SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Child pirate

In keeping with the Paris Principles definition of a child soldier, the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative defines a child pirate' as any person below 18 years of age, or, recruited or used by a pirate gang in any capacity, including children - boys and/or girls - used as gunmen in boarding parties, hostage guards, ship captains, spies or for sexual purposes, whether at sea or on land. It does not only refer to a child, taking or has taken a direct part in kinetic criminal operations. Children may volunteer to participate in piratical activities or they may be forcibly abducted by piratical gangs. There are a number of reasons why an adult pirate commander would view children as being of significant tactical value; these perceptions render children vulnerable to abduction or forced recruitment. As noted by Carl Conradi: "Like warlords, pirate commanders recruit children because they are vulnerable and manipulated. However, as asserted by the Canada-based Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative, "'voluntary' enlistment must be understood in terms of the limited choices and circumstances that may exist in the context of a particular country."’ If a child is poor, has been displaced from his or her home, has been separated from his or her family, has limited educational opportunities or has been exposed to conflict, there is an increased likelihood that he or she will view piracy as a legitimate vehicle for social advancement.

In the absence of specific international legislation on juvenile maritime piracy, the precise age of a child's criminal responsibility when committing piratical acts differs from country to country. There are, however, a number of international conventions pertaining to either maritime law or children's rights that may provide some guidance as to the proper handling of child pirates. While the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea does not discuss children's involvement in maritime criminal activities, it does provide a clear definition of piracy. According to Article 101, piracy is: a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, directed: i. on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft. UNCLOS does recognise universal jurisdiction over the crime of piracy but it only applies to criminal acts that take place on international waters.

If an act of piracy occurs within a country's territorial waters, it is a matter of state jurisdiction and prosecution. Article 3 of the International Labour Organisation's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention stipulates that: …the term the worst forms of child labour comprises:a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict. Insofar as participation in any form of maritime criminality is dangerous, child piracy constitutes a worst form of child labour. According to the Convention, a child is any person, below the age of 18; as of April 2013, eight countries had not signed ILO Convention No. 182. These include Cuba, India, the Marshall Islands, Palau and Tuvalu. Two of these countries – India and Somalia – are detaining and prosecuting alleged child pirates. Like ILO Convention No. 182, Article 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child specifies that a child is any human being below the age of 18 years.

However, the same article adds a caveat to the effect that a country's minimum age of criminal responsibility may be lower than 18, as stipulated by national law. Other sections that may have some bearing upon the status of child pirates include Article 6, in which, “States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life,” and that, “States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.” Article 19 affirms that, “States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent, legal guardian or any other person who has the care of the child.” This clause may be particu

Linda (1960 film)

Linda is a 1960 British teen drama film, directed by Don Sharp and starring Carol White and Alan Rothwell. The film was shot on location in South London and Brighton, played in cinemas as the support feature to Saturday Night and Sunday Morning. Unseen for decades, this is considered a lost film, is on the British Film Institute's "75 Most Wanted" list of missing British feature films. Bored South London teenager Phil joins a gang led by the Chief and begins to be drawn into a world of petty crime and violence; when he meets Linda, his interest begins to shift away towards her. She tries to pull him away from the gang's bad influence; the couple go on a day trip to Brighton. On the way home Phil makes a pass at Linda, but is rebuffed as she tells him she is not that kind of girl; the local coffee bar which acts as the gang's territory is threatened by incomers. The Chief musters his minions, Phil agrees to join in after being duped into thinking that Linda is playing fast and loose with another boy.

After the ruck, Phil finds out. Urged by the progressively-minded local vicar, he decides to leave the gang behind. Other members see the light and join him, leaving the Chief on his own. Phil and Linda discuss the possibility of marriage; as a second feature, Linda received only passing attention from contemporary critics. The Cinema Exhibitors' Association commented favourably: "This is an unpretentious but amusing little film which combines action with humour and some charm." The Monthly Film Bulletin was less enthusiastic, saying: "The author of this story would seem to be afraid of his subject. He steers a middle course, neither one thing nor the other. Carol White does her best to look the part of a young tart-type, Alan Rothwell is dressed for the part, but neither make much of an impression." The film is considered of potential interest to cinema historians, both as an early directorial outing by Sharp and as a period piece capturing a specific moment in British social history, with the additional nostalgia appeal of location shots of 1960 Brighton and Battersea Fun Fair.

This is considered a lost film, is on the British Film Institute's "75 Most Wanted" list of missing British feature films. List of lost films Linda on IMDb Linda at BFI Film & TV Database BFI 75 Most Wanted entry, with extensive notes

Iloilo-Negros Air Express

Iloilo-Negros Air Express Company, Inc. which operated as Iloilo-Negros Air Express or INAEC and as FEATI, was an airline based in the Philippines. The airline was folded into the operation of Philippine Airlines, re-nationalized by the Philippine government and became the national flag carrier; the company built the Bacolod International Airport in Bacolod City, bought by PAL after the acquisition of the airline. INAEC was resurrected in 1993 as INAEC Aviation Corporation to serve the aviation needs of the Lopez Group of Companies and as a charter airline in 2001; the history of commercial aviation in the Philippines started in 1925. The first regular air services were launched in Iloilo, said to be the birthplace of Filipino commercial air transportation. Jose Tinsay, an Ilongo aviator, was the first to fly the 43-kilometer Guimaras Strait between Iloilo and Bacolod. Founded in 1932 by López family of Iloilo, it became Asia's first commercial airline based in Iloilo and Manila that served domestic routes to Bacolod, Cebu, Del Monte and Manila.

The airline company was converted after World War II to Far Eastern Air Transport Inc.. It was the first Filipino airline to go regional and international offering routes to Hong Kong, San Francisco and India. In 1932, Don Eugenio H. Lopez, Sr. the sugar and shipping magnate, launched Iloilo-Negros Air Express Company which became the first Filipino-owned private airline in the Philippines with its operational base in Iloilo. INAEC’s first aircraft, a Stinson Tri-Motor, had its inaugural flight on February 1, 1933 from Iloilo to Manila. Regular air services between Manila, Bacolod and Cebu started within a year, expanded to Zambonga and Davao in another two years. INAEC with its three-engine aircraft advertised its air travels as “fast, commodious and reliant” compared with the other services. Despite the great depression in the US and Europe, aviation in the Philippines still boomed at that time with 60 airfields scattered all over the country, four of which were in Manila. INAEC used Grace Park located near the Bonifacio Monument.

From 1935 to April 1937, the Air Corps had arrangements with INAEC and the US Army Air Corps in Nichols Field for enlisted men to work as apprentices in their shops. Many Air Corps maintenance men had their hands-on training at INAEC. In 1937, INAEC purchased its own seaplane, a Sikorsky S-43 amphibian, the most modern aircraft at that time, which carried 16 passengers. Another feat for INAEC is the introduction of steward service, the first in the Philippines. INAEC was so successful. In 1941, it began flying to Baguio; the entire INAEC fleet was however destroyed in World War II. But after the war, Don Eugenio H. Lopez, Sr. and brother Fernando Lopez restarted INAEC operations. INAEC was converted to Far Eastern Air Transport Inc. with an inaugural flight on November 19, 1945 from Grace Park in Manila to Iloilo. The airline set up a wide network of domestic routes. In May 1946, it flew to Hong Bangkok, making it the first Filipino airline to go regional. With flights to San Francisco and India, it became the country’s first international airline service.

A combination of political and business developments in 1947 forced the Lopez brothers to sell FEATI, merged by its new owner with Philippine Airlines. Past Routes Bacolod Baguio Cebu Davao Del Monte Iloilo Manila Hong Kong Bangkok Delhi or Mumbai San Francisco Shanghai In 1993, the Lopez Group of Companies, the parent company of ABS-CBN, revived INAEC to support its own air transportation requirements. On November 9, 1993, the INAEC brand was reborn to service the air transportation needs of the Lopez Group. On December 19, 2001 INAEC obtained its Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity and thereafter went into domestic and international chartering and non-scheduled air services. Plans to revive the airline company by the Lopez Group of Companies was disclosed by Mayor of Iloilo City, Jed Patrick Mabilog who had met with the son of Don Oscar Lopez and officials of the loilo-Negros Air Express Company