The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empires control of their New World colonies. Mestizos are usually considered to be mixed Spaniards by the crown of Spain, the term mestizaje - taking as its root mestizo or mixed - is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries. To avoid confusion with the usage of the term mestizo. In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more commonly used instead of mestizo, pardo means being mixed without specifying which mixture, it was used to describe anyone born in the Americas whose ancestry was a mixture of European and Black African. In colonial Brazil most of the population was mestiço in the original Iberian definition of the word. In the Philippines, which was a colony of Spain, the term came to refer to a Filipino with any foreign ancestry especially whites. In Canada, the Métis people is a community composed of those who possess combined European, in Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of mixed European and East Asian ancestry.
The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed and its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Jew. This term was first documented in English in 1582 and it is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context. In English-speaking Canada, Canadian Métis, as a loanword from French, refers to persons of mixed French, in the United States, Métis Americans and Mestizo Americans are two distinct racial and ethno-racial identities, as reflected in the use of French and Spanish loanwords, respectively. The latter was listed as a mestizo de sangley in birth records of the 19th century, with sangley as a reference to the Hokkiense word for business. Mestizo, mestiço, métis, mestís, meticcio, mestee, in the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish developed an extremely vast complex system of racial hierarchy, which was used for social control and which determined a persons standing in society.
There were three categories of race during the initial period of colonization of the Americas by the Spanish, White Spaniard, Amerindian. During the Spanish colonial era, a myriad of terms were created to differentiate these racial mixtures, by the end of the colonial period in 1821, over one hundred sub-categories of possible variations of mixture existed, but official church and civil records were maintained with few categories. Church baptismal and marriage registers and civil records used the terms español, mestizo and indio. As time went on, a system of hierarchy, the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas developed where society was divided based on race, wealth. Mestizo – a person of mixed White European and Amerindian ancestry, in theory, and as depicted in eighteenth-century Mexican casta paintings, español status could be attained by people of mixed origin who consistently had intermarried with Europeans. Such cases might include the offspring of a parent and one Peninsular or criollo parent
Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar. The capital city is Quito, while the largest city is Guayaquil, in reflection of the countrys rich cultural heritage, the historical center of Quito was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. Cuenca, the third-largest city, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned. Ecuador has an economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum. The country is classified as a medium-income country, Ecuador is a democratic presidential republic. The new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, Ecuador is known for its rich ecology, hosting many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands.
It is one of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups, even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. Eventually, through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations, one region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. Its political and military came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line.
The native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru, similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language, in contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior, as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered. The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the Spanish soldiers, the Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century
Chimborazo is a currently inactive stratovolcano in the Cordillera Occidental range of the Andes. Its last known eruption is believed to have occurred around 550 C. E, with a peak elevation of 6,263 m, Chimborazo is the highest mountain in Ecuador. It is the highest peak near the equator, Chimborazo is not the highest mountain by elevation above sea level, but its location along the equatorial bulge makes its summit the farthest point on the Earths surface from the Earths center. Chimborazo is in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of central Ecuador,150 km south-southwest of the capital Quito and it is a neighbor to 5,018 m high Carihuairazo. Chimborazos summit rises 2,500 m above the surrounding highlands with a ≈20 km wide base, under clear conditions, the summit of Chimborazo can be seen from the coastal city Guayaquil, nearly 140 km away. The nearest cities are Riobamba and Guaranda, Chimborazo is surrounded by the Reserva de Produccion Faunistica Chimborazo, which forms a protected ecosystem to preserve the habitat for the Andes native camelids of vicuña, llama and alpaca.
Chimborazo is at the end of the Ecuadorian Volcanic Arc. Chimborazo is in la Avenida de los Volcanes west of the Sanancajas mountain chain, Tungurahua, and El Altar are all mountains that neighbor Chimborazo. The closest mountain peak, Carihuairazo, is 5.8 mi from Chimborazo, there are many microclimates near Chimborazo, varying from desert in the Arenal to the humid mountains in the Abraspungo valley. The top of Chimborazo is completely covered by glaciers, with some north-eastern glacier arms flowing down to 4,600 m and its glacier is the source of water for the population of the Bolivar and Chimborazo provinces of Ecuador. As on other glaciated Ecuadorian mountains, Chimborazos glacial ice is mined by locals to be sold in the markets of Guaranda, in earlier days, the people transported ice for cooling uses down to coastal towns such as Babahoyo or Vinces. With an elevation of 6,263 m, Chimborazo is the highest mountain in Ecuador and the Andes north of Peru, it is higher than any more northerly summit in the Americas.
Chimborazo is one degree south of the Equator and the Earths diameter at the Equator is greater than at the latitude of Everest, nearly 27. 6° north, with sea level elevated. Despite being 2,585 m lower in elevation above sea level, however, by the criterion of elevation above sea level, Chimborazo is not even the highest peak of the Andes. Chimborazo is an inactive volcano in Ecuador. Chimborazo is a volcano composed of one volcanic edifice on top of another. Chimborazo shows four summits, Whymper, the Veintimilla peak is about 6,230 m high. The Whymper peak is the highest point on the mountain at 6,263 meters, the Politecnica peak is 5,820 m high
Cotopaxi is one of the provinces of Ecuador. The province contains the Cotopaxi Volcano, an intermittent volcano with a height of 19,388 feet, the province is divided into 7 cantons. The following table lists each canton with its population, its area in square kilometres, and the name of the canton seat
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate, known as a number plate or a license plate, is metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. The registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the owner within the issuing regions database. The first two letters indicate the state to which the vehicle is registered, the next two digit numbers are the sequential number of a district. Due to heavy volume of vehicle registration, the numbers were given to the RTO offices of registration as well, the third part indicates the year of registration of the vehicle and is a 4 digit number unique to each plate. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates.
Alternately, the government will merely assign plate numbers, and it is the owners responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime. If the vehicle is destroyed or exported to a different country. Other jurisdictions follow a policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they already hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyers name, a person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them. Some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with personal plates, in some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement, often associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration. Plates are usually fixed directly to a vehicle or to a frame that is fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames, in some jurisdictions licence plate frames are illegal
Indigenous peoples in Ecuador
Indigenous peoples in Ecuador, or Native Ecuadorians, are the groups of people who were present in what became Ecuador when Europeans arrived. The term includes their descendants from the time of the Spanish conquest to the present, afro-Ecuadorian, people of Spanish descent, and others make up the remaining 20 percent. There are different theories about how the Americas became populated, the prevailing theory, the Land Bridge Theory, holds that the first inhabitants of Americas migrated from Asia across the Beringia. According to this theory, the first inhabitants of South America arrived from North America via the Panamanian isthmus, other theories hold that the first humans to reside in the Americas came across the Pacific Ocean from Oceania or across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe. These time periods are determined by the development of groups being studied. The Lithic period encompasses the earliest stages of development, beginning with the culture migrated into the American continents.
The people of culture are known as Paleo-Indians, and the end of their era is marked by the extinction of the megafauna they hunted. The Archaic period is defined as the stage of migratory hunting and gathering cultures continuing into the environmental conditions approximating those of the present, during this period, hunters began to subsist on a wider variety of smaller game and increased their gathering activities. They began domesticating plants such as maize and squash, probably at dooryard gardens, in the Andean highlands, this period lasted from 7000-3500 BP. In Ecuador, this period is marked by the establishment of trade networks. It began in about 3500 and ended around 2200 BP, the people of this period practiced metallurgy and ceramics. The Integration Period is characterized by great cultural uniformity, the development of urban centres, class-based social stratification, the Integration Period ends and the historic era begins with the Inca conquest. The oldest artifacts discovered in Ecuador are stone implements discovered at 32 Cotton Pre-ceramic archaeological sites in the Santa Elena Peninsula and they indicate a hunting and gathering economy, and date from the Late Pleistocene epoch, or about 11,000 years ago.
These Paleo-Indians subsisted on the megafauna that inhabited the Americas at the time, evidence of Paleoindian hunter-gatherer material culture in other parts of coastal Ecuador is isolated and scattered. Such artifacts have been found in the provinces of Carchi, Pichincha, Azuay, despite the existence of these early coastal settlements, the majority of human settlement occurred in the Sierra region, which was quickly populated. One such settlement, remains of which were found at the archaeological site El Inga, was centered at the base of Mount Ilaló. Due to agricultural disturbances of archaeological remains, it has been difficult to establish a consistent timeline for this site, the oldest artifacts there discovered, date to 9,750 BP. In the South, archaeological discoveries include stone artifacts and animal remains found in the Cave of Chobshi, located in the cantón of Sigsig, Chobshi provides evidence of the domestication of the dog
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities, such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the worlds second-highest after the Tibetan plateau and these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate, the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes are the worlds highest mountain range outside of Asia, the highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from the Earths center than any other location on the Earths surface, the worlds highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m.
The etymology of the word Andes has been debated, the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means east as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning rope, the Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate. In the south, the Andes share a boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, from a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography.
The Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines, the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile, the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau, the specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the Arica Elbow
Provinces of Ecuador
Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces. The provinces of Ecuador and their capitals are,1 Population as per the census carried out on 2011-11-28 In addition, there are three areas within Ecuador that are non-delimited. These locations are, El Piedrero Las Golondrinas, In a popular referendum on 3 April 201656. 9% of Las Golondrinas voters voted to be incorporated in Imbabura province. Manga del Cura, In a popular referendum on 27 September 201564. 2% of Manga del Cura voters voted to be incorporated in Manabí province, cantons of Ecuador ISO 3166-2, EC, ISO 3166-2 for codes. Leaders of Ecuador provinces es, Manga del Cura Magna del Cura referendum of 2015 Provinces of Ecuador