Julliberrie's Grave known as The Giant's Grave or The Grave, is an unchambered long barrow located near to the village of Chilham in the south-eastern English county of Kent. Constructed in the fourth millennium BCE, during Britain's Early Neolithic period, today it survives only in a state of ruin. Archaeologists have established that the monument was built by pastoralist communities shortly after the introduction of agriculture to Britain from continental Europe. Although representing part of an architectural tradition of long barrow building, widespread across Neolithic Europe, Julliberrie's Grave belongs to a localised regional variant of barrows produced in the vicinity of the River Stour. Of these, it lies on the eastern side of the river, alongside the Shrub's Wood Long Barrow, while the third known example in this barrow group, Jacket's Field Long Barrow, is located on the western side. Julliberrie's Grave is 44 metres long, 2 metres high, 15 metres at its widest, it was larger, with the northern end having been destroyed.
Unlike many other long barrows, no evidence for any Early Neolithic human remains have been found at the site. A broken polished stone axe was included in the centre of the monument, which archaeologists believe was placed there as part of a ritual act of deposition. A rectangular pit was dug into the western side of the barrow shortly after its completion containing a ritual deposit of organic material, before being refilled. In the Iron Age, a hearth was established in the ditch circling the barrow. Ensuing millennia witnessed local folklore grow up around the site, associating it with the burial of either a giant or an army and their horses; the ruin attracted the interest of antiquarians in the 17th century, although was damaged by chalk quarrying around the 18th. During the 18th and 19th century, antiquarians dug into the barrow at least twice, while cautious archaeological excavation took place in the 1930s. A Scheduled Ancient Monument, it is accessible to visitors all year around. Julliberrie's Grave is located on a shoulder of downland that flanks the eastern side of the River Stour.
It is located just over half-a-mile southeast of St Mary's Church and can be inspected from an adjacent public path. It is recognised as a Scheduled Ancient Monument under British law; the Early Neolithic was a revolutionary period of British history. Between 4500 and 3800 BCE, it saw a widespread change in lifestyle as the communities living in the British Isles adopted agriculture as their primary form of subsistence, abandoning the hunter-gatherer lifestyle that had characterised the preceding Mesolithic period; this came about through contact with continental societies, although it is unclear to what extent this can be attributed to an influx of migrants or to indigenous Mesolithic Britons adopting agricultural technologies from the continent. The region of modern Kent would have been a key area for the arrival of continental European settlers and visitors, because of its position on the estuary of the River Thames and its proximity to the continent. Britain was forested in this period. Throughout most of Britain, there is little evidence of cereal or permanent dwellings from this period, leading archaeologists to believe that the Early Neolithic economy on the island was pastoral, relying on herding cattle, with people living a nomadic or semi-nomadic life.
It is apparent that although a common material culture was shared throughout most of the British Isles in this period, there was great regional variation regarding the nature and distribution of settlement, architectural styles, the use of natural resources. Across Western Europe, the Early Neolithic marked the first period in which humans built monumental structures in the landscape; these were tombs that held the physical remains of the dead, though sometimes constructed out of timber, many were built using large stones, now known as "megaliths". Individuals were buried alone in the Early Neolithic, instead being interned in collective burials with other members of their community; the construction of these collective burial monumental tombs, both wooden and megalithic, began in continental Europe before being adopted in Britain in the first half of the fourth millennium BCE. The Early Neolithic people of Britain placed far greater emphasis on the ritualised burial of the dead than their Mesolithic forebears had done.
Many archaeologists have suggested that this is because Early Neolithic people adhered to an ancestor cult that venerated the spirits of the dead, believing that they could intercede with the forces of nature for the benefit of their living descendants. Given that other rites may have taken place around these monuments, historian Ronald Hutton termed them "tomb-shrines" to reflect their dual purpose. In Britain, these tombs were located on prominent hills and slopes overlooking the surrounding landscape at the junction between different territories. Archaeologist Caroline Malone noted that the tombs would have served as one of a variety of markers in the landscape that conveyed information on "territory, political allegiance and ancestors." Many archaeologists have subscribed to the idea that these tomb-shrines served as territorial markers between different tribal groups, although others have argued that such markers would be of little use to a nomadic herding society. Instead it has been suggested that the
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
River Stour, Kent
The River Stour is a river in Kent, England that flows into the North Sea at Pegwell Bay. Above Plucks Gutter, where the Little Stour joins it, the river is known as the Great Stour; the upper section of the river, above its confluence with the East Stour at Ashford is sometimes known as the Upper Great Stour or West Stour. In the tidal lower reaches, the artificial Stonar Cut short cuts a large loop in the natural river; the Stour has Kent's second largest catchment area. The lower part of the river is tidal; the river has three major tributaries, many minor ones. For much of its length it flows in a south-west to north-east direction; the historic city of Canterbury is situated on the river, as are the former Cinque Port of Sandwich and the railway town of Ashford. The route of the Stour Valley Walk follows the river; the source, of what is known at that point as the Great Stour, is near the village of Lenham, within a short distance of the River Len, a tributary of the Medway. The source is at a high elevation close to the North Downs escarpment.
At first the river flows south east in a narrow valley parallel to the escarpment and the Greensand ridge to the south, before breaking through the ridge near Hothfield into a broad valley. Three small streams enter from the north. Flood defences can turn this valley into a large lake and an embankment has had to be built to prevent overflow into the Medway catchment 100 metres away to the south; the river turns north east by the village of Great Chart in the direction of its outlet to the sea. The confluence with the East Stour, flowing from its source near Hythe, is to be found at Pledge's Mill at the bottom of East Hill in Ashford; the town of Ashford marks the start of the middle section of the river, sited at a crossing point of the river and on ancient track ways. In Ashford the river helps form part of the Ashford Green Corridor. After Ashford, the Stour breaches the North Downs. After the Brook stream enters from the right there are now 15 miles to Canterbury. In this stretch the river flows through the villages of Wye and Chartham, with Wye being a fordable crossing.
The historic city of Canterbury lies at the junction of four branches of the Roman road Watling Street which connected Canterbury with ports around the Kent coast – Lympne, Dover and Reculver. Within the city the river flows in two channels, one through the centre of the city, the other to the north of the city walls; the two channels rejoin to the east of Canterbury, before the river reaches Fordwich, a former outport of Canterbury and the current tidal limit of the river. Beyond Fordwich, the river passes between several former gravel pits and through the reed beds of the Stodmarsh National Nature Reserve. Beyond the nature reserve lies the open farmland on the reclaimed marshes surrounding the river crossing at Grove Ferry Picnic Area, near the hamlet of Upstreet. At the hamlet of Plucks Gutter, the second of the large tributaries enters the main river: the 18.9 miles long Little Stour, which begins life as the spring fed Nailbourne stream. From here on the river is known as the River Stour.
The twin villages in the parish of Stourmouth mark the original point where the Stour entered the erstwhile Wantsum Channel, a strait used for hundreds of years until silting and land reclamation turned the sea channel into a large drainage ditch. At this point the third large tributary, the 8.4-mile Sarre Penn enters with the Wantsum Channel. Here the river turns southwards to the once-thriving port of Sandwich, after which it loops back on itself to the north before entering the Strait of Dover at Pegwell Bay; the Stonar Cut obviates the need for seagoing craft to take the longer route around the loop at Sandwich. From the tidal limit at Fordwich to the sea the river is fringed with marshes. Most of them are located on what was the floor of the Wantsum Channel, whilst those to the south lie behind the sand dunes of the Sandwich Flats; these marshes are criss-crossed with drainage ditches. The principal marshes are those of Chislet, within the ancient estuary of the river. In the mid-18th century it became necessary to alleviate the problem of flooding along the lower course of the Stour.
The action of tidal drift of shingle along the coast had resulted in the huge loop at the estuary end of the river, on 29 November 1774 an Act of Parliament was enacted to bypass the loop at it narrowest end, at Stonar. The works, to become known as the Stonar Cut, made use of an existing sluice to cut across the neck of the loop, were completed in 1776. During World War I huge volumes of both troops and supplies were needed on the Continent and, in the utmost secrecy, a new port was built at Richborough. Landing facilities along the Cut were built, the East Kent Light Railway was extended to service the port. Nothing now remains of much of those works, the Cut has been allowed to return to its natural state. Notes tributaries of the East Stour or Spiders Castle Dyke or Pen Lee the upper reaches of the Little Stour. Fordwich became important to shipping after the silting up of the southern entrance to the English Channel. In 1831 Joseph Priestley wrote his'’Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers and Railways'’.
In it he descr
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Emma, by Jane Austen, is a novel about youthful hubris and the perils of misconstrued romance. The story takes place in the fictional village of Highbury and the surrounding estates of Hartfield and Donwell Abbey and involves the relationships among individuals in those locations consisting of "3 or 4 families in a country village"; the novel was first published in December 1815 while the author was alive, with its title page listing a publication date of 1816. As in her other novels, Austen explores the concerns and difficulties of genteel women living in Georgian–Regency England. Before she began the novel, Austen wrote, "I am going to take a heroine whom no one but myself will much like." In the first sentence, she introduces the title character as "Emma Woodhouse, handsome and rich." Emma is spoiled and self-satisfied. Emma, written after Austen's move to Chawton, was the last novel to be completed and published during her life, as Persuasion, the last novel Austen wrote, was published posthumously.
This novel has been adapted for several films, many television programmes, a long list of stage plays. It is the inspiration for several novels. Emma Woodhouse has just attended the wedding of Miss Taylor, her lovely friend and former governess, to Mr. Weston. Having introduced them, Emma decides that she likes matchmaking. After she returns home to Hartfield with her father, Emma forges ahead with her new interest against the advice of her sister's brother-in-law, Mr. Knightley, tries to match her new friend Harriet Smith to Mr. Elton, the local vicar. First, Emma must persuade Harriet to refuse the marriage proposal from Robert Martin, a respectable and well-spoken young farmer, which Harriet does against her wishes. However, Mr. Elton, a social climber, proposes to her; when Emma tells him that she had thought him attached to Harriet, he is outraged. After Emma rejects him, Mr. Elton leaves for a stay at Bath and returns with a pretentious, nouveau-riche wife, as Mr. Knightley expected. Harriet is heartbroken, Emma feels ashamed about misleading her.
Frank Churchill, Mr. Weston's son, arrives for a two-week visit to his father and makes many friends. Frank was adopted by his wealthy and domineering aunt, he has had few opportunities to visit before. Mr. Knightley suggests to Emma that, while Frank is intelligent and engaging, he is a shallow character. Jane Fairfax comes home to see her aunt, Miss Bates, grandmother, Mrs. Bates, for a few months, before she must go out on her own as a governess due to her family's financial situation, she is the same age as Emma and has been given an excellent education by her father's friend, Colonel Campbell. Emma has not been as friendly with her as she might because she envies Jane's talent and is annoyed to find all, including Mrs. Weston and Mr. Knightley, praising her; the patronizing Mrs. Elton takes Jane under her wing and announces that she will find her the ideal governess post before it is wanted. Emma begins to feel some sympathy for Jane's predicament. Emma decides that Jane and Mr. Dixon, Colonel Campbell's new son-in-law, are mutually attracted, and, why she has come home earlier than expected.
She shares her suspicions with Frank, who met Jane and the Campbells at a vacation spot a year earlier, he agrees with her. Suspicions are further fueled. Emma feels herself falling in love with Frank; the Eltons treat Harriet poorly, culminating with Mr. Elton publicly snubbing Harriet at the ball given by the Westons in May. Mr. Knightley, who had long refrained from dancing, gallantly steps in to dance with Harriet; the day after the ball, Frank brings Harriet to Hartfield. Harriet is grateful, Emma thinks this is love, not gratitude. Meanwhile, Mrs. Weston wonders if Mr. Knightley has taken a fancy to Jane, but Emma dismisses that idea; when Mr. Knightley mentions the link he sees between Jane and Frank, Emma denies them, while Frank appears to be courting her instead, he arrives late to the gathering at Donwell in June. Next day at Box Hill, a local beauty spot and Emma continue to banter together and Emma, in jest, thoughtlessly insults Miss Bates; when Mr. Knightley scolds Emma for the insult to Miss Bates, she is ashamed and tries to atone with a morning visit to Miss Bates, which impresses Mr. Knightley.
On the visit, Emma learns that Jane had accepted the position of governess from one of Mrs. Elton's friends after the outing. Jane refuses to see Emma or receive her gifts. Meanwhile, Frank was visiting his aunt. Now he and Jane reveal to the Westons that they have been secretly engaged since the autumn, but Frank knew that his aunt would disapprove; the strain of the secrecy on the conscientious Jane had caused the two to quarrel, Jane ended the engagement. Frank's easygoing uncle gives his blessing to the match, the engagement becomes public, leaving Emma chagrined to discover that she had been so wrong. Emma is confident that Frank's engagement will devastate Harriet, but instead, Harriet tells her that she loves Mr. Knightley, although she knows the match is too unequal, Emma's encouragement and Mr. Knightley's kindness have given her hope. Emma is startled and realizes that she is the one
Powell and Pressburger
The British film-making partnership of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger —together known as The Archers, the name of their production company—made a series of influential films in the 1940s and 1950s. Their collaborations—24 films between 1939 and 1972—were derived from original stories by Pressburger with the script written by both Pressburger & Powell. Powell did most of the directing while Pressburger did most of the work of the producer and assisted with the editing the way the music was used. Unusually, the pair shared a writer-director-producer credit for most of their films; the best-known of these are The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, A Canterbury Tale, I Know Where I'm Going!, A Matter of Life and Death, Black Narcissus, The Red Shoes, The Tales of Hoffmann. In 1981 Powell and Pressburger were recognised for their contributions to British cinema with the BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award, the most prestigious award given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Michael Powell was an experienced director, having worked his way up from making silent films to the First World War drama The Spy in Black, his first film for Hungarian émigré producer Alexander Korda.
Emeric Pressburger, who had come from Hungary in 1935 worked for Korda, was asked to do some rewrites for the film. This collaboration would be the first of most over the next 18 years. After Powell had made two further films for Korda, he was reunited with Pressburger in 1940 for Contraband, the first in a run of Powell and Pressburger films set during the Second World War; the second was 49th Parallel. Both are Hitchcock-like thrillers made as anti-Nazi propaganda; the pair adopted a joint writer-producer-director credit for their next film, One of Our Aircraft Is Missing and made reference to "The Archers" in the credits. In 1943 they incorporated their own production company, Archers Film Productions, adopted a distinctive archery target logo which began each film; the joint credit "Written and Directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger" indicates their joint responsibility for their own work and that they weren't beholden to any studio or other producers. In a letter to Wendy Hiller in 1942, asking her to appear in Colonel Blimp, Pressburger explicitly set out'The Archers' Manifesto'.
Its five points express the pair's intentions: We owe allegiance to nobody except the financial interests which provide our money. Every single foot in our films is nobody else's. We refuse to be coerced by any influence but our own judgement; when we start work on a new idea we must be a year ahead, not only of our competitors, but of the times. A real film, from idea to universal release, takes a year. Or more. No artist believes in escapism, and we secretly believe. We have proved, at any rate, that they will pay to see the truth, for other reasons than her nakedness. At any time, at the present, the self-respect of all collaborators, from star to prop-man, is sustained, or diminished, by the theme and purpose of the film they are working on, they began to form a group of regular cast and crew members who were to work with them on many films over the next twelve years. Hardly any of these people were under contract to The Archers, they were hired film by film. But Powell and Pressburger soon learnt who they could work well with and these people enjoyed working with them.
When Raymond Massey was offered the part of the Prosecuting Attorney in A Matter of Life and Death his cabled reply was "For The Archers anytime, this world or the next." Powell and Pressburger co-produced a few films by other directors under the banner of The Archers: The Silver Fleet and directed by Vernon Sewell and Gordon Wellesley, based on a story by Emeric Pressburger, The End of the River directed by Derek N. Twist to which both Powell and Pressburger contributed un-credited writing. Both Sewell and Twist had worked with Powell & Pressburger on other films and were being given their first chance as directors; the remainder of the war saw them release a series of acclaimed films: The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp The Volunteer a short propaganda film A Canterbury Tale I Know Where I'm Going! A Matter of Life and Death Generally, Pressburger would create the original story and write the first draft of the script, they would pass the script back and forth a few times—they could never work on it together in the same room.
For the actual dialogue, Pressburger would know what he wanted the characters to say but Powell would supply some of the actual words. They would both act as producers Pressburger more so than Powell, since he could soothe the feathers ruffled by Powell's forthright manner, they became their own producers to stop anyone else interfering, since they had a considerable degree of freedom under Rank, to make just about any film they wanted. The direction was nearly all done by Powell, but so The Archers worked as a team, with the cast and crew making suggestions. Pressburger was always on hand on the studio floor, to make sure that these late changes fitted seamlessly into the story. Once the filming was finished, Powell would go off for a walk in the hills of Scotland to clear his head, but Pressburger was closely involved in the editing in the way the music was used. Pressburger was a musician himself and had
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University