SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Childhood

Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, childhood consists of two stages: preoperational stage and concrete operational stage. In developmental psychology, childhood is divided up into the developmental stages of early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence. Various childhood factors could affect a person's attitude formation; the concept of childhood emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries through the educational theories of the philosopher John Locke and the growth of books for and about children. Previous to this point, children were seen as incomplete versions of adults; the term childhood is non-specific in its time span and can imply a varying range of years in human development. It may refer to the time span from birth to puberty. In the legal systems of many countries, there is an age of majority when childhood ends and a person becomes an adult, which ranges anywhere from 15 to 21, with 18 being the most common.

A global consensus on the terms of childhood is the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Childhood expectancy indicates the time span. Eight life events described as "childhood enders" by Save the Children are death, extreme malnourishment, extreme violence, conflict forcing displacement, children being out of school, child labor, children having children, child marriage. Early childhood follows the infancy stage and begins with toddlerhood when the child begins speaking or taking steps independently. While toddlerhood ends around age 3 when the child becomes less dependent on parental assistance for basic needs, early childhood continues until the age of 7. However, according to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, early childhood includes infancy. At this stage children are learning through observing and communicating with others. Adults supervise and support the development process of the child, which will lead to the child's autonomy. During this stage, a strong emotional bond is created between the child and the care providers.

The children start preschool and kindergarten at this age: and hence their social lives. Middle childhood begins at around age 7, it ends with puberty, which marks the beginning of adolescence. In this period, children develop and mentally, they are at a stage where they make new friends and gain new skills, which will enable them to become more independent and enhance their individuality. During middle childhood, children enter the school years, where they are presented with a different setting than they are used to; this new setting faces for children. Upon the entrance of school, mental disorders that would not be noticed come to light. Many of these disorders include: autism, dyscalculia, ADHD. Special education, least restrictive environment, response to intervention and individualized education plans are all specialized plans to help children with disabilities. Middle childhood is the time when children begin to understand responsibility and are beginning to be shaped by their peers and parents.

Chores and more responsible decisions come at this time, so does social comparison. Along with social comparison comes social play. With social play comes learning and teaching. During social play children learn from each other, they teach each other this is done with observation. Adolescence is determined to be between the onset of puberty and legal adulthood: corresponding to the teenage years. However, puberty may begin in preadolescence/middle childhood. Adolescence is biologically distinct from childhood, but it is accepted by some cultures as a part of social childhood, because most adolescents are considered minors under the law; the onset of adolescence brings about various physical and behavioral changes. The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country and by function, within a single nation-state or culture there may be different ages at which an individual is considered to be mature enough to be entrusted by society with certain tasks. During the European Renaissance, artistic depictions of children increased which did not affect the social attitude to children much, however.

During the 1600s, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke was influential in defining this new attitude towards children with regard to his theory of the tabula rasa, which considered the mind at birth to be a "blank slate". A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank, that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. During the early period of capitalism, the rise of a large, commercial middle class in the Protestant countries of the Dutch Republic and England, brought about a new family ideology centred around the upbringing of children. Puritanism stressed the importance of individual salvation and concern for the spiritual welfare of children; the modern notion of childhood with its own autonomy and goals began to emerge during the 18th century Enlightenment and the Romantic period that followed it.

Jean Jacques Rousseau formulated the romantic attitude towards children in his famous 1762 novel Emile: or, On Education. Building on the ideas of John Locke and other 17th-century thinkers, Jean-Jaques Rousseau described childhood as a bri

Bangladesh–Italy relations

Bangladesh–Italy relations relate to the foreign relationship between Bangladesh and Italy. Bangladesh maintains its embassy in Rome. Italy established official relations with Bangladesh in 1972. In 1974, Italy was one of the countries that sponsored the admission of Bangladesh to the United Nations. In 2014, Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina paid an official visit to Italy. In 2000, an agreement on "Scientific and Technological Cooperation" was signed between Bangladesh and Italy; as per the agreement, the two countries has been exchanging scientists and technicians as well as providing study grants. Italy has been accommodating an average of 25 Bangladeshi researchers annually to study at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Bangladesh and Italy have formed'Italy-Bangladesh Chamber of Commerce and Industry' to boost the bilateral economic relations. Between 2000 and 2006, the bilateral trade between the two countries increased by more than 200%; as of 2012, the total amount of the bilateral trade stood at $1.286 billion, of which Bangladesh's export to Italy accounts for $1.036 billion.

Bangladesh's main export items to Italy include frozen food, agri-products, leather, raw jute, jute goods, woven garments etc. Italy's chief export items to Bangladesh include machineries, electronic products, aircraft and associated transport equipments; as of 2016, there were 142,000 Bangladeshis living in Italy

Blue Island (novel)

Blue Island is a 1988 novel by the French writer Jean Raspail. The narrative is set in Touraine during World War II, where a charismatic boy gathers his friends on an island, where they play war games which become more interlinked with reality; the book was published in English in 1991, translated by Jeremy Leggatt. The book was adapted into the 2001 television film L'Île bleue; the film was directed by Nadine Trintignant. Kirkus Reviews described the books as "a touching story about coming of age under less-than-ideal circumstances.... He dovetailing here of adolescent bravado and cynicism with historical drama makes for a satisfying mixture." Publishers Weekly called it a "spellbinding fable", wrote that "this is no myth-like Lord of the Flies. Contemporary history is an ever-present element, as German troops advance, France falls apart, the government evacuates Paris and refugees flood the countryside.... Raspail narrowly avoids sentimentality in this powerful depiction of an end to innocence and illusion."