Joseph Conrad (ship)
Joseph Conrad is an iron-hulled sailing ship, originally launched as Georg Stage in 1882 and used to train sailors in Denmark. After sailing around the world as a yacht in 1934 she served as a training ship in the United States. Australian sailor and author Alan Villiers saved Georg Stage from the scrappers, Villiers planned a circumnavigation with a crew of mostly boys. Joseph Conrad sailed from Ipswich on 22 October 1934, crossed the Atlantic Ocean to New York City, down to Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, and across the Indian Ocean and through the East Indies. After stops in Sydney, New Zealand, and Tahiti, Joseph Conrad rounded Cape Horn and returned to New York on 16 October 1936, having traveled a total of some 57,000 miles. Villiers was bankrupted as a result of the expedition, and sold the ship to Huntington Hartford, heir to the A&P supermarket fortune, who added an engine and used her as a yacht. In 1939 Hartford donated the Conrad to the United States Coast Guard for use as a ship for the merchant marine based in Jacksonville.
The Conrad continued to serve as a ship until the wars end in 1945. After being laid up for two years, the ship was transferred to Mystic Seaport in Stonington, Connecticut in 1947 where she has remained ever since as a floating exhibit. In addition to her role as a museum, she is a training vessel and is employed by Mystic Seaport to house campers attending the Joseph Conrad Sailing Camp
SS Great Britain
SS Great Britain is a museum ship and former passenger steamship, which was advanced for her time. She was the longest passenger ship in the world from 1845 to 1854 and she was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Steamship Companys transatlantic service between Bristol and New York. While other ships had been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller and she was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the time of 14 days. The ship is 322 ft in length and has a 3 and she was powered by two inclined 2 cylinder engines of the direct-acting type, with twin 88 in bore, 6-foot stroke cylinders. She was provided with secondary sail power, the four decks provided accommodation for a crew of 120, plus 360 passengers who were provided with cabins and promenade saloons. When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat, in 1852 she was sold for salvage and repaired. Great Britain carried thousands of immigrants to Australia from 1852 until converted to sail in 1881, three years later, she was retired to the Falkland Islands where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and coal hulk until scuttled in 1937.
In 1970, following a donation by Sir Jack Hayward that paid for the vessel to be towed back to the UK. Now listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, she is a visitor attraction and museum ship in Bristol Harbour. After the initial success of its first liner, SS Great Western of 1838, the same engineering team that had collaborated so successfully on Great Western—Isambard Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson—was again assembled. This time however, whose reputation was at its height, construction was carried out in a specially adapted dry dock in Bristol, England. Two chance encounters were to affect the design of Great Britain. In late 1838, John Lairds 213-foot English Channel packet ship Rainbow—the largest iron-hulled ship in service—made a stop at Bristol, Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to Antwerp on Rainbow to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, and Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden ship, Great Britains builders recognised a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull.
Wood was becoming more expensive, while iron was getting cheaper, Iron hulls were not subject to dry rot or woodworm, and they were lighter in weight and less bulky. The chief advantage of the hull was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a ship is about 300 feet. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater
Glenlee is a steel-hulled three-masted barque, built in 1896 for Glasgow owners, trading as a cargo ship. From 1922 she was a training ship in the Spanish Navy. She is now a museum ship at the Riverside Museum on Pointhouse Quay and she has a hull length of 245.5 ft, beam of 37.5 ft and depth of 22.5 ft, the over-all length with the spike bowsprit is 282 ft. She has 1,613 GRT and 1,490 NRT, rigged only with double topgallant sails over double top sails, she was not equipped with royal sails to save costs concerning gear and seamen. As with many baldheaded sailing ships the square sails were a wider than the sails of a standard rigging to gain sail area for a better propulsion. On 13 December 1896, just ten days after she was launched fully rigged and seaworthy, her maiden voyage brought her in ballast to Liverpool and from there with a cargo to Portland. Islamount was renamed the Clarastella in 1919 when she changed hands to the Star of Italy Italian Shipping Company of Milan who registered her in Genoa, the new owner had her repaired and equipped with two auxiliary diesel engines.
In 1922 the ship came into the hands of the Officers Military Navy School as Galatea to be used as a training ship. During this period the ship underwent a lot of changes to her hull, a flying bridge was installed on the poop deck, a flying jibboom was attached to the spike bowsprit, and many other changes such as the installation of accommodation facilities for 300 cadets. In April 1931 she became part of the Spanish Republican Navy, at the time of the coup of July 1936 she was at sea and reached Ferrol, a harbour that had been taken by the Nationalist faction. After more than 47 years of service as a sail and on as a training ship she was first laid up in A Graña, Ferrol. In 1981 the underwater hull was re-plated at the drydock in Ferrol, Galatea was completely de-rigged down to a hulk and was towed to Seville to be used as a floating museum, but left forgotten. Some sources even reported that the ship was sunk in the harbour by removing her bronze sea cock valve, in any case, the ship was in such poor condition that it was eventually decided to scrap her.
In 1990 a British naval architect discovered the ship and in 1993 she was rescued from being scrapped, after making the hull seaworthy the ship was returned to Glasgow months in tow from Seville. Except for the hull a new ship had to be rebuilt. All the changes made to the ship by the Spanish and previous owners had to be removed, such as all the cabins built for the trainees, Glenlee is now recognised as part of the National Historic Fleet. As a museum ship and tourist attraction, Glenlee offers educational programmes, events including exhibitions and is a venue for the West End Festival and volunteering opportunities. Since June 2011, the ship has been open at Glasgows new Riverside Museum. oktett. net The Tall Ship, Glenlee - Clyde Waterfront Heritage
SS Robin is a 350 gross registered ton steam coaster, a class of steamship designed for carrying bulk and general cargoes in coastal waters, and the oldest complete example in the world. One of a pair of coasters built in Bow Creek, London] in 1890, the ship was built for British owners, in 1974 she was purchased for restoration as Robin and is listed by National Historic Ships as part of the National Historic Fleet. She is situated in the Royal Docks in east London, in the stages of preparation before opening as the SS Robin museum, theatre. As built, Robin was 143 feet long, her beam is 23 feet, her depth is 12.2 feet and she carried about 450 tons of cargo. The engine is a triple expansion steam engine, developing 152 indicated horsepower. Her maximum speed was 9 knots, in Lloyds Register she was described as a steel screw 3-masted schooner, and had indeed been provided with sails for all three masts when first built. However and her sister Rook were completed by Thomson himself, after fitting out in the East India Dock, Robin was towed to Dundee to have her engine and auxiliary machinery installed by Gourlay Brothers & Co.
When completed she was registered in London with Official number 98185 and in the ownership of Arthur Ponsonby of Newport, on 20 December 1890, Robin commenced her career in the British coastal service at Liverpool, with a crew of 12 signing the Articles for her maiden voyage. As a coaster her range was limited to the Home Trade limits (broadly from the Elbe to Brest. In 1892 Robin was sold to Andrew Forrester Blackater of Glasgow, during World War I she carried iron slabs for the French government from the foundry at Santiago to Bayonne and Burdeos, escorted by two destroyers to protect her from German U-boats. From 1935 to 1939 the ship was laid up at San Esteban de Pravia, 1965–1974 Eduardo de la Sota Poveda of Bilbao, working around Bilbao] and the north coast of Spain until 1974, carrying coal for the bunkering of liners. Until 1965, Marias structure stayed mainly unchanged, in 1966 she had a refit with the whaleback and the mizzen mast removed, the foremast and the funnel shortened. The coal-fired furnaces were modified for oil fuel, Maria was discovered by the Maritime Trust in 1972.
Following an inspection, it was decided that she was worth preserving, in June 1974 she came home to St Katharine Docks under her own steam and was renamed Robin. She was restored at a cost of £250,000, with most work taking place in 1974 and 1975 at the Doust & Co shipyard at Rochester and she was moved to new moorings in 1991 at West India Quay but fell into disrepair. In 2000 David and Nishani Kampfner were looking for a space to be transformed into an area for innovation. In 2002, SS Robin Trust was created to bring awareness to the public about the importance of the ship. With the help of many volunteers began restoration on this coastal steamer
The Chilean Navy is the naval force of Chile. This led to the development of the Chilean Navy, and the first legal resolutions outlining the organization of the institution were created. Chiles First National Fleet and the Academy for Young Midshipmen which was the predecessor of the current Naval Academy were founded, as well as the Marine Corps, the first commander of the Chilean Navy was Manuel Blanco Encalada. However the famous British naval commander Lord Cochrane who formerly had been a Captain in the Royal navy, was hired by Chileans to organize, Cochrane recruited an almost all-anglophone complement of officers and midshipmen and crews of British and American seamen. He became a key figure in the war against loyalist forces in Peru and was instrumental in taking control of the fortresses of Valdivia even though he failed in his attempt to conquer Chiloé Island. In March 1824, the Chilean Navy and Army undertook an expedition to expel the Spanish from Chiloé Archipelago, an expedition was dispatched to Chiloé Island however ended in failure when the Chilean Army led by Jorge Beauchef was defeated at the Battle of Mocopulli.
It was only after Ramón Freires Chiloé expedition in 1826 did the royalist forces at Chiloé under the command of Antonio de Quintanilla, after the wars of independence, a series of conflicts demonstrated the importance of the Navy to the nation. First of these conflicts were the War of the Confederation, the Chincha Islands War, to deal with this new area of activity the navy founded in 1874 the Hydrographic Office whose first director was Francisco Vidal Gormaz. The anniversary of this battle is celebrated every year as a holiday called Día de las Glorias Navales. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations. To secure this advantage and not letting new Argentine acquisitions challenge Chilean Naval power the Chilean government decided to modernize its navy, the modernization plan included the ordering of two cruisers, two torpedo boat destroyers and the modernization of two armoured ships in English docks.
A new pre-dreadnought battleship, Capitán Prat, was ordered under the new program in 1889. Tarapacá was by that time Chiles richest region in terms of resources and was without the fleet practically out of reach for the Chilean Army. From here the navy organized an army made of nitrate miners which they armed and trained to face the 40, on the elections of October 1891 Jorge Montt was elected president. Not all navy officers sided with the congress, some like Juan Williams Rebolledo, Juan José Latorre and Policarpo Toro remained on the presidential side and Francisco Vidal Gormaz declared his neutrality. After the war officers were removed from their offices. After incidents with Chile in 1872,1877 and 1878 Argentina had decided that a navy, even if modern, was not enough to back up its ambitions in Patagonia. Over the 1880s and 1890s Chile and Argentina engaged in an arms race fueled by nationalistic rhetoric, both countries signed a treaty in 1902 to end the arms race
The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is the ships weight. The name reflects the fact that it is measured indirectly, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, by Archimedes principle, this is the weight of the ship. Displacement should not be confused with other measurements of volume or capacity typically used for vessels such as net tonnage, gross tonnage. The process of determining a vessels displacement begins with measuring its draft This is accomplished by means of its draft marks, a merchant vessel has three matching sets, one mark each on the port and starboard sides forward and astern. These marks allow a ships displacement to be determined to an accuracy of 0. 5%, the draft observed at each set of marks is averaged to find a mean draft. The ships hydrostatic tables show the corresponding volume displaced, to calculate the weight of the displaced water, it is necessary to know its density. Seawater is more dense than water, so a ship will ride higher in salt water than in fresh.
The density of water varies with temperature. Devices akin to slide rules have been available since the 1950s to aid in these calculations and it is done today with computers. Displacement is usually measured in units of tonnes or long tons and these bring the ship down to its load draft, colloquially known as the waterline. Full load displacement and loaded displacement have almost identical definitions, full load is defined as the displacement of a vessel when floating at its greatest allowable draft as established by classification societies. Warships have arbitrary full load condition established, deep load condition means full ammunition and stores, with most available fuel capacity used. Light displacement is defined as the weight of the ship excluding cargo, water, stores, crew, normal displacement is the ships displacement with all outfit, and two-thirds supply of stores, etc. on board. Standard displacement, known as Washington displacement, is a term defined by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922.
Naval architecture Hull Hydrodynamics Tonnage Dear, I. C. B, oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. George, William E. Stability & Trim for the Ships Officer, Edward A. McEwen, William A. Trim and Stability Information for Drydocking Calculations, conference on the Limitation of Armament,1922. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States,1922, proceedings of the United States Naval Institute
A motor ship or motor vessel is a ship propelled by an internal combustion engine, usually a diesel engine. The names of ships are often prefixed with MS, M/S. Engines for motorships were developed during the 1890s, and by early-20th century, gas turbine ship — prefix for a jet-engine/turbine propelled ship. Steamship — a steamship is a ship propelled by an engine or steam turbine. The name of ships are often prefixed with SS or S/S. Royal Mail Ship - Royal Mail steamer, or ship Ship prefix
Turbinia was the first steam turbine-powered steamship. The vessel can still be seen at the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England, while her original powerplant can be found at the London Science Museum. Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884, having foreseen its potential to power ships. To develop this he had the experimental vessel Turbinia built in a design of steel by the firm of Brown and Hood. The Admiralty was kept informed of developments, and Turbinia was launched on 2 August 1894, despite the success of the turbine engine, initial trials with one propeller were disappointing. In trials this achieved a top speed of over 34 knots, the turbines were directly driven, as geared turbines were not introduced until 1910. Even after the introduction of geared turbines, efficiency of even the largest axial steam turbines was still below 12 percent, Turbinia was even less efficient, with its direct drive turbine moving with a tip speed of just 30 meters per second.
Despite this, it was an improvement over predecessors. Photographer and cinematographer Alfred J. West took several photographs of Turbinia traveling at speed at the Review. Both vessels were lost but although the loss of these trials ships slowed the introduction of turbines, in 1900 Turbinia steamed to Paris and was shown to French officials and displayed at the Paris Exhibition. The first turbine-powered merchant vessel, the Clyde steamer TS King Edward, the Admiralty confirmed in 1905 that all future Royal Navy vessels were to be turbine-powered, and in 1906 the first turbine-powered battleship, the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought, was launched. On 11 January 1907, Turbinia was struck and nearly cut in two by Crosby – a ship being launched across-river from the bank of the Tyne. She was repaired and steamed alongside RMS Mauretania after the launch of the ocean liner. However, mechanical problems prevented Turbinia from accompanying Mauretania down the River Tyne to the sea, the fore section was presented in 1944 to Newcastle Corporation and placed on display in the citys Exhibition Park.
In 1983 a complete reconstruction was undertaken, on 30 October 1994,100 years after her launch, Turbinia was moved to Newcastles Museum of Science and Engineering and put on display to the public in March 1996. Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, in 2000, the gallery around Turbinia was the first area to be refurbished, with the main part of the work involving raising the roof by one storey to create viewing galleries on three levels. A detailed Museum originated blog entry by Ian Whitehead, the Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums curator charged with Turbinas care in 2013
Punta Arenas is the capital city of Chiles southernmost region and Antartica Chilena. The city was renamed as Magallanes in 1927, but in 1938 it was changed back to Punta Arenas. It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south, as of 1977 Punta Arenas has been one of only two free ports in Chile. During the remainder of the 1800s, Punta Arenas grew in size and importance due to the maritime traffic. This period of growth resulted from the waves of European immigrants, mainly from Croatia and Russia attracted to the gold rush and sheep farming boom in the 1880s. The largest sheep company, controlling 10,000 square kilometres in Chile and Argentina, was based in Punta Arenas, since its founding Chile has used Punta Arenas as a base to defend its sovereignty claims in the southernmost part of South America. This led, among other things, to the Strait of Magellan being recognized as Chilean territory in the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina. The geopolitical importance of Punta Arenas has remained high in the 20th, the English 18th-century explorer John Byron is sometimes credited with naming this area, calling it Sandy Point.
But it was not until 1843 that the government tried to establish a fort, the name Punta Arenas was derived from the Spanish term Punta Arenosa, a literal translation of the English name Sandy Point. The city has known as Magallanes. Today that term is used to describe the administrative region which includes the city. Punta Arenas has been nicknamed the city of the red roofs for the metal roofs that characterized the city for many years. Since about 1970 the availability of colors in protective finishes has resulted in greater variety in the characteristic metal roofs. Located on the Brunswick Peninsula, Punta Arenas is among the largest cities in the entire Patagonian Region, in 2012, it had a population of 127,454. It is roughly 1,418.4 km from the coast of Antarctica, the Magallanes region is considered part of Chilean Patagonia. Magallanes is Spanish for Magellan, and was named for Ferdinand Magellan, while circumnavigating the earth for Spain, he passed close to the present site of Punta Arenas in 1520.
Early English navigational documents referred to this site as Sandy Point, the city proper is located on the northeastern shore of Brunswick Peninsula. Except for the shore, containing the settlements of Guairabo, Rio Amarillo and Punta San Juan
El Mahrousa, officially renamed for a period of time as El Horreya, is a super yacht that currently serves as Egypts presidential yacht, and before that as the countrys royal yacht. It was built by the London-based Samuda Brothers company in 1863 at the order of Khedive Ismail Pasha and it is the oldest active yacht in the world and the seventh largest one. It witnessed much of Egypts modern history since it was first commissioned in the 19th century up till now. This marked the end of the monarchy in Egypt following the 1952 revolution, the ship continued to play a role in the countrys post-revolutionary history and participated in the 1976 United States Bicentennial celebrations. It took Egypts president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, to locations and it notably sailed with President Anwar Sadat to Jaffa, Israel. It was renamed back to El Mahrousa in 2000 and recently became the first ship to cross the New Suez Canal extension in 2015 and she was built by the Samuda Brothers on the River Thames and designed by Oliver Lang along the same lines as HMY Victoria and Albert II.
Twice in the ships history significant alterations to the shops length were carried out, firstly by 40 feet in 1872, with a further 16.5 feet being added in 1905. Inglis were one of the first companies to be granted a license by the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company, in 1869, Mahroussa gained fame as the first ship to pass through the newly completed Suez Canal as part of the opening ceremony. She spent most of her career in the eastern Mediterranean, in 1984 its title as the largest yacht was taken by Prince Abdulaziz, after having retained it for 119 years. Presently, the ship is cared for by the Egyptian Navy, the ship goes to sea about three times a year, usually for just a day. On September 10,2000 after visiting the El Horreya, ex-president Mubarak changed the back to her original name Mahroussa On August 6,2015. List of motor yachts by length