Chillagoe Railway & Mining Co.
The Chillagoe Railway and Mining Company was an Australian business established in 1897 under the name Chillagoe Proprietary. Its initial purpose was to build a railway to the town of Chillagoe, Queensland to support the development of mining. In 1898, the company was recapaitalised as the Chillagoe Mining Company. In the search and prospecting for copper outcrops in the North Queensland Tablelands area, several copper outcrops were discovered on William Atherton’s cattle property called “Chillagoe”; this was in 1887 by two prospectors acting on behalf of John Moffat, the Scotsman, to build a vast mining empire in the north Queensland. After investing a considerable fortune in the district, Moffat realised that he did not have sufficient capital to exploit the Chillagoe deposits and in 1893 formed a syndicate with C. W. Chapman and J. S. Reid. Together they formed the Chillagoe Proprietary Limited and approached the Queensland Government with a proposal to extend its Cairns Railway to the mining leases.
The Queensland Government however, although sympathetic, was not prepared to spend money on a mining railway in the aftermath of the financial crash of the Queensland National Bank. The proposal was declined,but the company was authorised under the provisions of The Mareeba to Chillagoe Railway Act of 1897 to construct the railway line. One provision was for Chapman and Moffat to transfer all their rights and obligations in regard to the railway, their mineral leases, to a company reformed in Melbourne, Victoria in 1899 known as The Chillagoe Railway & Mines Ltd, with a capital of £1,000,000. Construction of the first section of the Chillagoe Railway & Mining Co. was the main line from Mareeba to Lappa Lappa commenced in 1898 and the 55 miles were opened on 1 October 1900 though public traffic had been worked to Lappa prior to this date at owner's risk. The line was extended through Almaden on to Mungana; the 47 miles from Lappa to Mungana being opened for traffic on 2 August 1901. The Lappa Junction to Mount Garnet railway commenced in 1901, the first section from Lappa Junction to Ord.
The 16½ miles being opened for traffic by the contractors Wilcox and Overend on 16 November 1901. The remaining 16 miles from Ord to Mt. Garnet were completed and opened by the contractors on 29 April 1902, once again public traffic had been worked over the line prior to the official opening; the first 10 miles of this line were owned by Chillagoe Co. but the remaining 22½ miles were the property of the Mt. Garnet Freehold Mining Co. notwithstanding that the whole line was worked by the Chillagoe Co. After a number of proposals had been made for the route of a railway to the Etheridge field, construction of the Etheridge Railway commenced in 1906 from Almaden to Mount Surprise on the Mareeba to Chillagoe line; the railway was opened to Mount Surprise in May 1908, through to Einasleigh on 8 February 1909, a total of 101 miles. The final 41 miles from Einasleigh to Forsayth were not opened until 5 February 1911, construction having proceeded due to union unrest and uncertainty within the mining industry generally.
The company bought six B15 class locomotives between 1900 and 1909. The line was taken over by the Queensland Government in 1919. "Engines acquired from Chillagoe Railway & Mining Company". Qrig.org. Queensland Railway's Interest Group. Retrieved 13 December 2015
Mareeba is a town in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town is 417 metres above sea level on the confluence of the Barron River, Granite Creek and Emerald Creek, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning meeting of the waters. In the 2011 census, Mareeba had a population of 10,181 people. Prior to European settlement, the area around Mareeba was inhabited by the Muluridji people, they maintained a hunter/gatherer existence in the area between Mount Carbine, Mareeba and Woodville concentrated between Biboohra and Mount Molloy. In the local Aboriginal language, Mareeba means meeting of the waters - referring to the point at which the Barron River is joined by Granite Creek. On 26 May 1875 James Venture Mulligan became the first European to see the future site of Mareeba when he rode up the eastern bank of the Barron River, passed the junctions of Emerald Creek and Granite Creek; the Mareeba area was first settled by Europeans in 1877 by John Atherton, who arrived with cattle at Emerald End, just north of the town today.
Mareeba became a busy coach stop for Cobb & Co on the road from Port Douglas to Herberton. When the railway arrived in 1893, Mareeba grew into a busy town. Mareeba Post Office opened on 25 August 1893. A Mareeba Diggings Post Office opened by 1893 and closed in 1905. From 1942 to 1945, up to 10,000 Australian and US service personnel used Mareeba Airfield as a staging post for battles in New Guinea and the Pacific; the Americans referred to it as Hoevet Field in honour of Major Dean Carol "Pinky" Hoevet, killed on 16 August 1942. Units that were based at Mareeba during World War II included No. 5 Squadron RAAF, No. 100 Squadron RAAF, the Australian 33rd Light A-A Battery, 19th Bomb Group USAAC, 43rd Bomb Group USAAC and 8th Fighter Group USAAC. Mareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893. Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960. Mareeba Library opened in 1958 and underwent a major refurbishment in 1985. At the 2006 census, Mareeba had a population of 6,806. In October 2011, most of the land of the former state farm / research station at Kairi was sold by the Queensland Government, retaining only 26 hectares.
The sale of the land was to fund the establishment of the Agri-Science Hub at Peters Street in Mareeba. The hub focusses on agricultural development, together with education and training. James Cook University is a partner of the hub, researching tropical agriculture and biosecurity; the hub opened on 16 December 2011. According to the 2016 census, Mareeba includes the largest Italian Australian community of any suburb in Queensland, numbering 1,608 individuals and making up 10.8% of the town's population. Mareeba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cairns - Kuranda Line: Rail Bridge over Christmas Creek 136 Walsh Street: Mareeba Shire Hall 167 Walsh Street: Assay Office Mareeba has a tropical savanna climate. Mareeba's tag line on signs coming into the region is "300 sunny days a year" this is because Mareeba is in what is called a rain shadow. Numerous crops are grown throughout Mareeba Shire, including avocados, lychees, sugar cane, macadamias, pineapples, tea tree oil, a variety of vegetables and tropical fruits.
Poultry and cattle are common. Tobacco was once the main grown crop of the local economy, but is no longer grown within the Mareeba shire; the town's main street is the Mulligan Highway which branches off from the Kennedy Highway when coming in from Cairns away passing localities such as Speewah and The Barron Gorge. Tourism contributes to the local economy. Tourist attractions in the Mareeba Shire include the Golden Drop Mango Winery, Jaques Coffee Plantation, Coffee Works, Mareeba Heritage Museum, Mareeba Rock Wallabies and Granite Gorge Nature Park; the Lotus Glen Correctional Centre is located in Arriga, 14 km outside Mareeba, is considered to be in Mareeba. Mareeba has two secondary schools and a TAFE campus. There are several day care centres in the town. St Thomas of Villanova Parish School Mareeba State School Mareeba State High School St. Stephen's Catholic College Tropical North Institute of TAFEMareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893 and Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960.
St Thomas of Villanova Parish School opened on 1 January 1909 and for a period of two years during World War Two, Mareeba State School was taken over by the army, so St Thomas’ accommodated the entire school population of Mareeba. St Thomas' celebrated their centenary in 2009. On 24 January 2006 St Stephen's Catholic College opened after a nearly 10 year approval process regarding the provision of Catholic secondary education. Mareeba Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it provides 52 beds, with surgical, pediatric, emergency and x-ray facilities. Mareeba's local sporting teams are: Rugby league — Mareeba Gladiators: The Gladiators participate in the Cairns District Rugby League competition, they last won the Premiership in 2007. Football — Mareeba United Football ClubThe Mareeba United Football Club, known as the Mareeba Bulls is based at Borzi Park, Mareeba: the Bulls have dominated the local football scene for the past decade; the Bulls were Grand Final winners in 2003, Grand Final Winners and NQ Champions in 2004, FNQ premiers and NQ Champions in 2005, FNQ Grand final winners and 2006 and FNQ premier and NQ Champions in 2008.
The sustained success of the Bulls has brought the title for Mareeba as'Football Capital of North Q
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
Ngarrabullgan named Mount Mulligan by the State, is a large tabletop mountain located 100 kilometres west of Cairns in the north of Queensland. The tabletop mountain is a monolith bounded by high cliffs that fall 200 to 400 m to the surrounding Hodgkinson Basin, making it an impressive natural monument, regarded by the local Djungan Aboriginal peoples to be a sacred'Dreaming' place, features in the mythological legends and beliefs of other Aboriginal groups for hundreds of kilometres around. On the tabletop itself are found the two oldest-known Aboriginal sites in Queensland: Nonda Rock and Ngarrabullgan Cave. Here Aboriginal cultural deposits have been radiocarbon dated, dated by optically stimulated luminescence, back to 40,000+ years ago. Other ancient Aboriginal rockshelter sites on the mountain have been dated to the end of the last Ice Age, together, the many'archaeological' caves and rockshelters found in and around Ngarrabullgan constitutes Queensland's greatest density of known sites dating back more than 4,000 years BP.
The combination of impressive natural feature, Aboriginal beliefs and mythologies, archaeological sites of such antiquity make Ngarrabullgan the oldest known and dated cultural landscape in Queensland, a place of state and international interest and scientific significance. The mountain was formed in a narrow faulted rift within the deformed and folded metamorphic rock of the Hodgkinson Basin. Successive layers of sediment were deposited into this rift filling it first with Permian coal Permian conglomerates, with Triassic sandstones above. With tectonic uplift the original arenite surrounding the deposits eroded away leaving Ngarrabullgan as a free-standing conglomerate and sandstone massif; the vegetation on the Ngarrabullgan tabletop has been described as wet sclerophyll forests of a bloodwood species of Eucalyptus, with a well-developed understory. These tabletop forests contrast, with the open sclerophyll woodland of the surrounding hills and plains below. Studies of both Ngarrabullgan's eucalypt forests and its surrounding woodlands identified 13 distinct land units supporting: Flora: 10 plant species that are considered either rare or threatened, including 8 plant species that are found nowhere else.
Fauna: 8 frog species, 55 reptile species, 99 bird species and 20 mammal species. The Australian Heritage Commission included Ngarrabullgan on its register of the National Estate on 24 June 1997, describing it as a place that holds: important evidence enhancing the Australian communities' knowledge of Aboriginal occupation of Pleistocene into the Holocene. For similar reasons the Queensland Government formally registered Ngarrabullgan as "The Mount Mulligan Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Area" under its Aboriginal heritage legislation in 2006. Prior to gold rushes and the associated occupation of the Hodgkinson River area, Ngarrabullgin was a place of some spiritual and ceremonial significance to the Djungan Aboriginal peoplesIon Idriess in his far north Queensland gold prospecting story, wrote about Ngarrabullgan as follows: "Farther out in those Chillagoe lands an outstanding landmark on the Hodgkinson is a massive wall of rock overlooking'Mulligan's goldfield'. A meeting-place of the aborigines from time immemorial, it has seen the passing of a thousand tribes."
During and following the Hodgkinson River gold rush of 1876, the local Djungan population was decimated and the survivors were drawn to the fringes of mining settlements formed at Thornborough and Mount Mulligan. The Djungan peoples tell of how their grandparents had to flee from police and settlers, by climbing Ngarrabullgan's escarpments they could sometimes escape the horses, it was during these times that townspeople within the Hodgkinson goldfields fearful of Aborigines first experimented with a policy of'pacification'. Local shop owner, John Byrnes, in 1882 brought a small group of Djungan peoples into town, feeding them meat and potatoes, soon, there were 150 Aborigines living in a camp just 8 km from Ngarrabullgan. By 1921 the Hodgkinson gold fields had declined, a coal mine at Mount Mulligan had burrowed its way into the side of Ngarrabullgan, much to the fear of the Djungan Aboriginal peoples
Chillagoe-Mungana Caves National Park
Chillagoe-Mungana Caves is a national park in Chillagoe, Shire of Mareeba, Australia. The park is 1455 km northwest of Brisbane; the park is located within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion. A total of 10 rare or threatened species have been recorded in the park. There are several self-guided limestone caves, the Archways, Pompeii cave, Bauhinia cave; the historic Chillagoe smelters area has mining relics from the 1890s. There are a few small rock galleries of Indigenous Australian art. Camping is not permitted. Protected areas of Queensland
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful