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Chiltern Hundreds

The Chiltern Hundreds is an ancient administrative area in Buckinghamshire, composed of three "hundreds" and lying within the Chiltern Hills. "Taking the Chiltern Hundreds" refers to the legal fiction used to resign from the House of Commons. Since Members of Parliament are not permitted to resign, they are instead appointed to an "office of profit under the Crown", which requires MPs to vacate their seats; the ancient office of Crown Steward for the Chiltern Hundreds, having been reduced to a mere sinecure by the 17th century, was first used by John Pitt in 1751 to vacate his seat in the House of Commons. Other titles were later used for the same purpose, but only the Chiltern Hundreds and the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead are still in use. A hundred was a traditional division of an English county: the Oxford English Dictionary says that the etymology is "exceedingly obscure"; the three Chiltern Hundreds were Stoke Hundred, Desborough Hundred, Burnham Hundred. Despite their collective name only Desborough Hundred was located within the area defined by the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire.

The area had been Crown property as early as the 13th century. Through the Saxon and early Norman periods the area was administered by an elder, but by the late Middle Ages the office holder was elected from among a hundred's notable landholding families. As the area was wild and notorious for outlaws, a steward and bailiff was appointed directly by the Crown to maintain law and order. However, by the end of the 16th century such positions had been deprecated by changes in local and Crown representations and roles – the government of Elizabeth I had established royal representatives in every county of England and Wales. By the 17th century the office of steward and bailiff had been reduced to just a title with no attached powers or duties. In the 17th century Members of Parliament were elected against their will. On 2 March 1624, a resolution was passed by the House of Commons making it illegal for an MP to quit or wilfully give up his seat. Believing that officers of the Crown could not remain impartial, the House passed a resolution on 30 December 1680 stating that an MP who "shall accept any Office, or Place of Profit, from the Crown, without the Leave of this House... shall be expelled this House."

However, MPs were able to hold Crown Stewardships until 1740, when Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn was deemed to have vacated his Commons seat after becoming Steward of the Lordship and Manor of Bromfield and Yale. The post of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the three Chiltern Hundreds of Stoke and Burnham remained a nominal office of profit under the Crown though it had lost its original significance, it became the first office to be used for resignation when John Pitt was appointed Crown Steward on 25 January 1751. A number of other offices have been used, but only the Chiltern Hundreds and the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead are still in use. List of Stewards of the Chiltern Hundreds The Hundred Parishes – A modern area of villages grouped together for tourism purposes in 2012, including the Chiltern Hills but extending to further to the east to northwest Essex, northeast Hertfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire. UK Parliament – Glossary – Chiltern Hundreds and the Manor of Northstead

Bell Canyon

Bell Canyon is a major drainage of the Santa Ana Mountains in Orange County, California in the United States. Bell Creek flows about 14.4 miles in a southerly direction to its confluence with San Juan Creek. The Bell Canyon drainage is located to the east and parallel to Cañada Gobernadora, to the south of Trabuco Creek. After Trabuco Creek, it is the second largest tributary of San Juan Creek in terms of length and its watershed area of 26 square miles. Most of Bell Canyon consists of wilderness in the Cleveland National Forest and Ronald W. Caspers Wilderness Park; the valley is more than 1,000 feet deep and averages a mile wide, is joined by the major tributaries of Dove Canyon, Crow Canyon and Tick Creek. The Juaneño or Acagchemem Native Americans have lived in the Bell Canyon area for 10,000 years, from archeology at the San Dieguito Complex, it is said they would strike rocks against boulders in the canyon, producing a ringing sound that gave the canyon its name. The Native Americans, part of the Acjachemen Nation, found their way of life disrupted when Spanish colonizers and missionaries came to this area of Las Californias Province and established the Mission San Juan Capistrano in 1776 at nearby present day San Juan Capistrano, about 10 miles from the creek's mouth.

In 1841, during secularization, Pío Pico and Andrés Pico were granted 89,742-acre'Rancho San Onofre y Santa Margarita' next to the Mission San Juan Capistrano by the Mexican Governor of Alta California, Juan Alvarado. Three years the grant of Rancho Las Flores was added, the grant renamed Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores which included Bell Canyon and Creek. Much of Bell Canyon was purchased by Eugene Grant Starr in the late 1920s, creating a large parcel of undeveloped land that became the National Audubon Society's'Starr Ranch' in 1973. A wide and braided watercourse flowing through an alluvial valley, Bell Canyon Creek remains much like its original state before the Spanish arrival, although with the development of Coto de Caza and nearby communities it has seen increased urban runoff, which does not reach San Juan Creek in the form of surface water, but contaminates the local groundwater. Work was begun in 2005 to remove polluted water from two Bell Canyon tributaries that flow through residential areas on the west side of the watershed.

Several pumps were installed on Dove and Tick Creeks in 2005 to remove excess surface water flow and feed the urban runoff into a reclaimed-water system. This provides extra water for residential irrigation and reduces the runoff which enabled non-native invasive species of plants to grow, at the expense of native riparian habitat; the headwaters of Bell Creek are a fan-shaped network of canyons eroded into the west side of 4,510 ft Los Pinos Peak, which lie just a few miles south of the Trabuco Creek headwaters and a few miles north of Hot Spring Canyon a tributary of San Juan Creek. The headwaters are in the Trabuco Ranger District of the Cleveland National Forest, about 8 miles east of Rancho Santa Margarita. Bell Creek flows through a 1.5-mile -wide, 1,200-foot -deep canyon for 4 miles before turning southwest for about 1.5 miles. Narrowly following the city limits of Rancho Santa Margarita which lies to the west, Bell Creek receives an unnamed tributary from the right at river mile 10, or river kilometer 16.1, carrying a small amount of runoff from a residential area on the east side of the city.

Bell Creek turns southwards and Fox Creek, a larger tributary, enters from the left at RM 9.2. Dove Canyon, the largest tributary of Bell Canyon Creek, draining a 3-mile -long strip of land that includes residential areas and a golf course, enters from the right at RM 9 and Tick Creek enters in quick succession at RM 8.9. The creek trends southwards through a widening and shallowing valley for some 4 miles before Crow Canyon enters from the left at RM 4.5. By this time Bell Canyon is a wide, meandering braided stream whose flow is subsurface; when the creek reaches San Juan Creek,7.5 miles east of the city of San Juan Capistrano, it joins on the right bank, directly before Verdugo Canyon Creek enters the larger stream on the left bank. Below the confluence with Bell Canyon, San Juan Creek flows 14.7 miles further before emptying into the Pacific Ocean at Dana Point. The Bell Canyon Creek watershed consists of an "L"-shaped area in southern Orange County near the boundary of Riverside County and San Diego County.

It is about 10 miles long as the crow about 2 miles wide at its broadest. Nearly the entire watershed consists of the continuous Bell Canyon valley that ranges from 2,600 feet deep near the headwaters to just 300 feet deep near the mouth, it covers about 26 square miles, or about 19.42% of the 133.9-square-mile San Juan Creek watershed as a whole. After the 22-mile Trabuco Creek, Bell Canyon Creek is the second largest tributary within the watershed by terms of length and drainage area; the whole Bell Canyon Creek watershed is enveloped by different drainage areas within the San Juan Creek watershed. On the southeast side are Cold Springs and Hot Springs Creek, tributaries of San Juan Creek above Bell Canyon Creek. Most of the Bell Canyon drainage area lies within the Cleveland National Forest in the upper half and the Ronald W. Caspers Regional Park in the lower half. Dove Canyon, however, is on residential land in the city of Ra

Seneca Aqueduct

Seneca Aqueduct — or Aqueduct No. 1 — is a naviduct that carries the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal over Seneca Creek in Montgomery County, Maryland. The C&O built eleven aqueducts along its 184.5 miles length. Seneca Aqueduct is a unique structure, not only being the first built, but the only red sandstone aqueduct on the C&O−and the only aqueduct, a lock, it is located at the end of Riley's Lock Road in Maryland. Seneca Aqueduct was built from 1829 to 1832 with three red sandstone arches quarried in the nearby Seneca Quarry, just a few hundred feet to the west; the initial stretch of the C&O Canal opened in 1830 up to Seneca Creek. This included a sizable turning basin, just west of the aqueduct, where canal boats could anchor or turn around. Next to the aqueduct and lock is the lock keeper's house made from Seneca red sandstone; because of the canal, the nearby quarry operations, additional mills on Seneca Creek, the town of Seneca was an active working class community. In 1897, the steam packet boat Anna Wilson leaving the aqueduct, collided with a freight boat loaded with watermelons, sank.

There were no injuries to the passengers. Local residents had "a ball" fishing out the watermelons floating in the basin; the canal closed in 1924 after ninety-six years in operation. A major flood in September 1971 took out the westernmost of the three arches; the National Park Service has since shored up the aqueduct with steel beams. Seneca Aqueduct is part of the C&O Canal National Historic Park and is administered by the National Park Service; the aqueduct is included in the Seneca Historic District in Maryland. Seneca Quarry, Montgomery County, Inventory No.: M: 17-52, including photo in 1997, at Maryland Historical Trust website Media related to Seneca Aqueduct at Wikimedia Commons


Bathyuriscus is an extinct genus of Cambrian trilobite. It was a nektobenthic predatory carnivore; the genus Bathyuriscus is endemic to the shallow seas. Its major characteristics are a large forward-reaching glabella, pointed pleurae or pleurae with short spines, a medium pygidium with well-impressed furrows. Complete specimens have never reached the size of 7 cm predicted by the largest pygidium found. Bathyuriscus is found with the free cheeks shed, indicating a moulted exoskeleton. An average specimen will in addition have a furrowed glabella, crescent-shaped eyes, be semi-circular in overall body shape, have 7 to 9 thoracic segments, a length of about 1.5 inches. Bathyuriscus is a variation of Bathyurus based on the Ancient Greek βαθύς "deep", oura, "tail", thus, a trilobite with a deep tail. Species belonging to Bathyuriscus have been found in the Marjumian of the United States and in the Middle Cambrian of Australia, Greenland and the United States. "Bathyuriscus rotundatus". Burgess Shale Fossil Gallery.

Virtual Museum of Canada. 2011. Shah, S. K. Parcha, S. K. & Raina, A. K.. Late Cambrian trilobites from Himalaya. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 36:89-107. Robison, R. A.. Late Middle Cambrian Faunas from Western Utah. Journal of Paleontology 38:510-566

Red Bank Battlefield

The Red Bank Battlefield is located along the Delaware River in National Park, Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. It was the location of the Battle of Red Bank in the American Revolutionary War on October 22, 1777. Fort Mercer and its sister, Fort Mifflin in Pennsylvania, defended the river and prevented the British from using it for transportation; the forts delayed the British, but in the end, they were both destroyed or abandoned. Today the site of the Battle of Red Bank is a part of the Gloucester County Parks system called Red Bank Battlefield Park; the central feature of the park is Ann Whitall House. This structure, a brick and stone house just outside the works of Fort Mercer, served as a hospital for some of the men wounded in the fighting; the house suffered damage during the battle. Ann Cooper Whitall had remained in the house during the fighting and tended to the wounded, earning her the epithet "Heroine of Red Bank." Although much of the battlefield has eroded into the Delaware River, some portions of Fort Mercer remain.

The prominent historical feature of the park is the remains of the ditch which surrounded the now-gone earthworks. Around these works and along the riverbank are several period cannons, including four raised from the wrecks of the British man-of-war HMS Augusta and a British sloop, HMS Merlin; the three American cannons facing the Whitall House were found in 1935 buried on the site. Nearer to the Whitall House, a preserved section of the chevaux-de-frise river defenses of the Fort Mercer and Fort Mifflin system is displayed, along with various cannonballs recovered from the battlefield. Several monuments honor the combatants, including a memorial to the fallen Hessian leader, whose remains were buried on the grounds, a 75-foot -tall monument; the 44-acre park is open to visitors during daylight hours. The Whitall House may be visited during more limited hours. An annual reenactment of the battle takes place on the park grounds in October. In the early 1980s, a lifeguard was on duty and swimming was permitted in the Delaware River.

Philadelphia campaign Fort Billingsport National Register of Historic Places listings in Gloucester County, New Jersey Official Park site

Eva Pawlik

Eva Pawlik was an Austrian figure skater, a show star, an actress and the world´s first lady figure skater to be a TV figure skating commentator. Born in 1927, Pawlik was regarded as a child prodigy, able to jump a single axel and do a large number of spins at the age of four. Before WW II, she was considered an "exceptionally promising 9-year-old Viennese" figure skater in the United States. In Europe, she was starring in "The Fairy Tale Of The Steady Tin Soldier" together with World Champion Felix Kaspar; this legendary vaudeville number was internationally successful, being performed in Vienna, Budapest, Bern, Brussels, Lyon and London. Pawlik was called the "Shirley Temple on ice". In her teens she would get up at 4 a.m. daily to run to the Vienna ice rink, for practice before going to school. Austrian skaters were impeded in the 1930s and 40s by the fact that there were no indoor skating halls and they were restricted to practicing in winter. Nazi Germany's absorption of Austria in 1938 and World War II destroyed sportsmen's lives and careers.

Pawlik, for example, was due to compete in the singles, in the 1940 Winter Olympics, in the pairs with her husband Rudi Seeliger. However, they could only take part in domestic competitions, becoming German youth champions, both individually and as a couple. In addition to that, they became the 1942 Austrian Pairs Champions. Drafted into the German Army, Rudi Seeliger was captured by the Red Army and had to work as a slave coal-miner until his return to Austria in 1949. In 1947, Pawlik was rated number 2 in the world; this did not help, as Austrian skaters were barred from entering World competitions. In 1948 she won 3 silver medals, at the Olympics and at the World's. In Sandra Stevenson´s opinion it was "not surprising that North Americans, whose skating activities had not been interrupted" during World War II, "should do well when the sport resumed in 1947; when Eva Pawlik of Austria unsuccessfully challenged Barbara Ann Scott in 1948 one reason given for her failure was that she skated with dirty boots and holes in her tights.

The boots were so old that the holes were darned. It was the best she could manage with all the shortages in her country." It is remarkable that at the 1948 European's Eva Pawlik was the best ranked European lady figure skater. She only got the silver medal because the title was awarded to the non-European Barbara Ann Scott from Canada; that was unusual because, in many sports, European championships are restricted to European competitors. Pawlik´s coaches included the 1914 World Silver Medalist Angela Hanka, World Champion Gustav Hügel, Rudolf Kutzer and Edi Scholdan. In 1948 Pawlik did a lot of exhibition skating in the United States. In the Broadmoor Ice Revue, produced by Edi Scholdan in Colorado Springs, she appeared together with U. S. Champion Gretchen Merrill in 1948, she was asked to appear in a movie starring Gene Kelly. He wanted to combine his dancing with her skating, she declined. In 1949, despite suffering acute appendicitis, Pawlik beat her rival Aja Zanova in Milan to become European Champion.

In the World Championships held in Paris, Pawlik was lying a close second behind Zanova when one of the heels on her skates broke. Sabotage was never proven; the judges did not allow her to continue with borrowed skates and Zanova went on to win. Though having good chances to win the World title one year Pawlik decided to turn professional because her parents needed financial support, she joined the Vienna Ice Revue and performed a program, considered by some journalists and figure skating experts to be technically and artistically superior to the free skating of World Champion Vrzáňová. Pawlik played major parts in the productions of two movies featuring the Revue, Spring On The Ice, 1950, Revue Of Dreams, 1959; the first is said to have inspired the double Olympic champion, Ludmilla Belousova, to take up skating. In 1952, Robert Stolz dedicated Eternal Eve, to Eva Pawlik. Morris Chalfen, the boss of the competitor enterprise Holiday On Ice, considered Pawlik Europe's best show star on the ice since the thrice Olympic Champion Sonja Henie.

Besides, Eva Pawlik and her husband Rudi Seeliger who had won the Austrian title in the 1950 pairs event had become one of the world's best professional couples on the ice. They starred in Hanns Thelen's Scala Eisrevue for some years. In 1958, they returned to the Vienna Ice Revue. In 1961, Pawlik retired from skating and became the first European figure skater to be a TV figure skating commentator and the world´s first lady figure skater to be a TV figure skating commentator, she commentated all European and World Championships in figure skating and the 1964, 1968 and 1972 Olympic Games for the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation. In 1973 she began her third profession as a teacher of German and English at a Viennese secondary school. In 1954 she had earned her doctorate in English at the University of Vienna. In 1979 Pawlik became ill and died in 1983, four months after her husband; the exhibition "The Vienna Ice Revue. Austria's ambassador of the past" was ta