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Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service

The Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service is a non-departmental public body in England set up to promote the welfare of children and families involved in family court. It was formed in April 2001 under the provisions of the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 and is accountable to Parliament through the Ministry of Justice. Cafcass is independent of the courts, social services, health authorities and all similar agencies. Court proceedings for which Cafcass may provide support include: Parental applications under Section 8 of the Children Act 1989 for a Child Arrangements Order, this includes where a child lives, spends time, or otherwise has contact with each parent Other parental applications under Section 8 of the Children Act 1989, such as a Prohibited Steps Order or a Specific Issue Order Adoption cases Children who are subject to a Social Services application for a Care and/ or Supervision Order. Cafcass' function is set out in Section 12 Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 which states: “In respect of family proceedings in which the welfare of children is or may be in question, it is a function of to: safeguard and promote the welfare of the children give advice to any court about any application made to it in such proceedings make provision for the children to be represented in such proceedings provide information and other support for the children and their families.”

The provisions of court welfare services were the subject of two reviews. The Comprehensive Spending Review and a subsequent review conducted jointly by the Home Office, the Lord Chancellor’s Department and the Department of Health concluded that a new integrated service subsuming these functions could improve service to the courts, better safeguard the interests of children, reduce wasteful overlaps and increase efficiency; the services spanned England and Wales and included: Family Court Welfare. The Home Office stated: "The review announced by the Home Secretary on 16 July 1997 into the relationship between the Prison Service and probation service may herald important changes to the structure, management, working practices, human resources and funding of the probation service. Both the prison-probation review and the Comprehensive Spending Review should result in steps which should improve public confidence in community penalties."The Home Office Prison-Probation review consultation paper did not mention family court welfare given that family court welfare was to move to a new unified family court welfare service.

The government announced a unified family court welfare service. Among many key to be addressed were ensuring: Cafcass statutory basis; these were addressed by a Project Team. The Criminal Justice and Court Services Bill was led by the Home Office as most of the Bill’s provisions concerned the establishment of a National Probation Service for England and Wales. A few parts concerned Cafcass arrangements; the Bill completed its Parliamentary stages in Autumn 2000. The Act’s Cafcass provisions were set to commence on 1 April 2001; the short timeline created problems. Cafcass's functions were to “safeguard and promote the welfare of the children,give advice to the court about any application made to it in such proceedings, make provision for children to be represented in such proceedings, provide information and other support for the children and their families.”Subordinate legislation set out the duties of Cafcass practitioners. In 2004 Cafcass published a procedure to do with domestic violence. In 2005/06 Cafcass produced the consultation document Every Day Matters that led to a draft set of National Standards.

These standards set out what service users, partner agencies and practitioners in the family justice system could expect. The Standards updated the 2003 Cafcass Service Standards and Principles, after piloting in the North-East Region, were phased in from 1 April 2007; the standards noted the importance of service-user feedback and the active engagement and participation of children in their case planning process. Cafcass asserted the importance of including children's views in the decision making processes involved in court proceedings. Young people could offer a "Needs and Feelings" statement directly to the judge. However, Cafcass admitted; the Children's Rights Team spearheaded the formation of a Young People's Board for Cafcass. This Board consists of 12 young people with experience of Cafcass's services. Since the Board's formation in August 2006 they helped to shape Cafcass procedures. In 2011 the Family Justice Review, final report stated the following about the Young People’s Board: ‘We have been impressed by the valuable work undertaken by the Cafcass Young People’s Board.

They provide an important perspective on the work of the family justice system and offer an intelligent and energetic challenge to the board of Cafcass. We believe that this work should be maintained through a Young People’s Board for the Family Justice Service, with a remit to consider issues in both public and private law and to report directly to the service.’The Young People’s Board was expanded to cover the family justice system on a national scale and is now called The Family Justice Young People's Board. The Family Justice Young People’s Board is a group of over 40 children and young people aged between 8 and 25 years old

Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (Colombia)

The Institute of Hydrology and Environmental Studies known by its acronym in Spanish, IDEAM, is a government agency of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development of Colombia. It is in charge of producing and managing the scientific and technical information on the environment of Colombia, its territorial composition; the IDEAM serves as the Colombian institute of meteorology and studies the climate of Colombia. The IDEAM is charged with obtaining, analyzing and divulging information pertaining to hydrology, hydrogeology and geography of biophysical, geomorphological aspects, the vegetation and land area to improve the use and care of the biophysical resources or the country, it was created on December 22, 1993, when Congress passed Law 99 of 1993, replacing the Colombian Institute of Hydrology and Land Management, it started functioning on March 1, 1995

Ebira people

The Ebira or Egbira people are an ethno-linguistic group of central Nigeria. Many Ebira people are from Kwara State, Nasarawa State and Edo State. Okene was said to be the administrative centre of the Ebira-speaking people in Kogi state before Kogi was formed from Kwara, not far from the Niger-Benue confluence. Since the formation of the state, the Ebira Ta'o people are found in four local governments namely: Adavi, Ajaokuta and Okene each with their administration headquarters. Ebira Koto are found in Kogi and KotonKarfe LGA, Bassa LGA, Lokoja in Kogi and Abaji LGA in the Federal Capital Territory, Nasarawa in Toto LGA. Another, the Eganyi are found in Ajaokuta LGA, and the Etuno can be found in Igarra town of Edo state. In recent history, Ebira people inhabit a territory south-west of the confluence of the Niger and Benue Rivers though some Ebira communities reside north-east of the confluence, the territory surrounding the confluence is an ethnically diverse area with diffused cultural symbols.

Ebiraland is north of Etsako, east of Kabba and west of Igalaland, it is dominated by deciduous woodland and rocky hills of an open savannah vegetation. The major local government areas are Adavi, Koton-Karfi and Okene. Since the advent of colonialism, many Ebiras have moved southwards due to search for arable farming spaces and working as migrant farmers; the migration of Ebira people to the present region is surmised by oral history. However, most versions trace the migration from the Jukuns of the Kwararafa state, north of the Benue River and in present-day Taraba State. One of the relics of their trace from Kwararafa is the Apete stool, their symbol of authority and identity as a group within the kingdom, brought along and kept in a place in Opete, in present-day Ajaokuta; the Apete is presently the title instrument of Ozumi of Okene. After migration from Kwararafa, they settled with the Igalas and both groups lived together for about 300 years. A dispute between the two groups led to a parting of ways, the Ebiras moved southwest of the River Niger to their ancestral home called Ebira Opete an area around Ajaokuta.

Other groups moved south to found Okengwe and Okehi. These Ebiras communities were autonomous units without a central king or recognized royal families but were managed by leaders of lineages in a type of gerontocracy. During the conquest of Hausaland by the armies of The religious and Political leader Uthman Dan Fodio, Ebiras came under a state of conflict with Fulani warlords to the north and west. In the middle of the nineteenth century, two major communities, Igu as it was called by Hausa, it means strong land because they fought to conquest them but never succeed and were not conquered. Between 1865 and 1880, they battled, under the leadership of a warlord, Achigidi Okino, with jihadists called Ajinomoh who were from Bida and Ilorin. However, the Ebiras were not conquered by the Fulanis helped in part by security provided by their hilly environment. British interest in Ebira started with the location of a Royal Niger Company post in Lokoja. In 1898, the British annexed Ilorin and Nupeland under the pretext of controlling free flow of trade, they set up a military post in Kabba west of Ebiraland and the Ebiras soon were a target for annexation.

In 1903, after much resistance, Ebira territory fell under British control. To manage the various autonomous villages, a central figure was appointed by the British to represent Ebiras; the first of such figures was Ouda Adidi of Eika, who ruled until 1903, he was succeeded by Omadivi, a favourite of the British. Omadivi was a clan head who had earlier fought against Jihadists but supported trade with the British. During his reign, his authority over the other clans was minimal; when Omadivi died, Adano had a short reign. In 1917, a new ruler, Ibrahim was chosen, Ibrahim was called Attah Ibrahim or Attah of Ebiraland, he was a maternal grandson of Omadivi, it was during his reign that the British colonists introduced indirect rule, a significant political development that increased the authority of Attah. Ibrahim used his position as head of the Ebira Native Authority to bring together the autonomous communities under his political leadership, a process, opposed by some members of those communities.

He gained the confidence of the British who entrusted territories northwards of Ebiraland such as Lokoja to him. Ibrahim helped spread Islam in the region. However, Ibrahim was exiled in a consequence of political intrigues; the first primary school in the community was located in his palace and many of his children were educated and some ended up holding prominent positions in the regional and federal governments. Ibrahim was succeeded by Sani Omolori. Before the advent of Islam, Ebira people practised a form of African traditional religion with a central focus on a god called Ohomorihi, the rain-maker who lives in the sky. Rites are performed to appease the god whose attributes include punishing evildoers and rewarding good people. Other religious figures below the Ohomorihi are ori and spirits. In Ebira tradition, there is a belief in a spirit world. In the early history of Ebira people, the family was headed by the father or the oldest male who acted as the provider, religious leader and the protector of the nuclear family.

Other important social systems are compounds which are composed of related or kindred patrilineal families,Ovovu, the outer compounds and lineages, composed of several related compounds. The Clan, a community of kindred lineages in Ebiraland is led by the Otaru. Clan identities


Chamosite is the Fe2+end member of the chlorite group. A hydrous aluminium silicate of iron, produced in an environment of low to moderate grade of metamorphosed iron deposits, as gray or black crystals in oolitic iron ore. Like other chlorites, it is a product of the hydrothermal alteration of pyroxenes and biotite in igneous rock; the composition of chlorite is related to that of the original igneous mineral so that more Fe-rich chlorites are found as replacements of the Fe-rich ferromagnesian minerals. In 1820, Pierre Bertier; the new mineral was found in an area of low to moderate grade metamorphosed iron deposit. Early chamosite stirred some controversy after they discovered to have possessed the structure of kaolin rather than chlorite, but further research proved that chamosite was in existence with another phyllosilicate called berthierine, rather difficult to distinguish from chamosites. Chamosite is named after the municipality of Chamoson, between Sion and Martigny, the canton of Valais, Switzerland.

X-ray diffraction indicates that the proportion of 7 Å B layers in bertherine-chamosite ranges from 5 to 28%, chemical analysis by scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicates positive correlation between %B and Fe/. The chamosite structure is similar to typical chlorite in which they are alternated regular layers with tetrahedral and tri-octahedral components, its 2:1 layer structure is similar to that of mica, with a basal spacing of 14 Å.. In most common chlorites, there are 12.0 octahedral cations per O2016 and equivalent amounts of aluminium in tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Chamosite has sheets measure from 20 to 200 μm. Chamosite may be brown in color; the cleavage are length-slow, the orientation may be α ∧ c=small, β=b, γ ∧ α=small, optic plane= and has good cleavage on the axis. It has grayish-green streak. Birefringence is much lower than that of the micas, illites and vermiculite, refractive indices are higher than those of kaolinite; the chamosite spectra shows the reflection d=7.18 Å and the reflection d=14.4 Å.

Chamosite is a uncommon mineral in nature. Since its discovery in Chamoson, only about 15 localities around the world are known to be associated with iron deposits. Chamosite may be found in occurrence with other chlorite minerals. In recent years, berthierine. Chamosite is related to the beginning of a hydrothermal phase and occurs in a mineralized breccia type stock-work in which it fills open spaces and replaces the hot rock through fissures; the Mamu-Nkporo formation in the locality of Okigwe, Nigeria was studied by Akande and Mucke, they concluded that the carbonate discovered with associated chamosite was formed in a shallow marine subtidal to intertidal environment developed during periods of rise and fall in sea level. Formation of chamosite bearing oolites record periods of increasing wave energy corresponding to storm conditions between quiet shallow marine sedimentation. Chamosite is a mineral. Xuanwei City in Yunnan Province has one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China.

This epidemic had long been blamed on hydrocarbons released from the burning of coal. Dai, S. et al. conducted a mineralogical and geochemical study of coal from two coal mines in this region, identified chamosite as one of the main minerals in the coal. Http://

Viveka Eriksson

Viveka Eriksson or Viveca Eriksson is a politician on the autonomous Åland Islands and the former Premier of Åland from 2007 to 2011. Member of the Lagting 2011 – Premier, Government of Åland October 2007 – November 2011 First Deputy Speaker of the Lagting 2005–2007 Speaker of the Lagting 2001–2005 First Deputy Speaker 2000–2001 Member of the Lagting 1995–2007 Chairwoman of the Åland Liberals since 2003 Member of the Speaker's Conference of the Lagting 1999–2000, Vice-speaker 2000–01 and again from 2005. Chairperson of the Finance Committee 1999–2001 Chairperson of the Liberal Parliamentary Group 1999–2001 and Party Chairperson from 2004. Eriksson was the first female Speaker in Åland history; as party leader of the Åland Liberals she won the 2007 election and was sworn in as the first female Premier. List of current heads of government of dependencies List of Speakers of the Parliament of Åland Aland Islands parliament elects speakers UCSD Abreast - Women Heads of State: 2007–Present Viveca Eriksson Official website of the Government of Åland Official website of the Parliament of Åland

Jake Brigham

Jacob Daniel Brigham is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Kiwoom Heroes of the KBO League. He made his Major League Baseball debut in 2015 with the Atlanta Braves, has played for the Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles of Nippon Professional Baseball. Brigham attended Central Florida Christian Academy in Orlando, where he played for the school's baseball team, he pitched a no-hitter in 2005, his junior season, against West Oak, though he allowed two unearned runs. The Texas Rangers drafted Brigham in the sixth round of the 2006 Major League Baseball Draft, they added him to their 40-man roster after the 2011 season to protect him from the Rule 5 draft. In July 2012, Brigham was traded to the Chicago Cubs for Geovany Soto, he was traded back to the Rangers for Barret Loux on November 20, 2012. He was non tendered by the Rangers on November 30 and became a free agent, but re-signed with the Rangers on a minor league contract. Brigham became a free agent again after the 2013 season, he signed a minor league contract with the Pittsburgh Pirates' organization for the 2014 season.

He signed with the Atlanta Braves' organization prior to the 2015 season. Brigham was called up to the majors for the first time on June 27, 2015. Brigham made his Major League debut on June 30, 2015, pitching three innings against the Washington Nationals while striking out four batters and allowing only one hit, he elected free agency on November 6. On December 11, 2015, Brigham signed a minor-league contract with the Detroit Tigers. On December 18, 2015, the Tigers sold Brigham's rights to the Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles. On January 10, 2017, Brigham signed a minor-league contract with the Tigers. On May 4, 2017, Brigham signed a contract with the Nexen Heroes of the KBO League. Brigham signed a $650,000 contract for the 2018 season with the Heroes on November 24, 2017. On November 23, 2018, Brigham re-signed to a $900,000 contract with the team, now named the Kiwoom Heroes, for the 2019 season. Brigham posted a 13–5 record with a 2.96 ERA over 158.1 innings in 2019. On December 9, 2019, Brigham re-signed with Kiwoon for the 2020 season on a $950,000 contract.

Brigham and his wife, have two daughters and a son His uncle was former White Sox catcher Ron Karkovice. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference KBO League Statistics Jake Brigham on Twitter