Tatlayoko Lake is a lake on the Homathko River in the western Chilcotin District of the Central Interior of British Columbia, located on a north-south axis just upstream of the entrance of the series of canyons of the Homathko, including the Great Canyon of the Homathko, on its route to the sea at the head of Bute Inlet. The community of Tatlayoko Lake, British Columbia is located at its northern end. Tatlayoko Lake is part of the land claim of the Tsilhqot'in People of Xeni and is called by them Talhiqox Biny. One of their number, Klattasine or Klatsassan, led a party of warriors to attack a crew building a gold-rush era route known as Waddington's Road in the Homathko's canyons, the opening round of the Chilcotin War of 1864. Relief troops, including the governor of the colony's own party and escort, came to the Chilcotin via Tatlayoko Lake. Tatlayoko Lake and the Homathko River are components in a proposed diversion project involving Chilko Lake, across the mountains on the east side of the lake.
Run-of-the-river hydroelectric licenses have been let for the Homathko downstream from the lake. The first comprehensive map of British Columbia was produced under the authority of Joseph Trutch, was published in 1871; this map gives the name as Ta tlah co Lake, similar to the Tsilhqot'in name Telhiqox. A few years George Dawson surveyed the geology of the area, his 1878 report to the Geological Survey of Canada used the spelling Tatlayoco. Maps of British Columbia published in the 1880s and 1890s continued to use minor variations of Tatlahco Lake, while many geological publications used Dawson's spelling of Tatlayoco; the existence of many different spellings for a geographic location was not unusual for that era, the Geographic Board of Canada was established in 1897 to standardize these spellings. Their "Rules of Nomenclature" included the following: The name, published first will be preferred If an indigenous name is used, the spelling should approximate the true pronunciation The name should not include any redundant or unpronounced letters Any hard "c" should be replaced with a "k"The Geographic Board of Canada was unaware that the lake was named Tatlahco, which they erroneously thought was a name for a tributary to the Bella Coola River.
They were only aware of Dawson's spelling of Tatlayoco, which they adopted as the official name in 1911, after changing the hard "c" to a "k". The name therefore came to be spelled Tatlayoko, despite the fact that Tatlahco was published first, is a better approximation of the original Tsilhqot'in word, reflects the actual pronunciation of the name. According to the Rules of Nomenclature, Tatlahco should have been respelled Tatlako
The Tsilhqot'in are a North American Tribal government of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group that live in British Columbia, Canada. They are the most southern of the Athabaskan-speaking aboriginal peoples in British Columbia; the Tŝilhqot'in Nation before contact with Europeans was a strong warrior nation with political influence from the Similkameen region in the south, the Pacific coast in the west, the Rocky Mountains in the east. They were part of an extensive trade network centred around control and distribution of obsidian, the material of choice for arrowheads and other stone tools; the Tsilhqot’in first encountered European trading goods in the 1780s and 1790s when British and American ships arrived along the northwest coast seeking sea otter pelts. By 1808, a fur-trading company out of Montreal called the North West Company had established posts in the Carrier territory just north of the Tsilhqot’in, they began trading directly and through Carrier intermediaries. In 1821 what was the Hudson’s Bay Company established a fur trade post at Fort Alexandria on the Fraser River, at the eastern limit of Tsilhqot’in territory.
This became the tribal people's major source for European goods. Contact with Europeans and First Nations intermediaries led to the introduction of Eurasian diseases, which were endemic among the Europeans; as they had long been exposed, some had developed acquired immunity, but the First Nations peoples were devastated by epidemics of these new diseases. Infectious diseases with high fatalities for Tsilhqot'in populations: Whooping cough 1845 Measles 1850 Smallpox 1855 Smallpox 1862–1863 Spanish flu 1919 – this epidemic affected European Canadians as well as First Nations, millions of people died internationallyThe isolated position of the Tsilhqot’in may have protected them from the first of the smallpox epidemics, which spread up from Mexico in the 1770s, they may have been spared the measles of the 1840s. Furniss in The Burden of History states that "there is no direct evidence that these smallpox epidemics reached the central interior of British Columbia or the Secwepemc, Carrier, or Tsilhqot'in".
However, in the epidemic of 1836–38, the disease spread to Ootsa Lake and killed an entire Carrier band. Oral history of the bands has continued to recount the effects of the many deaths in these epidemics. By the 1860s, miners panned along the Fraser and Horesefly rivers and their tributaries. Various business operators and merchants followed. Farmers and ranchers developed land to provision the mining towns that developed around the merchants; this led to competition for resources between the Chilcotin and Europeans, leading to a stream of events known as the Chilcotin War. Governor James Douglas supported a system of reserves and indoctrination to "civilized" practices such as subsistence agriculture up until his retirement in 1864. Joseph Trutch, the chief commissioner of lands and works, abandoned the reserve policy, set Indian policy as their having no rights to the land. By 1866, BC colonial rule required natives to request permission from the Governor to use lands. Newspapers supported the preempting of native lands, seeing settlers ploughing native burial grounds.
Natives who requested redress from a Justice of the Peace were refused leave. In the 1870s, the loss of hunting territories, crashes of the Salmon runs placed more dependence on agricultural produce such as grains and vegetables. Activities migrated to cutting hay, constructing irrigation ditches, practicing animal husbandry. Settlers however assumed water rights, making agriculture more fragile. Natives were huddled in on small acreages, such as with 20 acres for 150 natives. Starvation became a threat. In contrast to the 160 to 640 acres per family set aside in other treaties at the time in the Prairies, the Federal Government opted for 80 acres per native family to be set aside in reserve, while the provincial government was keen on 10 acres per family. Catholic Missionaries were sent to convert First Nations children to Christianity. By 1891, the first group of students were sent to receive a so-called "formal" education; the program continued for the next six decades until a point when Native children were allowed into the public school system.
Ninety years after the start of the Residential School program, the mission school closed circa 1981. Throughout that period, Indian agents were empowered to remove children from homes to attend St. Joseph's Mission school in 150 Mile House; this led some to attempt to hide their children by sneaking out to hunting fields. Children fled the schools, within the first 30 years, three investigations on the physical abuse and malnutrition were conducted. Voting rights in Canadian Federal Elections were denied until 1960, in Provincial Elections until 1949. Tl'esqox Yuneŝit'in Tl’etinqox Tŝi Deldel Xeni Gwet'in ʔEsdilagh Ulkatcho at Anahim Lake Tagwedisdzan There are two other notable Non-Reserve communities in the region: Alexis Creek and Anahim Lake. Despite its small population and isolation, the region has produced an impressive collection of literature mixing naturalism with native and settler cultures; the area is accessed by
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known
Ts'il?os Provincial Park
Ts'ilʔos Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada. Ts'ilʔos is the official BC Parks designation for this provincial park, though sometimes it is written as "Ts'il-os", "Ts'yl-os", or "Tsylos"; the "ʔ" in the name represents a glottal stop. The park was established January 1994 after a five-year planning process was implemented to address long-standing conflicts between preservationist, resource extraction and First Nations interests. After decades of controversy, a consensus was reached among various conservation, mining and public participants. Chief Roger William of the Xeni Gwet’in was involved in the planning process and negotiations with the provincial government; the park is part of the traditional territory of the Xeni Gwet’in. Ts'ilʔos known as Mount Tatlow, dominates the park and gives it its name, is spiritually significant to the Xeni Gwet’in. According to tradition, Ts ` ilʔos keeps watch over the people of their territory. Pointing at or climbing Ts'ilʔos are considered disrespectful, the Xeni Gwet’in believe that doing so will offend Ts'ilʔos, resulting in severe weather changes.
The park aims to protect black bear, mule deer, mountain goat and beaver. Ecologically sensitive animal populations found in the area include California bighorn sheep, grizzly bear, wolverine, bald eagle, amphibian species. Sockeye salmon spawn along the shores of Chilko Lake the centerepiece of the park; the adjacent lands are important habitat for Vaux’s swift, Peregrine falcon, Townsend’s big-eared bat. The following recreational activities are encouraged: camping, hiking, swimming, horseback riding expeditions, hunting trips and flyfishing. Located 160 kilometres 250 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia. 233,240 hectares in size. Ts'ilʔos Provincial Park BC Geographical Names "Ts'ilʔos Park"
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
The Stikine River is a river also the Stickeen River 610 km long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in southeast Alaska in the United States. Its Grand Canyon represents, at the top grade in difficulty for a kayak descent. Considered one of the last wild major rivers in British Columbia, it drains a rugged pristine, area east of the Coast Mountains, cutting a fast-flowing course through the mountains in deep glacier-lined gorges to empty into Eastern Passage, just north of the city of Wrangell, situated at the north end of Wrangell Island in the Alexander Archipelago; the meaning is in Smalgyax-Tsimshian and is "Stik'iin" and is a name for the Tahltan people who live up in the rivers interior. They, Tsimshian-Nisga, named the river after the people; the BC Names branch, say its Tlingit meaning is "great river" or "the definitive, or great river" as reported by Captain Rowan of the Boston trader Eliza in 1799. Its Russian name, first reported in Russian was Ryka Stahkin, in 1848, changed to its current form in 1869 after the Alaska Purchase in 1869.
In the wording of that a letter to Secretary Seward, "Purchase of the Russian Possessions in North America by the U. S. A.", a letter from a Mr. Collins, dated 4 April 1867, New York, was St. Francis River, it has been known as Pelly's River, variously spelled Shikene, Stachin, Stah-Keena, Stakeen, Stickienes, Stikin, Sucheen. The Stikine watershed encompasses 52,000 square kilometres; the glacier-laden lower Stikine was compared by naturalist John Muir to Yosemite. The Stikine River arises in the Spatsizi Plateau, the southeasternmost subplateau of the Stikine Plateau, a large and mountainous plateau lying between the Stikine Ranges of the Cassiar Mountains and the Boundary Ranges in northern British Columbia. From there the river flows in a large northward arc turning to the west and southwest, past the gold rush and Tahltan community of Telegraph Creek. Above Telegraph Creek is the spectacular 45-mile -long and 300 m -deep Grand Canyon of the Stikine, the upper end of, in the area of the 130th Line of Longitude.
Below Telegraph Creek, at the head of river navigation during the Stikine and Cassiar Gold Rushes, the river cuts through the Tahltan Highland and in this region are the confluences of the Tuya and Tahltan Rivers. Much farther down, nearer the U. S. border, is the confluence of the Iskut and several other notably large rivers such as the Porcupine and Chutine. After passing Great Glacier and Choquette Hot Springs Provincial Parks and the old border-station at Stikine, British Columbia, it passes through a steeply cut gorge in the Boundary Ranges along the Canada–U. S. Border, above that Grand Canyon of the Stikine, it enters southeast Alaska for its lower 64 km to form a delta opposite Mitkof Island 40 km north of Wrangell. The Stikine's north arm empties into Frederick Sound while its main arm and southern distributaries empty into Sumner Strait and Stikine Strait. Other oceanic bodies of water that are influenced by the Stikine's estuary include the fjord-channel Eastern Passage separating Wrangell Island from the mainland and the shallow tidal Dry Strait separating Mitkof Island from the mainland.
The outlet of the river is now in Alaska, but at the time of the boundary survey in 1901–03 it had been at the boundary. According to the terms of the treaty, as per prior usage by mining and commercial traffic in the Stikine, Canadian marine traffic technically has the right of navigation of this river from the sea, independent of U. S. border controls, but this is no longer in practical effect through disuse and because of the relocation of the river's mouth. The Stikine's main tributaries are, in descending order from its source: Duti River Chukachida River Spatsizi River Pitman River McBride River Klappan River Little Klappan River Tanzilla River Klastline River Tuya River Little Tuya River Tahltan River Little Tahltan River Chutine River Porcupine River Choquette River Scud River Iskut River Little Iskut River Tasakili River The river is navigable for 210 km upstream from its mouth, it was used by the coastal Tlingit as a transportation route to the interior region. The first European to explore the river was Samuel Black, who visited the headwaters during his Finlay River expedition in 1824.
It was more extensively explored in 1838 by Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay Company, completing the last link in the company's transcontinental canoe route. In 1879 the lower third was travelled by John Muir who likened it to "a Yosemite, a hundred miles long". Muir recorded over 300 glaciers along the river's course; the Grand Canyon of the Stikine has been navigated by less than 50 expert whitewater kayakers. It is considered one of the world's most difficult whitewater rivers in that particular section. From 1897 to 1898 it was one of the laborious routes to the Klondike Gold Rush in the Yukon Territory. Several railway schemes were floated to provide an "All Canadian" route to the Dawson goldfields—A Teslin Railway, Omineca Railway, the Canadian Yukon Railway promoted by the CPR. Railway contractors were hired and ready to build the route, though the Federal Senate and American government prevented the 500-mile project from proceeding. Several river steamers were built to haul materials to Glenora to aid the project.
The first road bridge was built across the river in the 1970s as part of the Stewart-Cassiar Highway. In 1978, BC Hydro began to study the feasibility of building a two-dam project on the S