Childhood cancer is cancer in a child. In the United States, an arbitrarily adopted standard of the ages used are 0–14 years inclusive, that is, up to 14 years 11.9 months of age. However, the definition of childhood cancer sometimes includes adolescents between 15–19 years old. Pediatric oncology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children. Worldwide, it is estimated that childhood cancer has an incidence of more than 175,000 per year, a mortality rate of 96,000 per year. In developed countries, childhood cancer has a mortality of 20% of cases. In low resource settings, on the other hand, mortality is 80%, or 90% in the world's poorest countries. In many developed countries the incidence is increasing, as rates of childhood cancer increased by 0.6% per year between 1975 and 2002 in the United States and by 1.1% per year between 1978 and 1997 in Europe. Children with cancer are at risk for learning problems; these difficulties may be related to brain injury stemming from the cancer itself, such as a brain tumor or central nervous system metastasis or from side effects of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Studies have shown that chemo and radiation therapies may damage brain white matter and disrupt brain activity. This cognitive problem is known as post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment or "chemo brain." This term is use by cancer survivors who describe having thinking and memory problems after cancer treatment. Researchers are unsure what causes chemo brain, they say it is to be linked to either the cancer itself, the cancer treatment, or be an emotional reaction to both; this cognitive impairment is noticed a few years after a child endures cancer treatment. When a childhood cancer survivor goes back to school, they might experience lower test scores, problems with memory and behavior, as well as poor hand-eye coordination and slowed development over time. Parents can apply their children for special educational services at school if their cognitive learning disability affects their educational success. Familial and genetic factors are identified in 5-15% of childhood cancer cases. In <5-10% of cases, there are known environmental exposures and exogenous factors, such as prenatal exposure to tobacco, X-rays, or certain medications.
For the remaining 75-90% of cases, the individual causes remain unknown. In most cases, as in carcinogenesis in general, the cancers are assumed to involve multiple risk factors and variables. Aspects that make the risk factors of childhood cancer different from those seen in adult cancers include: Different, sometimes unique, exposures to environmental hazards. Children must rely on adults to protect them from toxic environmental agents. Immature physiological systems to clear or metabolize environmental substances The growth and development of children in phases known as "developmental windows" result in certain "critical windows of vulnerability". A longer life expectancy in children avails for a longer time to manifest cancer processes with long latency periods, increasing the risk of developing some cancer types in life. Advanced parental age has been associated with increased risk of childhood cancer in the offspring. There are preventable causes of childhood malignancy, such as delivery overuse and misuse of ionizing radiation through computed tomography scans when the test is not indicated or when adult protocols are used.
The most common cancers in children are leukemia, brain tumors, lymphomas. In 2005, 4.1 of every 100,000 young people under 20 years of age in the U. S. were diagnosed with leukemia, 0.8 per 100,000 died from it. The number of new cases was highest among the 1–4 age group, but the number of deaths was highest among the 10–14 age group. In 2005, 2.9 of every 100,000 people 0–19 years of age were found to have cancer of the brain or central nervous system, 0.7 per 100,000 died from it. These cancers were found most in children between 1 and 4 years of age, but the most deaths occurred among those aged 5–9; the main subtypes of brain and central nervous system tumors in children are: astrocytoma, brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, high-grade glioma and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. Other, less common childhood cancer types are: Neuroblastoma Wilms tumor Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma Retinoblastoma Osteosarcoma Ewing sarcoma Germ cell tumors Pleuropulmonary blastoma Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma Adult survivors of childhood cancer have some physical and social difficulties.
Premature heart disease is a major long-term complication in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Adult survivors are eight times more to die of heart disease than other people, more than half of children treated for cancer develop some type of cardiac abnormality, although this may be asymptomatic or too mild to qualify for a clinical diagnosis of heart disease. Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing adverse effects on the kidneys and the liver; the risk of liver late adverse effects in childhood cancer survivors is increased in those who have had radiotherapy to the liver and in people with factors such as higher body mass index and chronic viral hepatitis. Certain treatments and liver surgery may increase the risk of adverse liver effects in childhood cancer survivors. Internationally, the greatest variation in childhood cancer incidence occurs when c
Daniel Armin Cerny is an American former child actor and film editor, best known for his role in the 1995 horror film Children of the Corn III: Urban Harvest. Cerny was born in 1981 in the son of Helena and Pavel Cerny, his brother is politician Andrei Cherny. His parents are Czechoslovakian Jewish immigrants, he expressed interest in film and acting at a young age, made his debut in Doc Hollywood with a minor role, followed by another small part in the horror film Demonic Toys. In 1994, he was cast in a supporting role in Peter Weir's Fearless opposite Jeff Bridges, he played the lead role of Eli Porter in the 1995 horror film Children of the Corn III: Urban Harvest. Cerny gave up acting after the film, only returning for a minor part in an episode of the miniseries Revelations opposite Bill Pullman, a supporting part in the direct-to-video sequel The Prince & Me II: The Royal Wedding. Cerny worked as an assistant editor on the television series TransGeneration and The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency
The B1145 runs for about 52 miles through the county of Norfolk, between King’s Lynn and Mundesley. The road is an alternative route to the A47 between King's Lynn and Norwich by way of the A1067 from Bawdeswell onwards; this ancient route predates the Norman Conquest and remained the main east-west route through the county until the 17th century. It can be seen quiet on William Faden’s map of Norfolk, surveyed between 1790 and 1794; this map, the first large-scale map of the whole county, is a record of the landscape and transport system of the county of Norfolk in late 18th century and shows that despite the Parliamentary Enclosure of the early 19th century the route has changed little. Much of the route on the map is highlighted in a pale pink, which marks it out as an important artery of the time. Part of the roads route lies directly on the line of a Roman road between a point 0.8 miles west of North Elmham for the distance of 4.8 miles to where the road reaches the village of Bawdeswell.
The route is dissected by several Roman roads, including the Peddars Way in the North West of Norfolk. Road schemes at Bawdeswell and North Walsham have created interruptions to the original route, although the vast majority of it remains intact; the B1145 was part of the King's Lynn–to–Great Yarmouth coaching route. On the route at Litcham stands The Bull Inn, a 17th-century coaching inn of which some parts date further back to the 14th century; the Bull provided the first change of horses on this coaching route out of King’s Lynn. From west to east the road passes through
The hairpin banksia is a species of woody shrub, of the genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae, native to eastern Australia. Distributed, it is found as an understorey plant in open dry forest or heathland from Victoria to northern Queensland on sandstone though sometimes clay soils, it grows as a small shrub to 2 metres in height, though can be a straggly tree to 6 metres. It has long narrow leaves with inflorescences which can vary in coloration. Banksia spinulosa was named by James Edward Smith in England in 1793, after being collected by John White, most in 1792, he gave it the common name prickly-leaved banksia. With four recognised varieties, the species has had a complicated taxonomic history, with two varieties described as separate species in the early 19th century. A fourth, from the New England region, has only been described. However, there has been disagreement whether one, var. cunninghamii, is distinct enough to once again have specific status. The pre-eminent authority on Banksia, Alex George, concedes there is still more work to be done on the Banksia spinulosa complex.
The hairpin banksia is pollinated by and provides food for a wide array of vertebrate and invertebrate animals in the autumn and winter months. Its floral display and fine foliage have made it a popular garden plant with many horticultural selections available. With the recent trend towards smaller gardens, compact dwarf forms of Banksia spinulosa have become popular; the hairpin banksia occurs as a multi-stemmed lignotuberous shrub 1–3 metres tall and 1–2 metres across. Alternatively, it may be single-stemmed and lacking a lignotuber, in which case it is taller, up to 5 metres high, it has grey-brown smooth bark with lenticels. The long, narrow leaves are more or less linear in shape. Leaf edges are either serrate for the entire leaf length or toward the apex only, though the margins may be recurved and hence serrations not evident as in those from the Carnarvon Gorge. Immature leaves, which may be seen after bushfire, are broader and serrated. Leaf undersides have fine white hairs in the case of the varieties spinulosa and collina and pale brown in cunninghamii and neoanglica.
The distinctive inflorescences or flower spikes occur over a short period through autumn and early winter. A spike may contain hundreds or thousands of individual flowers, each of which consists of a tubular perianth made up of four united tepals, one long wiry style. Characteristic of the taxonomic section in which it is placed, the styles are hooked rather than straight; the style ends are trapped inside the upper perianth parts, but break free at anthesis. In Banksia spinulosa the spikes are cylindrical, about 6–7 centimetres wide and 6–15 centimetres tall, yellow to golden orange in colour, with styles varying from yellow to pink, maroon, or black. Styles of various colours may be found within metres of each other in some areas such as in the Georges River National Park, Catherine Hill Bay, while other populations may have uniformly black, red or gold styles. Though not terminal, the flower spikes are prominently displayed. Emerging from the foliage, they arise from two- to three-year-old stem nodes.
The hairpin banksia's infructescence is a typical Banksia cone-like structure, with up to 100 crowded embedded follicles which are 1–2.4 centimetres in diameter. The nonlignotuberous subspecies cunninghamii is killed by fire and regenerates from seed, while the others regenerate from buds around the base of the lignotuber. Old flower spikes fade to brown grey with age. Old flower parts persist for a long time, giving the infructescence a hairy appearance. In Central and North Queensland, old cones of both var. spinulosa and var. collina are bare. The first known specimens of B. spinulosa were collected near Sydney by John White, Surgeon General to the British colony of New South Wales, sometime between 1788 and 1793. He called it "prickly-leaved banksia", it is uncertain when he first collected the species. Text accompanying the figure states "e cannot with certainty determine the species; the capsules are smooth, at least when ripe, a little shining. We think this is neither the B. serrata, nor dentata of Linnaeus, nor his ericifolia.
The leaves and flowers we have not seen." English botanist James Edward Smith tentatively attributed this figure to B. spinulosa: "We suspect the fruit figured in Mr. White's Voyage, page 225, fig. I, may belong to this species, but we have no positive authority to assert it." More however, Alf Salkin has argued that "the cone illustrated by White is not as suggested from the B. spinulosa described by Smith but, may be from another member of the complex or from one of the forms of B. ericifolia." White collected the type material of B. spinulosa in 1792. The following year, the species was formally described by Smith in his A Specimen of the Botany o
Nassau Bay is a city in Harris County, United States, bordering the southeastern edge of the city of Houston. It is located in the Clear Lake Area near Galveston Bay, directly adjacent to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; the population was 4,002 at the 2010 census. Colonel Raymond Pearson established the Spirit of 1776 Ranch on. In 1962, a community was planned which would be an exclusive residential and commercial area emphasizing its pioneers and at a then-staggering cost of $49 million. In 1962 construction of Nassau Bay began and the first residents moved to Nassau Bay in 1964, it was developed by Ernest W. Roe Company, with Thompson McCleary of Caudill and Scott providing architectural services and Nassau Bay Development Associates establishing the development; the name was chosen by the developers. At the time, NASA was moving personnel from several areas in the United States with a high quality of life, including California and, Florida. In 1968 the community had 2,979 residents; the city incorporated in 1970.
The population was 6,702 in 1980, 4,526 in 1982, 4,506 in 1991, 4,170 in 2000. Nassau Bay is located in southeastern Harris County at 29°32′40″N 95°5′22″W, it is bordered to the west by the city of Webster, to the north by the city of Houston. It is bordered to the south by Clear Creek and to the southeast by the head of Clear Lake, an arm of Galveston Bay. Across the creek and lake, Nassau Bay is bordered by League City in Galveston County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Nassau Bay has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which 1.2 square miles land and 0.54 square miles, or 30.12%, are water. It is adjacent to the Johnson Space Center, which lies on the other side of Texas State Highway NASA Road 1 within the Houston city limits. Carlton Bayou, Clear Lake, Swan Lagoon serve as boundaries of the community; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,170 people, 2,049 households, 1,213 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,146.0 people per square mile.
There were 2,243 housing units at an average density of 1,692.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.64% White, 3.91% Asian, 2.23%of multi-racial background, 1.87% African American,1.68% from other races, 0.50% Native American, 0.17% Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race accounted for 6.28% of the population. There were 2,049 households out of which 17.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.8% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.59. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.3% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 34.4% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $57,353, the median income for a family was $77,252. Males had a median income of $52,295 versus $38,819 for females; the per capita income for the city was $39,113. About 3.0% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Pupils in Nassau Bay attend schools in Clear Creek Independent School District; the community is within the Board of Trustees District 2, represented by Win Weber as of 2008. Pupils are zoned to Robinson Elementary School in Pasadena, Space Center Intermediate School, Clear Creek High School. Prior to the 2006–2007 school year, Nassau Bay was zoned to Falcon Pass Elementary School. St. Thomas the Apostle Episcopal School, a private school, is located in Nassau Bay; the United States Postal Service operates the Nassau Bay Post Office at 18214 Upper Bay Road. Nassau Bay postal addresses are designated as "Houston, Texas". Nassau Bay is the sister city of Star City, the home of the Russian equivalent of the Johnson Space Center.
City of Nassau Bay official website Nassau Bay - Handbook of Texas G. W. Robinson Elementary School
Fairview is an unincorporated community in Coos County, United States. Fairview is along the North Fork Coquille River about 6 miles northeast of Coquille. According to Oregon Geographic Names, the community's name is descriptive. A local logging railroad once connected Fairview to the Southern Pacific rail network at Fairview Junction near Coquille. A post office opened in Fairview with Francis Braden as the first postmaster; the post office name in Coos County led to complications in Fairview in Multnomah County, where the post office at the Fairview railway station was temporarily named Cleone to avoid using the same name for two different post offices. The Coos County office closed in 1913, the Cleone office became the Fairview office in 1914