The Chilcotin River is a 241-kilometre long tributary of the Fraser River in southern British Columbia, Canada. It drains the Chilcotin Plateau, which lies between the Coast Mountains, it starts northeast of Itcha Mountain and flows southeast to join the Fraser about 22 km upstream from Gang Ranch. The Chilcotin originates in Itcha Ilgachuz Provincial Park. Between the outlet of Itcha Lake and its confluence with its primary tributary, the Chilko River, it is about 72 km in length, most of which the river is flowing southeast. Several portions of the upper and middle reaches, in particular the 12 km or so stretch starting from Itcha Lake, are swamp-like and slow moving. Chicotin Falls, a small cascade located about 23 km below its source at the head of a small canyon, is one of the few swift spots on the Chilcotin above its confluence with the Chilko. Chilcotin Lake, a small, irregularly shaped swamp-like lake, is located about 44 km upstream from the Chilko; the Chilko/Chilcotin confluence is unique in the sense that the Chilko is several times larger in volume than the Chilcotin, yet the Chilko still "joins" the Chilcotin.
Below the confluence, the Chilcotin is quite silty. It flows through Bull Canyon, Big Creek Canyon and Farwell Canyon, it is about 83 km from the Chilko confluence to the Chilcotin's mouth. Farwell Canyon is located about 15 km above the Fraser. Moore Creek – Joins the Chilcotin about 10 km below Chilcotin Falls. Punkutlaenkut Creek – Feeds the river about 7 km below Moore Creek. Clusko River – Hits the Chilcotin about 8 km above Chilcotin Lake. Palmer Creek – Joins the river via the west end of Chilcotin Lake. Chilanko River – Feeds the river about 15.5 km above the Chilko. Chilko River – The Chilcotin's largest tributary by far, the Chilko joins the Chilcotin about 5 km above Bull Canyon. Big Creek – Joins the Chilcotin in Big Creek Canyon. List of tributaries of the Fraser River List of rivers in British Columbia
The Dakelh or Carrier are the indigenous people of a large portion of the Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. The name was derived from an indigenous custom where a widow was obliged to carry the ashes of her dead husband around with her for three years, it is called Atlashimih in Bella Coola. Dakelh territory includes the area along the Fraser River from north of Prince George to south of Quesnel and including the Barkerville-Wells area, the Nechako Country, the areas around Stuart Lake, Trembleur Lake, Takla Lake, Fraser Lake, Babine Lake, the Bulkley Valley, the region along the West Road River, west to the Hazelton Mountains and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains, including the Kluskus Lakes, Ootsa Lake, the Quanchus and Fawnie Ranges, Cheslatta Lake; the Dakelh region is for the most part sub-boreal forest, dotted with numerous lakes. There are numerous rivers, all draining into the Pacific Ocean via the Fraser River; the climate is continental, with cold winters during which the rivers and lakes freeze over and a short growing season.
The area is hilly, with mountains of modest size. The Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary of Dakelh territory, but the Dakelh are not familiar with the foothills because that area in recent times has been occupied by the Cree. Part of the Coast Mountains and Hazelton Mountains fall within Wit'suwit'en territory. Farther south,'Ulkatcho Carrier people share the Coast Range with the Nuxalk and the northern Chilcotin Plateau with the Tsilhqot'in; the traditional Dakelh way of life is based on a seasonal round, with the greatest activity in the summer when berries are gathered and fish caught and preserved. The mainstay of the economy is centered on harvesting activities within each family keyoh. Fish the several varieties of salmon, are smoked and stored for the winter in large numbers. Hunting and trapping of deer, moose, black bear and rabbit provided meat, fur for clothing, bone for tools. Other fur-bearing animals are trapped to some extent, but until the advent of the fur trade, such trapping is a minor activity.
With the exception of berries and the sap and cambium of the lodgepole pine, plants play a minor role as food though the sacredness of plants are appreciated by Dakelh people, though the Dakelhe are familiar with and use a variety of edible plants. Plants are used extensively for medicine. Winter activity is more limited, with some hunting and fishing under the ice. Although many Dakelh now have jobs and otherwise participate in the non-traditional economy, fish and berries still constitute a major portion of the diet; the Dakelh engaged in extensive trade with the coast along trails known as "Grease Trails". The items exported consisted of hides, dried meat, mats of dried berries. Imports consisted of various marine products, the most important of, "grease", the oil extracted from eulachons by allowing them to rot, adding boiling water, skimming off the oil; this oil is nutritious and, unlike many other fats, contains desirable fatty acids. Other important imports dried red laver seaweed. "Grease" and smoked eulachons are still considered by many to be delicacies and are prized gifts from visitors from the west.
The route by which Sir Alexander MacKenzie and his party reached the Pacific Ocean in 1793 in the first crossing of North America by land was, from the Fraser River westward, a grease trail. Other examples include the Nyan Wheti, they use the berries of Vaccinium vitis-idaea to make jam. They take a decoction of the entire plant of Viola adunca for stomach pain; the Southern Carrier use a strong decoction of the root of Orthilia as an eyewash. A full list of their ethnobotany can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/27/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/28/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/29/. In the late 1940s, University of British Columbia professor Charles Edward Borden shifted his attention toward urgent salvage archaeology in Nechako Canyon after learning of the planned Kemano reservoir that would flood the canyon, a large part of Dakelh hunting territory in Tweedsmuir Park. In 1951, he received funding from Alcan and the British Columbia Ministry of Education to undertake salvage archaeology at the "Carrier Indian site".
In 1951, Borden and his protégé, anthropology student Wilson Duff, located over 130 sites of importance to Cheslatta T'en history. They conducted more intensive investigations prior to the flooding of the area; the damming triggered "devastating changes for First Nations communities whose traditional territories lay in their path, including the destruction of Aboriginal gravesites, territories and archaeological sites." In 1957, Alcan opened the spillway gate to Skin's Lake, desecrating Cheslatta graves, which came to public attention during the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. In 1951, Borden began survey and excavation of the site and returned to work there every summer until he retired in 1970, his final article published in Science in 1979 was based on excavations of early microblade assemblages at Namu in 1977. As an ethnic term, Carrier or Dakelh includes speakers of both the Carrier language proper and its sister language Babine-Witsuwit'en, both of which are endangered languages.
Seven bands form the Carrier Sekani Tribal Council: Burns Lake Indian Band, Nadleh Whut'en Band, Saik'uz First Nation, Stellat'en First Nation, Tl'azt'en Nation, Takla Lake First Nation, Wet'suwet'en First NationFour bands belong to the Carrier Chilcotin Tribal Council: Kluskus Indian Band Nazko Indian Band Red Bluff Indian Band Ulkatcho Indian Band Toosey Indian Band of the Tsilhqot'in people is a
Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park
Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park is a provincial park located in the central west of British Columbia, Canada. Part of Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, 981,000 hectares in size, it was formed from the southern portion of that park, the northern portion being re-designated Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area in order to allow resource extraction in the park. The park is home to Lonesome Lake, famed for homesteader and conservationist Ralph Edwards, who worked to preserve migration habitat there for the trumpeter swan; this park was affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in British Columbia. The park, or rather the original Tweedsmuir Provincial Park which included what is now Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area, was created in 1938 in the wake of a 1937 visit by floatplane and horseback to the Rainbow Range by John Buchan, Lord Tweedsmuir, Governor-General of Canada. An article about the creation of the park, written by John Buchan's wife, The Lady Tweedsmuir of Elsfield, appears in the April 1938 issue of The National Geographic Magazine.
With such a vast area the climate varies throughout the park. However in the lower regions closer to the Bella Coola Valley the temperature is warmer with a higher annual level of rainfall. Around one fifth of their annual precipitation falls as snow. Further west as the altitude climbs the weather is more severe and the temperature changes throughout the summer and winter are drastic. On average ranging between the minus thirties mid winter, to the higher forties during high summer; the southern portion of the park is on Highway 20 400 kilometres west of Williams Lake and can be reached by road from that town. More convenient access is via the Discovery Coast Passage ferry from Port Hardy on Vancouver Island or by float plane from Nimpo Lake, Anahim Lake or Bella Coola; some of the main attractions in the park are as follows: Hunlen Falls: One of Canada's highest waterfalls for unbroken drop. The falls can be accessed via float foot. Rainbow Range: Volcano range where the unique minerals give the soil an array of colours.
Alexander MacKenzie Heritage Trail: A historic passage used by Local first nations to the region and early explores for trade and travel to the coast. The trail passes through the park, via Burnt Bridge Creek. BC Parks
Cariboo Regional District
The Cariboo Regional District spans the Cities and Districts of Quesnel, Williams Lake, 100 Mile House, Wells in the Central Interior of British Columbia. The Canada 2006 Census population was 62,190 persons living on a land area of 80,629.34 km². It covers the area from 70 Mile House to Hixon, just south of Prince George. Twelve electoral area directors and four municipal directors govern the affairs of the Cariboo Regional District; the electoral area directors are elected by area voters, municipal directors are appointed by their municipal council. All directors serve for a four-year term; the Cariboo Regional District provides region-wide library services, recreational facilities, local fire protection. The Cariboo District and 100 Mile House are featured prominently in Al Purdy's poem "The Cariboo Horses" to examine the tradition of equinity against human civilization. District Municipality of 100 Mile House City of Quesnel District Municipality of Wells City of Williams Lake Alexandria Alexis Creek Anahim Lake Horsefly Kersley Lac La Hache Likely Lone Butte McLeese Lake Nazko Nimpo Lake Riske Creek Tatla Lake Forest Grove Regional District Electoral Areas are A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L. Cariboo A is a regional district electoral area in the Cariboo Regional District, British Columbia, Canada.
The electoral area is located along the east side of the Fraser River south of Quesnel and west of the Quesnel River. The area represented is referred to as the North Cariboo, but that term includes the City of Quesnel, the many Indian Reserves within its boundaries are not part of the system of regional district governance and are outside the regional district's jurisdiction. Electoral areas have no governmental significance. According to the Canada 2001 Census: Population: 6,428 % Change: -2.0 Dwellings: 2,481 Area: 783.54 Density: 8.2 Alexandria Australian Kersley Red Bluff Rich Bar Community Profile: Cariboo Regional District, British Columbia.
Nez Perce people
The Nez Perce are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time. Members of the Sahaptin language group, the Niimíipuu were the dominant people of the Columbia Plateau for much of that time after acquiring the horses that led them to breed the appaloosa horse in the 18th century. Prior to "first contact" with Western civilization the Nimiipuu were economically and culturally influential in trade and war, interacting with other indigenous nations in a vast network from the western shores of Oregon and Washington, the high plains of Montana, the northern Great Basin in southern Idaho and northern Nevada. After first contact, the name "Nez Perce" was given to the Niimíipuu and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers; the name means "pierced nose", but only the Chinook used that form of decoration. Today they are a federally recognized tribe, the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, govern their Indian reservation in Idaho through a central government headquartered in Lapwai, Idaho known as the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee.
They are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state of Idaho. Some still speak their traditional language, the Tribe owns and operates two casinos along the Clearwater River in Idaho in Kamiah and outside of Lewiston, health clinics, a police force and court, community centers, salmon fisheries, radio station, other things that promote economic and cultural self-determination. Cut off from most of their horticultural sites throughout the Camas Prairie by an 1863 treaty, confinement to reservations in Idaho and Oklahoma Indian Territory after the Nez Perce War of 1877, Dawes Act of 1887 land allotments, the Nez Perce remain as a distinct culture and political economic influence within and outside their reservation. Today, hatching and eating salmon is an important cultural and economic strength of the Nez Perce through full ownership or co-management of various salmon fish hatcheries, such as the Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho or the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Orofino, Idaho.
Their name for themselves is Nimíipuu, meaning, "The People", in their language, part of the Sahaptin family. Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area in the late 18th century, meaning "pierced nose". English-speaking traders and settlers adopted the name in turn. Since the late 20th century, the Nez Perce identify most as Niimíipuu in Sahaptin; the Lakota/ Dakota named them the Watopala, or Canoe people, from Watopa. However, after Nez Perce became a more common name, they changed it to Watopahlute; this comes from pahlute, nasal passage and is a play on words. If translated it would come out as either "Nasal Passage of the Canoe" or "Nasal Passage of the Grass"; the tribe uses the term "Nez Perce", as does the United States Government in its official dealings with them, contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works and documents use the French spelling of Nez Percé, with the diacritic; the original French pronunciation is, with three syllables.
The interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mistakenly identified this people as the Nez Perce when the team encountered the tribe in 1805. Writing in 1889, anthropologist Alice Fletcher, who the U. S. government had sent to Idaho to allot the Nez Perce Reservation, explained the mistaken naming. She wrote, It is never easy to come at the name of an Indian or of an Indian tribe. A tribe has always at least two names. All the tribes living west of the Rocky Mountains were called "Chupnit-pa-lu", which means people of the pierced noses; the tribes on the Columbia river used to pierce the nose and wear in it some ornament as you have seen some old fashioned white ladies wear in their ears. Lewis and Clark had with them an interpreter whose wife was a Shoshone or Snake woman and so it came about that when it was asked "What Indians are these?" the answer was "They are'Chupnit-pa-lu'" and it was written down in the journal. In his journals, William Clark referred to the people as the Chopunnish, a transliteration of a Sahaptin term.
According to D. E. Walker in 1998, writing for the Smithsonian, this term is an adaptation of the term cú·pŉitpeľu; the term is formed from cú · peľu. By contrast, the Nez Perce Language Dictionary has a different analysis than did Walker for the term cúpnitpelu; the prefix cú- means "in single file". This prefix, combined with the verb -piní, "to come out". With the suffix of -pelú, meaning "people or inhabitants of". Together, these three elements: cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or "the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest". Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name "Cuupn'itpel'uu" meant "we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains" and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses; the Nez Perce language, or Niimiipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family, which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian g
The Gang Ranch is a Canadian ranch in the Chilcotin region of the Central Interior of British Columbia. It is located 28 miles north of Clinton on the west bank of the Fraser River opposite the Indian Reserve community of Dog Creek; the ranch, near Alkali Lake, was founded in 1863. For many years the largest ranch in North America, it is now the second-largest in Canada, after the Douglas Lake Ranch; the Churn Creek Protected Area is nearby. Two American brothers and Jerome Harper, traveled from Harpers Ferry, via California, to British Columbia in the Cariboo Gold Rush, they mined in Yale, lived in Victoria for a time. At one point, they were accused of supporting the rebel Confederacy and plotting against the nearby North. One account suggests; some miners found the remote plateau. Unsuccessful in their search for gold, the Harpers settled on the west bank of the Fraser River in 1863 and installed a gang plow, thus the Gang Ranch began its long operation. The Harpers made an agreement with the Chilcotin Indian Kalalest whereby the land at the confluence of the Chilcotin and Fraser rivers was divided between the First Nations and the Harpers.
The Harpers began to drive cattle from Washington or Oregon, hundreds of miles on the hoof, northwards to feed the hungry gold miners. One drive was made from Utah; the brothers bought and sold stock and land, moving at first. The town of Horsefly was first called "Harper's Camp" and included a steam sawmill. From their gains with the cattle drives, the brothers expanded the Gang Ranch; the Harpers had misfortune, including a severe winter in 1878. Despite this, the brothers persevered. In 1883, they bought 8,900 acres of Chilcotin land from the government; the brothers had rangeland at Hat Creek, Cache Creek and Kamloops, in all about 38,000 acres. The business operated as the Canadian Ranching Company but the brothers ran into further financial difficulty and the Canadian Ranching Company was sold, in 1891, to an English partner; the new proprietor was one of the founders of the Cassell publishing house. Retired from publishing, Galpin was looking for new ventures and investments. After a few years, the business was restructured as the Western Canadian Ranching Company in 1898.
It continued under this name until 1952. Galpin's local representative was Jim Prentice, who became his son-in-law when he married one of Galpin's nine daughters, Mabel. Prentice added to the standing of the WCRC when he was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly, as the Hon J D Prentice. Considerable work was needed: fencing pastures and building sawmills, bridges and roads. At the same time, they had to oversee the feeding and rounding-up of thousands of head of cattle in rough terrain. With the goodwill and assistance of the Chilcotin people, the ranch prospered. Families such as Gaspard, Paternaude and Kalalest settled in the area; the English owners continued into the twentieth century. A combination of absentee landowners, salaried English managers and rough BC bush meant that the business was not always profitable; the hardscrabble way of the ranch, combined with the hard work of developing a business in raw territory, was costly. The Depression and the market crash took its toll; the English owners sold the ranch, but not before introducing English farming practices to the area, English housewares and furniture to the "Big House" on the premises.
In the late 1970s, the ranch was bought by Alsager Holdings. This was the first time in many years that the ranch had been Canadian owned and television news crews came out several times from Vancouver, to cover the story of the ranch's Canadian ownership and subsequent fall into receivership. Dale Alsager and his wife lived on the ranch in a house. Lonnie Jones was manager and cow boss, he made camp with the cowboy crew. Bob Munsey from Paulina, Oregon was the cow boss. Douglas Lake Cattle Company List of historic ranches in British Columbia Gang Ranch info page, ancestry.com "Gang Ranch". BC Geographical Names
This article is for the lake. For the community of the same name see Nimpo Lake, British Columbia. Nimpo Lake is a freshwater lake in the Chilcotin District of Canada, it is located 300 kilometres west of Williams Lake on the Chilcotin Highway and is 160 kilometres east of Bella Coola. The lake is over 11 kilometres long with several protected bays and has an area of 9.88 km². Nimpo Lake is referred to as "The Floatplane Capital of British Columbia" and, because it has so many floatplanes landing and taking off, each of the bays or'arms' have a distinctive name. North Arm is at the extreme northernmost end of the Main Arm of Nimpo Lake while the South Arm is at the other end and the Short Arm is on the eastern side of the lake where a floatplane base is located. Nimpo Lake has a good population of wild Rainbow Trout that are known for their excellent fighting ability and are caught by trolling and on a flyline, its popularity with anglers fishing for rainbow trout, made it the venue of the 1993 Commonwealth Fly Fishing Championships.
It is a popular tourist destination, with several resorts located on the lake offering a variation of accommodation ranging from luxurious suites to rustic cabins and sites for Recreational vehicles. Nimpo Lake is the jumping off point to the wilderness, much of it inaccessible to people except by floatplane or on foot. You can go flightseeing over Hunlen Falls, the third longest freefalling waterfall in Canada, or fly over the multicolored Rainbow Mountains or Monarch Mountain and see the pristine icefields. There is canoeing on the Turner Lake Chain in nearby Tweedsmuir Park, a number of activities available to visitors of the area; these include fishing, mountain biking, kayaking,hunting, wildlife photography and study of rare and unusual alpine plants at higher elevations. In winter snowmobiling, cross country skiing and ice skating are popular activities