamaxtli. The war was initiated by the natives due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán, in particular the enslavement of captured natives. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to take control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements; the conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves and granting amnesty. The village of Guadalajara survived the war, the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city, it was decided to move the city once again, this time to Atemajac. The city has remained there to this day. In 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain.
Guadalajara was founded on February 14, 1542 in the Valley of Atemajac. The settlement's name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de Guzmán. In 1559, royal offices for the province of Nueva Galicia were moved from Compostela to Guadalajara, as well as the bishopric. Construction of the cathedral began in 1563. In 1575, religious orders such as the Augustinians and Dominicans arrived, which would make the city a center for evangelization efforts; the historic city center encompasses what was four centers of population, as the villages of Mezquitán, Analco and Mexicaltzingo were annexed to the Atemajac site in 1669. In 1791, the University of Guadalajara was established in the city, the capital of Nueva Galicia; the inauguration was held in 1792 at the site of the old Santo Tomas College. While the institution was founded during the 18th century, it would not be developed until the 20th century, starting in 1925. In 1794, the Hospital Real de San Miguel de Belén, or the Hospital de Belén, was opened.
Guadalajara's economy during the 18th century was based on agriculture and the production of non-durable goods such as textiles and food products. Guadalajara remained the capital of Nueva Galicia with some modifications until the Mexican War of Independence. After Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla decided not to attack Mexico City, despite early successes, he retreated to Guadalajara in late 1810, he and his army were welcome in the city, as living conditions had become difficult for workers and Hidalgo promised to lower taxes and put an end to slavery. However, violence by the rebel army to city residents royalists, soured the welcome. Hidalgo did sign a proclamation ending slavery, honored in the country since after the war. During this time, he founded the newspaper El Despertador Americano, dedicated to the insurgent cause. Royalist forces marched to Guadalajara. Insurgents Ignacio Allende and Mariano Abasolo wanted to concentrate their forces in the city and plan an escape route should they be defeated, but Hidalgo rejected this.
Their second choice was to make a stand at the Puente de Calderon just outside the city. Hidalgo had between 80,000 and 100,000 men and 95 cannons, but the better-trained royalists won, decimating the insurgent army, forcing Hidalgo to flee toward Aguascalientes. Guadalajara remained in royalist hands until nearly the end of the war. After the state of Jalisco was erect
Guacamole is an avocado-based dip, spread, or salad first developed by the Aztecs in what is now Mexico. In addition to its use in modern Mexican cuisine, it has become part of international and American cuisine as a dip and salad ingredient; the name comes from an Aztec dialect via Nahuatl āhuacamolli, which translates to "avocado sauce", from āhuacatl + molli. In Mexican Spanish, it is pronounced, in American English, it tends to be pronounced, in British English. Avocados were first cultivated in South Central Mexico about 10,000 years ago. In the early 1900s, avocados went by the name alligator pear; the Hass avocado is named after postal worker Rudolph Hass who purchased a seedling in 1926 from a California farmer and patented it in 1935. Guacamole has increased avocado sales in the US on Super Bowl Sunday and Cinco de Mayo; the rising consumption of guacamole is most due to the U. S. government lifting a ban on avocado imports in the 1990s and the growth of the U. S. Latino population. Guacamole dip is traditionally made by mashing ripe avocados and sea salt with a molcajete y tejolote.
Recipes call for tomato, lemon or lime juice, chili or cayenne pepper, cilantro or basil, jalapeño and additional seasonings. Some non-traditional recipes call for sour cream or peas. Due to the presence of polyphenol oxidase in the cells of avocado, exposure to oxygen in the air causes an enzymatic reaction and develops melanoidin pigment, turning the sauce brown; this result is considered unappetizing, there are several methods that are used to counter this effect, such as storing the guacamole in an air-tight container or wrapping in plastic to limit the surface area exposed to the air. As the major ingredient of guacamole is raw avocado, the nutritional value of the dish derives from avocado vitamins and fats, providing dietary fiber, several B vitamins, vitamin K, vitamin E and potassium in significant content. Avocados are a source of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol, they contain carotenoids, such as beta-carotene and lutein. Mantequilla de pobre is a mixture of avocado, tomato and citrus juice.
Despite its name, it predates the arrival of dairy cattle in the Americas, thus was not made as a butter substitute. Thinner and more acidic, or thick and chunky, guasacaca is a Venezuelan avocado-based sauce, it is common to make the guasacaca with a little hot sauce instead of jalapeño, but like a guacamole, it is not served as a hot sauce itself. Pronounced "wasakaka" in Latin America. Prepared guacamoles are available in stores available refrigerated, frozen or in high pressure packaging which pasteurizes and extends shelf life if products are maintained at 1 to 4 °C. National Guacamole Day is celebrated on the same day as Mexican Independence Day, September 16. On September 3, 2017, 815 gastronomy students set the world record in Concepción de Buenos Aires, Mexico for the largest serving of guacamole, which weighed 2,670 kilograms. On April 6, 2018, Junta Local de Sanidad Vegetal de Tancítaro, achieved the Guinness World Records for the largest serving of guacamole, they created it as part of Tancítaro's 7th Annual Avocado Festival in Michoacán, Mexico.
The serving had more than 350 people help prepare it. Hartel, Richard W and Hartel, AnnaKate, Food Bites: the Science of the Foods We Eat.
A tortilla ) is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread made from corn or wheat. In Spanish, "tortilla" means "small torta", or "small cake", it was first made by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica before European contact. The Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers call tortillas tlaxcalli. Tortilla is not to be confused with "tortilla francesa" or omelette, consumed in South America. Tortillas made with maize are the oldest variety of tortilla, remain popular in Mexico and Central America. Wheat was not grown in the Americas prior to the arrival of Europeans, but is a common source of flour for tortillas today. Arepa Indigenous peoples of the Americas Latin American cuisine List of tortilla-based dishes Sopaipilla
Caldo de pollo
Caldo de pollo is a common Latin American soup that consists of chicken and vegetables. What makes this soup different from many other versions of chicken soup is that, alike the Brazilian canja, caldo de pollo uses whole chicken pieces instead of chopped or shredded chicken. Other differences are that the vegetables are of a heartier cut. Potato halves, not cubes, are used, whole leaves of cabbage are added. A typical recipe for caldo de pollo will include the following: first garlic boiled in water, adding chicken pieces, sliced carrots, sliced celery, potato halves, garbanzo beans, corn on the cob, diced tomato, sliced onion, minced cilantro, cabbage. While it is common to eat caldo de pollo plain, most add hot sauce; some recipes call for cubed avocado added just before eating. Caldo de pollo can be served with hot corn tortillas. In Mexico it is common to add steamed or Spanish rice in the same bowl while serving at fondas. In other Latin American countries, it is called sopa de pollo and not caldo, which means soup instead of broth.
Many Latin American countries Mexico, use this home-cooked meal during illness as a means to healing of cold viruses, after a woman gives birth, though in other cultures the recipe for this is lighter than the traditional Mexican dish. Canja de galinha List of Mexican dishes List of soups
Nopalitos is a dish made with diced nopales, the flat stems, called pads, of prickly pear. They are sold fresh, bottled, or canned and less dried, they have a light tart flavor, a crisp, mucilaginous texture. Nopalitos are eaten with eggs as a breakfast and in salads and soups as lunch and dinner meals. Nopalitos contain galactogamin gums which retard the absorption of their sugars by the digestive system and are thus considered to have a low glycemic index, they may help in the treatment of diabetes. List of Mexican dishes food portal