Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published ten times a year. Based in Chappaqua, New York, it is now headquartered in Midtown Manhattan; the magazine was founded by DeWitt Wallace and Lila Bell Wallace. For many years, Reader's Digest was the best-selling consumer magazine in the United States. According to Mediamark Research, Reader's Digest reaches more readers with household incomes of $100,000+ than Fortune, The Wall Street Journal, Business Week, Inc. combined. Global editions of Reader's Digest reach an additional 40 million people in more than 70 countries, via 49 editions in 21 languages; the periodical has a global circulation of 10.5 million, making it the largest paid circulation magazine in the world. It is published in Braille, audio, in a large type called Reader's Digest Large Print; the magazine is compact, with its pages half the size of most American magazines. Hence, in the summer of 2005, the U. S. edition adopted the slogan "America in your pocket".
In January 2008, it was changed to "Life well shared". In 1922, DeWitt Wallace started the magazine while he was recovering from shrapnel wounds received in World War I. Wallace had the idea to gather a sampling of favorite articles on many subjects from various monthly magazines, sometimes condensing and rewriting them, to combine them into one magazine. Since its inception, Reader's Digest has maintained a conservative and anti-Communist perspective on political and social issues; the Wallaces hoped the journal could provide $5,000 of net income. Mr. Wallace’s assessment of what the potential mass-market audience wanted to read led to rapid growth. By 1929, the magazine had a gross income of $900,000 a year; the first international edition was published in the United Kingdom in 1938. By the 40th anniversary of Reader’s Digest, there were 40 international editions, in 13 languages and Braille, it was the largest-circulating journal in Canada, Spain, Sweden and other countries, with a total international circulation of 23 million.
The magazine's format for several decades consisted of 30 articles per issue, along with a vocabulary page, a page of "Amusing Anecdotes" and "Personal Glimpses", two features of funny stories entitled "Humor in Uniform" and "Life in these United States", a lengthier article at the end condensed from a published book. These were all listed in the Table of Contents on the front cover; each article was prefaced by a simple line drawing. In recent years, the format has evolved into flashy, colorful eye-catching graphics throughout, many short bits of data interspersed with full articles; the Table of Contents is now contained inside. From 2003 to 2007, the back cover featured "Our America", paintings of Rockwell-style whimsical situations by artist C. F. Payne; the first "Word Power" column of the magazine was published in the January 1945 edition, written by Wilfred J. Funk. In December 1952 the magazine published "Cancer by the Carton", a series of articles that linked smoking with lung cancer.
This first brought the dangers of smoking to the attention of a public which, up to had ignored the health threats. From 2002 through 2006, Reader's Digest conducted a vocabulary competition in schools throughout the United States called Reader's Digest National Word Power Challenge. In 2007, the magazine said it had decided not to have the competition for the 2007–08 school year: "...but rather to use the time to evaluate the program in every respect, including scope and model for implementation."In 2006, the magazine published three more local-language editions in Slovenia and Romania. In October 2007, the Digest expanded into Serbia; the magazine's licensee in Italy stopped publishing in December 2007. The magazine launched in The People's Republic of China in 2008. For 2010, the U. S. edition of the magazine planned to decrease its circulation to 5.5 million, from 8 million, to publish 10 times a year rather than 12, to increase digital offerings. It cut its circulation guarantee for advertisers to 5.5 million copies from 8 million.
In announcing that decision, in June 2009, the company said that it planned to reduce its number of celebrity profiles and how-to features, increase the number of inspiring spiritual stories and stories about the military. Beginning in January 2013, the US edition was increased back to 12 times a year. In 1990, the magazine's parent company, The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. became a publicly traded corporation. From 2005 through 2010, RDA reported a net loss each year. In March 2007, Ripplewood Holdings LLC led a consortium of private equity investors who bought the company through a leveraged buy-out for US$2.8 billion, financed by the issuance of US$2.2 billion of debt. Ripplewood invested $275 million of its own money, had partners including Rothschild Bank of Zürich and GoldenTree Asset Management of New York; the private equity deal tripled the association's interest payments, to $148 million a year. On August 24, 2009, RDA announced it had filed with the U. S. Bankruptcy court a pre-arranged Chapter 11 bankruptcy, in order to continue operations, to restructure the US$2.2 billion debt undertaken by the leveraged buy-out transaction.
The company emerged from bankruptcy with the lenders exchanging debt for equity, Ripplewood's entire equity investment was extinguished. In April 2010, the UK arm was sold to its management, it has a licensing deal with the U. S. company to continue publishing the UK edition. On February 17, 2013, RDA Holding filed for bankruptcy a second time; the company was purchased for £1 by Mike Luckwell, a venture capita
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is an American retired professional basketball player who played 20 seasons in the National Basketball Association for the Milwaukee Bucks and the Los Angeles Lakers. During his career as a center, Abdul-Jabbar was a record six-time NBA Most Valuable Player, a record 19-time NBA All-Star, a 15-time All-NBA selection, an 11-time NBA All-Defensive Team member. A member of six NBA championship teams as a player and two more as an assistant coach, Abdul-Jabbar twice was voted NBA Finals MVP. In 1996, he was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History. NBA coach Pat Riley and players Isiah Thomas and Julius Erving have called him the greatest basketball player of all time. After winning 71 consecutive basketball games on his high school team in New York City, Alcindor was recruited by Jerry Norman, the assistant coach of UCLA, where he played for coach John Wooden on three consecutive national championship teams and was a record three-time MVP of the NCAA Tournament.
Drafted with the first overall pick by the one-season-old Bucks franchise in the 1969 NBA draft, Alcindor spent six seasons in Milwaukee. After leading the Bucks to its first NBA championship at age 24 in 1971, he took the Muslim name Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Using his trademark "skyhook" shot, he established himself as one of the league's top scorers. In 1975, he was traded to the Lakers, with whom he played the final 14 seasons of his career and won five additional NBA championships. Abdul-Jabbar's contributions were a key component in the "Showtime" era of Lakers basketball. Over his 20-year NBA career, his teams succeeded in making the playoffs 18 times and got past the first round 14 times. At the time of his retirement at age 42 in 1989, Abdul-Jabbar was the NBA's all-time leader in points scored, games played, minutes played, field goals made, field goal attempts, blocked shots, defensive rebounds, career wins, personal fouls, he remains the all-time leader in points scored and career wins.
He is ranked third all-time in blocked shots. In 2007, ESPN voted him the greatest center of all time, in 2008, they named him the "greatest player in college basketball history", in 2016, they named him the second best player in NBA history. Abdul-Jabbar has been an actor, a basketball coach, a best-selling author. In 2012, he was selected by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to be a U. S. global cultural ambassador. In 2016, President Barack Obama awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Jr. was born in New York City, the only child of Cora Lillian, a department store price checker, Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Sr. a transit police officer and jazz musician. He grew up in the Dyckman Street projects in the Inwood neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. Alcindor was unusually tall from a young age. At birth he weighed 12 lb 11 oz and was 22 1⁄2 inches long, by the age of nine he was 5 ft 8 in tall. By the eighth grade he had grown to 6 ft 8 in tall and could slam dunk a basketball.
Alcindor began his record-breaking basketball accomplishments when he was in high school, where he led coach Jack Donahue's Power Memorial Academy team to three straight New York City Catholic championships, a 71-game winning streak, a 79–2 overall record. This earned him a nickname—"The tower from Power", his 2,067 total points were a New York City high school record. The team won the national high school boys basketball championship when Alcindor was in 10th and 11th grade and was runner-up his senior year. Alcindor had a strained relationship with his coach. In his 2017 book "Coach Wooden and Me," Abdul-Jabbar relates an incident where Donahue called him a nigger. Alcindor played on the UCLA freshman team in 1966 only because the "freshman rule" was in effect, but his prowess was well known, he received national coverage when he made his varsity debut in 1967: Sports Illustrated described him as "The New Superstar." From 1967 to 1969, he played on the varsity under head coach John Wooden. He was the main contributor to the team's three-year record of 88 wins and only two losses: one to the University of Houston in which Alcindor had an eye injury, the other to crosstown rival USC who played a "stall game".
In his first game, Alcindor scored 56 points. During his college career, Alcindor was twice named Player of the Year. In 1967 and 1968, he won USBWA College Player of the Year, which became the Oscar Robertson Trophy. Alcindor became the only player to win the Helms Foundation Player of the Year award three times; the 1965–66 UCLA Bruin team was the preseason #1. On November 27, 1965, the freshman team, led by Alcindor, defeated the varsity 75–60 in the first game in the new Pauley Pavilion. Alcindor had 21 rebounds in what was a good indication of things to come. After the game, the UCLA varsity was # 2 on campus. If the "freshman rule" had not been in effect at that time, UCLA would have had a much better chance of winning the 1966 National Championship. Alcindor had considered transferring to Michigan because of unfulfilled recruiting promises. UCLA player Willie Naul
Isaac Asimov was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University. He was known for his works of popular science. Asimov was a prolific writer who wrote or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards, his books have been published in 9 of the 10 major categories of the Dewey Decimal Classification. Asimov wrote hard science fiction. Along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimov's most famous work is the "Foundation" series; the Galactic Empire novels are set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation series. With Foundation and Earth, he linked this distant future to the Robot stories, creating a unified "future history" for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson, he wrote hundreds of short stories, including the social science fiction novelette "Nightfall", which in 1964 was voted the best short science fiction story of all time by the Science Fiction Writers of America.
Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French. Asimov wrote mysteries and fantasy, as well as much nonfiction. Most of his popular science books explain concepts in a historical way, going as far back as possible to a time when the science in question was at its simplest stage. Examples include Guide to Science, the three-volume set Understanding Physics, Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery, he wrote on numerous other scientific and non-scientific topics, such as chemistry, mathematics, biblical exegesis, literary criticism. He was president of the American Humanist Association; the asteroid 5020 Asimov, a crater on the planet Mars, a Brooklyn elementary school, a literary award are named in his honor. Asimov's family name derives from the first part of azimy khleb, meaning the winter grain in which his great-great-great-grandfather dealt, with the Russian patronymic ending -ov added. Azimov is spelled Азимов in the Cyrillic alphabet.
When the family arrived in the United States in 1923 and their name had to be spelled in the Latin alphabet, Asimov's father spelled it with an S, believing this letter to be pronounced like Z, so it became Asimov. This inspired one of Asimov's short stories, "Spell My Name with an S."Asimov refused early suggestions of using a more common name as a pseudonym, believed that its recognizability helped his career. After becoming famous, he met readers who believed that "Isaac Asimov" was a distinctive pseudonym created by an author with a common name. Asimov was born in Petrovichi, Smolensk Oblast, Russian SFSR on an unknown date between October 4, 1919 and January 2, 1920, inclusive. Asimov celebrated his birthday on January 2. Asimov's parents were a family of Jewish millers, he was named Isaac after Isaac Berman. When he was born, his family lived in Petrovichi near Klimovichi, Gomel Governorate in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Asimov wrote of his father, "My father, for all his education as an Orthodox Jew, was not Orthodox in his heart", noting that "he didn't recite the myriad prayers prescribed for every action, he never made any attempt to teach them to me".
In 1921, Asimov and 16 other children in Petrovichi developed double pneumonia. Only Asimov survived, he had two younger siblings: a sister, a brother, vice-president of the Long Island Newsday. Asimov's family travelled to the United States via Liverpool on the SS Baltic, arriving on February 3, 1923 when he was three years old. Since his parents always spoke Yiddish and English with him, he never learned Russian, but he remained fluent in Yiddish as well as English. Growing up in Brooklyn, New York, Asimov taught himself to read at the age of five, his mother got him into first grade a year early by claiming he was born on September 7, 1919. In third grade he learned about the "error" and insisted on an official correction of the date to January 2. After becoming established in the U. S. his parents owned a succession of candy stores in which everyone in the family was expected to work. The candy stores sold newspapers and magazines, a fact that Asimov credited as a major influence in his lifelong love of the written word, as it presented him with an unending supply of new reading material as a child that he could not have otherwise afforded.
He became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 1928 at the age of eight. Asimov attended New York City public schools including Boys High School in Brooklyn. Graduating at 15, he attended the City College of New York for several days before accepting a scholarship at Seth Low Junior College, a branch of Columbia University in Downtown Brooklyn designed to absorb some of the Jewish and Italian-American students who applied to Columbia College the institution's primary undergraduate school for men with quotas on the number of admissions from those ethnic groups. A zoology major, Asimov switched to chemistry after his first semester as he disapproved of "dissecting an alley cat". After Seth Low Junior College closed in 1938, Asimov finished his Bachelor of Science degree at University Extension in 1939. After two rounds
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children: his stories express themes that transcend age and nationality. Andersen's fairy tales, of which no fewer than 3381 works have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well, his most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", "The Nightingale", "The Snow Queen", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Little Match Girl" and "Thumbelina". His stories have inspired ballets and animated and live-action films. One of Copenhagen's widest and busiest boulevards is named "H. C. Andersens Boulevard". Hans Christian Andersen was born in Odense, Denmark on 2 April 1805, he was an only child. Andersen's father Hans, considered himself related to nobility.
A persistent speculation suggests that Andersen was an illegitimate son of King Christian VIII, but this notion has been challenged. Andersen's father, who had received an elementary school education, introduced Andersen to literature, reading to him the Arabian Nights. Andersen's mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was an illiterate washerwoman. Following her husband's death in 1816, she remarried in 1818. Andersen was sent to a local school for poor children where he received a basic education and had to support himself, working as an apprentice to a weaver and to a tailor. At fourteen, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. Having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him. Taking the suggestion Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, held great affection for Andersen and sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse, persuading King Frederick VI to pay part of the youth's education.
Andersen had by published his first story, "The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave". Though not a stellar pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827, he said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life. At one school, he lived at his schoolmaster's home, where he was abused, being told that it was "to improve his character", he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing, driving him into a depression. A early fairy tale by Andersen, "The Tallow Candle", was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012; the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor in whose family's possession it remained until it turned up among other family papers in a local archive. In 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story "A Journey on Foot from Holmen's Canal to the East Point of Amager", its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat. Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, a short volume of poems.
Although he made little progress writing and publishing thereafter, in 1833 he received a small travel grant from the king, thus enabling him to set out on the first of many journeys through Europe. At Jura, near Le Locle, Andersen wrote the story "Agnete and the Merman", he spent an evening in the Italian seaside village of Sestri Levante the same year, inspiring the title of "The Bay of Fables". In October 1834, he arrived in Rome. Andersen's travels in Italy were to be reflected in his first novel, a fictionalized autobiography titled The Improvisatore, published in 1835 to instant acclaim. Andersen's initial attempts at writing fairy tales were revisions of stories that he heard as a child, his original fairy tales were not met with recognition, due to the difficulty of translating them. In 1835, Andersen published the first two installments of his Fairy Tales. More stories, completing the first volume, were published in 1837; the collection comprises nine tales, including "The Tinderbox", "The Princess and the Pea", "Thumbelina", "The Little Mermaid" and "The Emperor's New Clothes".
The quality of these stories was not recognized, they sold poorly. At the same time, Andersen enjoyed more success with two novels, O. T. and Only a Fiddler. Much of his work was influenced by the Bible as when he was growing up Christianity was important in the Danish culture. After a visit to Sweden in 1837, Andersen became inspired by Scandinavism and committed himself to writing a poem that would convey the relatedness of Swedes and Norwegians. In July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen, Andersen wrote the text of his poem Jeg er en Skandinav to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have grown together" as part of a Scandinavian national anthem. Composer Otto Lindblad set the poem to music, the composition was published in January 1840, its popularity peaked in 1845, after which it was sung. Andersen returned to the fairy tale genre in 1838 with another collection, Fairy Tales Told for Children. New Collection. First Booklet (Eventyr, fortalte for Børn.
The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies, had been adapted for radio, television and film; the series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième, a youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle. The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper Le Soir and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé; the series is set during a realistic 20th century. Its hero is a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer, he is aided by his faithful dog Snowy. Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus, as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson and the opera diva Bianca Castafiore.
The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature ligne claire style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, science fiction; the stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary. Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé, was employed as an illustrator at Le Vingtième Siècle, a staunchly Roman Catholic, conservative Belgian newspaper based in Hergé's native Brussels. Run by the Abbé Norbert Wallez, the paper described itself as a "Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information" and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled Le Petit Vingtième. Propagating Wallez's socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated L'extraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet, a comic strip authored by a member of the newspaper's sport staff.
Dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to draw his own cartoon strip. He had experience creating comic strips. From July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les Aventures de Totor C. P. des Hannetons for the Scouting newspaper Le Boy Scout Belge. Totor was a strong influence on Tintin, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totor's younger brother. Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier stated that graphically and Tintin were "virtually identical" except for the Scout uniform noting many similarities between their respective adventures in the illustration style, the fast pace of the story, the use of humour, he was fascinated by new techniques in the medium such as the systematic use of speech bubbles—found in such American comics as George McManus' Bringing up Father, George Herriman's Krazy Kat and Rudolph Dirks's Katzenjammer Kids, copies of, sent to him from Mexico by the paper's reporter Léon Degrelle. Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union, acting as anti-socialist propaganda for children.
The result, Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, was serialised in Le Petit Vingtième from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, following which he organised the publication of the story in book form; the story's popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallez's direction, in June he began serialisation of the second story, Tintin in the Congo, designed to encourage colonial sentiment towards the Belgian Congo. Authored in a paternalistic style that depicted the Congolese as childlike idiots, in decades it was accused of racism, however at the time was un-controversial and popular, further publicity stunts were held to increase sales. For the third adventure, Tintin in America, serialised from September 1931 to October 1932, Hergé got to deal with a scenario of his own choice, used the work to push an anti-capitalist, anti-consumerist agenda in keeping with the paper's ultra-conservative ideology.
The Adventures of Tintin had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine Cœurs Vaillants since 1930, Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too. Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, India, Tibet and the United Kingdom, he sent Tintin to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin American republic of San Theodoros, the East European kingdom of Syldavia, or the fascist state Borduria—whose leader, Müsstler, was a combination of Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. In May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium. Although Hergé fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, he decided to return to his occupied homeland. For political reasons, the