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Childbirth

Childbirth known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 135 million births globally. About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation, while between 3 and 12 percent were born after 42 weeks. In the developed world most deliveries occur in hospitals, while in the developing world most births take place at home with the support of a traditional birth attendant; the most common way of childbirth is a vaginal delivery. It involves three stages of labour: the shortening and opening of the cervix and birth of the baby, the delivery of the placenta; the first stage lasts 12 to 19 hours, the second stage 20 minutes to two hours, the third stage five to 30 minutes. The first stage begins with crampy abdominal or back pain that last around half a minute and occur every 10 to 30 minutes; the pain becomes closer together over time. During the second stage, pushing with contractions may occur.

In the third stage, delayed clamping of the umbilical cord is recommended. A number of methods can help with pain, such as relaxation techniques and spinal blocks. Most babies are born head first; the head enters the pelvis facing to one side, rotates to face down. During labour, a woman can eat and move around as she likes. However, pushing is not recommended during the first stage or during delivery of the head, enemas are not recommended. While making a cut to the opening of the vagina, known as an episiotomy, is common, it is not needed. In 2012, about 23 million deliveries occurred by an operation on the abdomen. C-sections may be recommended for signs of distress in the baby, or breech position; this method of delivery can take longer to heal from. Each year, complications from pregnancy and childbirth result in about 500,000 maternal deaths, seven million women have serious long term problems, 50 million women have negative health outcomes following delivery. Most of these occur in the developing world.

Specific complications include obstructed labour, postpartum bleeding and postpartum infection. Complications in the baby may include lack of oxygen at birth, birth trauma and infections; the most prominent sign of labour is strong repetitive uterine contractions. The distress levels reported by labouring, they appear to be influenced by fear and anxiety levels, experience with prior childbirth, cultural ideas of childbirth and pain, mobility during labour, the support received during labour. Personal expectations, the amount of support from caregivers, quality of the caregiver-patient relationship, involvement in decision-making are more important in women's overall satisfaction with the experience of childbirth than are other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, preparation, physical environment, immobility, or medical interventions. Pain in contractions has been described as feeling similar to strong menstrual cramps. Women are encouraged to refrain from screaming; however and grunting may be encouraged to help lessen pain.

Crowning may be experienced as burning. Women who show little reaction to labour pains, in comparison to other women, show a severe reaction to crowning. Back labour is a term for specific pain occurring in the lower back, just above the tailbone, during childbirth. During the stages of gestation there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin, a hormone, known to evoke feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, feelings of calmness and security around the mate. Oxytocin is further released during labour when the fetus stimulates the cervix and vagina, it is believed that it plays a major role in the bonding of a mother to her infant and in the establishment of maternal behavior; the act of nursing a child causes a release of oxytocin. Between 70% and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after giving birth; the symptoms occur for a few minutes up to few hours each day and they should lessen and disappear within two weeks after delivery. Postpartum depression may develop in some women.

Preventive group therapy has proven effective as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression. Humans are bipedal with an erect stance; the erect posture causes the weight of the abdominal contents to thrust on the pelvic floor, a complex structure which must not only support this weight but allow, in women, three channels to pass through it: the urethra, the vagina and the rectum. The infant's head and shoulders must go through a specific sequence of maneuvers in order to pass through the ring of the mother's pelvis. Six phases of a typical vertex or cephalic delivery: Engagement of the fetal head in the transverse position; the baby's head is facing across other of the mother's hips. Descent and flexion of the fetal head. Internal rotation; the fetal head rotates 90 degrees to the occipito-anterior position so that the baby's face is towards the mother's rectum. Delivery by extension; the fetal head is bowed, chin on chest, so that the back or crown of its head leads the way through the birth canal, until the back of its neck presses against the pubic bone and its chin leaves its chest, extending the neck—as if to look up, the rest of its head passes out of the birth canal.

Restitution. The fetal head turns through 45 degrees to restore its normal relationship with the shou

2020 GT World Challenge Europe Sprint Cup

The 2020 GT World Challenge Europe Sprint Cup will be the seventh season of the GT World Challenge Europe Sprint Cup following on from the demise of the SRO Motorsports Group's FIA GT1 World Championship, the first after title sponsor Blancpain withdrew sponship. The season will begin on 2 May at Brands Hatch and will end on 11 October at the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya. At the annual press conference during the 2019 24 Hours of Spa on 26 July, the Stéphane Ratel Organisation announced the first draft of the 2020 calendar, with Nürburgring round replaced by Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya. 2020 GT World Challenge Europe 2020 GT World Challenge Europe Endurance Cup 2020 GT World Challenge Asia 2020 GT World Challenge America Official website

237th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 237th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the German Heer during World War II. The division was active from 1944 to 1945; the 237th Infantry Division was formed as a static division as part of the twenty-seventh Aufstellungswelle on 25 July 1944. It was formed at the Milowitz military base in the Protectorate of Moravia; the initial staff officers were taken from the Shadow Division Milowitz. The division's initial regiments were the Grenadier Regiments 1046, 1047 and 1048 as well as the Artillery Regiment 237; the initial divisional commander was Hans von Graevenitz. The division was deployed in August/September 1944 as part of the 14th Army under Army Group C to guard the Adriatic coast. In October 1944, it joined the LXXXXVII Army Corps z.b. V.. The corps in turn served under 10th Army in January 1945 before reassignment to Army Group E, the army group assigned to defensive duty in the Balkan peninsula. On 7 April 1945, the divisional command was passed from Graevenitz to Oberst Karl Falkner, making Falkner the second and final divisional commander of the 237th Infantry Division.

Throughout its lifespan, the division's military effectiveness was limited by its designation as a static division, which resulted in a severe lack of motorized vehicles. Therefore, the 237th Infantry Division was used for rearguard duty between August 1944 and March 1945. In March 1945, the division started to see heavy fighting in Italy, but was transferred to Army Group E in the Balkans; the division came into Yugoslav captivity north of Fiume after Germany's surrender in May 1945. Hans von Graevenitz, divisional commander starting 7 July 1944. Karl Falkner, divisional commander starting 7 April 1945