Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
Siberian Tatars, the indigenous Tatar population of the forests and steppes of South Siberia, originate in areas stretching from somewhat east of the Ural Mountains to the Yenisei River in Russia. The Siberian Tatars call themselves Yerle Qalyq, to distinguish themselves from more recent Volga Tatar immigrants to the region; the word "Tatar" or "Tadar" is used as a self-designation by some related Siberian ethnic groups, namely the Chulym, Shor and Khakas peoples. The 2010 census counted more than 500,000 people in Siberia defined their ethnicity as "Tatar". About 200 thousand of them are considered indigenous Siberian Tatars. However, only 6779 of them called themselves "Siberian Tatars", it is not clear which part of those who called themselves “Siberian Tatars” consider themselves to be a separate ethnos, which part as a group into the Tatar people, because In the census took into account the Siberian Tatars as a subgroup of the Tatar ethnos. As of 2018 the Siberian Tatars do not yet have public education available in their own language.
Lessons in the local schools are taught only in the Volga Tatar languages. Siberian Tatars lived in the vast territory stretching from around the Yenisei river all the way to the area lying somewhat east of the Ural mountains. According to the ambassadors of the Siberian Khanate ruler Yediger Khan, who visited Moscow in 1555, the population of "the black people," not counting the aristocracy, was 30,700. In a decree concerning tribute issued by Ivan the Terrible, the population was given as 40,000. According to the results of the 1897 All-Russia Census, there were 56,957 Siberian Tatars in Tobolsk guberniya; this was the last accurate information about this population. In censuses, Tatar immigrants from the other regions of Russia were recorded under the classification of Tatar; the Siberian Tatars tried to avoid the census as much as possible, as they believed that it was an attempt to force them to pay the Yasak. Their population in the territory of the current Tyumen Oblast in 1926 was recorded as 70,000.
According to the results of the 2002 Russian Census, there were 385,949 Tatars living in the oblasts discussed above.. Of these Tatars only 9,289 identified as Siberian Tatars. 2002 Russian Census recorded a total of 9,611 Siberian Tatars in Russia. Some publications estimated their number in the range of 190,000-210,000; such significant discrepancy is explained by the fact that the immigrants from the other ethnic groups who are called Tatar by the Russians were included in the figure, though most were Volga Tatars. The term Siberian Tatar covers three autochthonous groups, all Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi madhab, found in southern Siberia, they are remnants of the Khanate of Sibir, conquered by Russia in 1582. Geographically, the Siberian Tatars are divided into three main groups, each speaking their own dialect. Although the Siberian Tatar language has been sometimes considered a dialect of Tatar, detailed linguistic study demonstrates that Siberian Tatar idioms are quite remote from Volga Tatar by origin.
Siberian Tatars' ancestry was from Turkic and Mongol peoples, but their main ancestors are Samoyedic and Ugric tribes. Siberian Tatar language is, due to the Kipchakization processes during the Middle Ages, many times classified as belonging to the Kypchak–Nogay group of the Kypchak languages. There are as many elements that could be classified in the Upper Altaian language group. Beginning in the 12th century, the Siberian Tatar language received; those Siberian Tatars who are living in ethnically mixed villages where, in the periods after Russian colonization, more numerous Volga Tatars settled, have been influenced by the Kypchak-Bulgar language. Siberian Tatar language has different dialects. Since the penetration of Islam until the 1920s after the Russian Revolution, Siberian Tatars, like all Muslim nations, were using an alphabet, based on Arabic script. In 1928 they adopted an alphabet based on Latin script, in 1939 one based on the Cyrillic script; until 2014, the written language for Siberian Tatars was Tatar, a version based on the grammar rules of Volga Tatars.
In the 21st century, work began on the rationalizing of the Siberian Tatar language. Teams have conducted scientific research in the field of literary language norms of the indigenous population of Siberia, they have published the "Русско-сибирскотатарский словарь = Урысца-сыбырца сүслек", "Грамматика современного сибирскотатарского языка". International Organization for Standardization ISO 639-3 PA with its headquarters in Washington, awarded in 2013, the Siberian Tatar language classification code'sty' in New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3; the first person who researched Siberian Tatar language was Gabdulkhay Akhatov, a Soviet Volga Tatar linguist and an organizer of science. The Tobol-Irtysh Tatars group is the most numerous out of all 3 groups of Siberian Tatars, they live in the Tyumen and Omsk Oblasts. The sub-groups are: Zabolotnie, Kurdak-Sargat, Tyumen-Turin, their self-designation is Baraba, they are found in the steppe of Baraba, in the Novosibirsk Oblast. Their population is around 8,000.
The sub-groups are: Lyubey-Tunus, Terenin-Choy. The Tom Tatars
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Yermak Timofeyevich was a Cossack ataman and is today a hero in Russian folklore and myths. In the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible Yermak started the Russian conquest of Siberia. Russians' fur-trade interests fueled their desire to expand east into Siberia; the Tatar khanate of Kazan was established as the best entryway into Siberia. In 1552, Ivan the Terrible's modernized army toppled the khanate. After the takeover of Kazan, the tsar looked to the powerful and affluent Stroganov merchant family to spearhead the eastward expansion. In the late 1570s, the Stroganovs recruited Cossack fighters to invade Asia on behalf of the tsar; these Cossacks elected Yermak as the leader of their armed forces, in 1582 Yermak set out with an army of 840 to attack the Khanate of Sibir. One of Yermak Timofeyevich's best leaders was named Alex. On October 26, 1582, Yermak and his soldiers overthrew Kuchum Khan's Tatar empire at Qashliq in a battle that marked the "conquest of Siberia". Yermak remained in Siberia and continued his struggle against the Tatars until 1584, when a raid organized by Kuchum Khan ambushed and killed him and his party.
The specifics of Yermak's life, such as his appearance and dates of events, remain points of controversy for historians because the texts that document his life are not reliable. However, his life and conquests had a profound influence on Siberian relations, sparking Russian interest in the region and establishing the Tsardom of Russia as an aggressive imperial power east of the Urals. There is less information about Yermak than most other notable explorers and historical figures. Much of what we know about Yermak is derived from legend. There are no contemporary descriptions of Yermak and all portraits are estimations. One of the Siberian chronicles, the Remezov Chronicle, written more than one hundred years after Yermak's death describes him as “flat-faced, black of beard with curly hair, of medium stature and thick-set and broad-shouldered,” but this detailed account is not reliable because the narrator had never seen Yermak. In addition to his physical features' being unknown, the details of Yermak's life and the circumstances leading up to his excursion into Siberia are obscure.
Russian writer Valentin Rasputin laments the lack of information that we have about Yermak considering the vast scope of his contributions to Russian society. Our knowledge of Yermak's upbringing and voyages pales in comparison to that of other renowned explorers such as Christopher Columbus. Historians encounter serious difficulties when attempting to piece together the specifics of Yermak's life and exploits because the two key, primary sources about Yermak may be biased or inaccurate; these sources are the Stroganov Chronicle, another one of the Siberian chronicles, the Sinodik. The Stroganov Chronicle was commissioned by the Stroganov family itself, therefore it exaggerates the family's involvement in the conquest of Siberia; the Sinodik is an account of Yermak's campaign written forty years after his death by the archbishop of Tobolsk, Cyprian. The text was formed based on oral tradition and memories of his expedition but certainly was affected by the archbishop's desire to canonize Yermak.
The combination of forgotten details over time and the embellishment or omission of facts in order for Yermak to be accepted as a saint suggests that the Sinodik could be erroneous. Though Cyprian failed to canonize Yermak, he made an effort to immortalize the warrior, who he considered being the "Grand Inquisitor" of Siberia; these documents, along with the various others that chronicle Yermak's expeditions, are filled with contradictions that make the truth about Yermak's life difficult to discern. While the sources that exist on Yermak are fallible, those accounts, along with folklore and legend, are all that historians have to base their knowledge on. Yermak is described as brutal and daring, he liked describing himself as "we" instead of "I". However, these descriptions may be attributable to the stereotypical characteristics of a Cossack. According to Rasputin, "Cossack is a Tatar word that translates as daredevil, bold spirit, someone who has severed ties with his social class." In official documents, Cossacks were referred to as "vagabonds, robbers and runaway peasants."
The Cossack group emerged before the existence of Russia and is first mentioned by a Byzantine Emperor in the 3rd century. Though Cossack settlements had leaders and laws, the settlers did not report to the tsar or any other khanate. Only after the 16th century were Cossacks subjected to close relation with the Russian tsar. Yermak, the embodiment of Cossack freewill and brutality, grew famous for his exploits on the Volga; the Don Cossack warrior Yermak Timofeyevich was born by the Chusovaya River on the eastern fringes of the Muscovite lands. The only information about Yermak's upbringing comes from a source called the Cherepanov Chronicle; this chronicle, compiled by a Tobolsk coachman in 1760 - long after Yermak's death - was never published in full, but in 1894 the historian Aleksandr Alekseyevich Dmitrieyev concluded that it represents a copy or paraphrase of an authentic 17th-century document. According to the section of the chronicle entitled "On Yermak, where he was born", Yermak's grandfather, Afonasiy Grigor'yevich Alenin, came from Suzdal, north-east of Moscow.
To escape poverty, he moved south to Vladimir. In the Murom forests, the voyevoda arrested him for driving unscrupulous passengers - robbers who had hired him. Afonasi
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow was a Rus' principality of the Late Middle Ages centered around Moscow, the predecessor state of the Tsardom of Russia in the early modern period. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow in 1283, eclipsing and absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s, it annexed the Novgorod Republic in 1478 and the Grand Duchy of Tver in 1485. After the Mongol invasion of Rus', Muscovy was a tributary vassal to the Mongol-ruled Golden Horde until 1480. Muscovites and other inhabitants of the Rus' principality were able to maintain their Slavic and Orthodox traditions for the most part under the Tatar Yoke. There was strong contact and cultural exchange with the Byzantine Empire. Ivan III further consolidated the state during his 43-year reign, campaigning against his major remaining rival power, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, by 1503 he had tripled the territory of his realm, adopting the title of tsar and claiming the title of "Ruler of all Rus'".
By his marriage to the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, he claimed Muscovy to be the successor state of the Roman Empire, the "Third Rome". The emigration of the Byzantine people influenced and strengthened Moscow's identity as the heir of the Orthodox traditions. Ivan's successor Vasili III enjoyed military success, gaining Smolensk from Lithuania in 1512, pushing Muscovy's borders to the Dniepr River. Vasili's son Ivan IV was an infant at his father's death in 1533, he was crowned in 1547, assuming the title of tsar together with the proclamation of Tsardom of Russia. As with many medieval states the country had no particular "official" name, but rather official titles of the ruler. "The Duke of Moscow" or "the Sovereign of Moscow" were common short titles. After the unification with the Duchy of Vladimir in the mid-14th century, the dukes of Moscow might call themselves "the Duke of Vladimir and Moscow", as Vladimir was much older than Moscow and much more "prestigious" in the hierarchy of possessions, although the principal residence of the dukes had been always in Moscow.
In rivalry with other duchies Moscow dukes designated themselves as the "Grand Dukes", claiming a higher position in the hierarchy of Russian dukes. During the territorial growth and acquisitions, the full title became rather lengthy. In routine documents and on seals, various short names were applied: "the Duke of Moscow", "the Sovereign of Moscow", "the Grand Duke of all Rus'", "the Sovereign of all Rus'", or ""the Grand Duke" or "the Great Sovereign". In spite of feudalism the collective name of the Eastern Slavic land, Rus', was not forgotten, though it became a cultural and geographical rather than political term, as there was no single political entity on the territory. Since the 14th century various Moscow dukes added "of all Rus'" to their titles, after the title of Russian metropolitans, "the Metropolitan of all Rus'". Dmitry Shemyaka was the first Moscow duke who minted coins with the title "the Sovereign of all Rus'". Although both "Sovereign" and "all Rus'" were supposed to be rather honorific epithets, since Ivan III it transformed into the political claim over the territory of all the former Kievan Rus', a goal that the Moscow duke came closer to by the end of that century, uniting eastern Rus'.
Such claims raised much opposition and hostility from its main rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which controlled a large portion of the land of ancient Rus' and hence denied any claims and the self-name of the eastern neighbour. Under the Polish-Lithuanian influence the country began to be called Muscovy in Western Europe; the first appearances of the term were in an Italian document of 1500. Moscovia was the Latinized name of the city of Moscow itself, not of the state; the term Muscovy persisted in the West until the beginning of the 18th century and is still used in historical contexts. When the Mongols invaded the lands of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, Moscow was an insignificant trading outpost in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. Although the Mongols burnt down Moscow in the winter of 1238 and pillaged it in 1293, the outpost's remote, forested location offered some security from Mongol attacks and occupation, while a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region.
More important to the development of the state of Moscow, was its rule by a series of princes who expanded its borders and turned a small principality in the Moscow River Basin into the largest state in Europe of the 16th century. The first ruler of the principality of Moscow, Daniel I, was the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky of Vladimir-Suzdal, he started to expand his principality by seizing Kolomna and securing the bequest of Pereslavl-Zalessky to his family. Daniel's son Yuriy controlled the entire basin of the Moskva River and expanded westward by conquering Mozhaisk, he forged an alliance with the overlord of the Rus' principalities, Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde, married the khan's sister. The Khan allowed Yuriy to claim the title of Gran
Tyumen is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, located on the Tura River 2,500 kilometers east of Moscow. Tyumen was the first Russian settlement in Siberia. Founded in 1586 to support Russia's eastward expansion, the city has remained one of the most important industrial and economic centers east of the Ural Mountains. Located at the junction of several important trade routes and with easy access to navigable waterways, Tyumen developed from a small military settlement to a large commercial and industrial city; the central part of Old Tyumen retains many historic buildings from throughout the city's history. Today Tyumen is an important business center, it is the transport hub and industrial center of Tyumen Oblast— an oil-rich region bordering Kazakhstan —as well as the home of many companies active in Russia's oil and gas industry. Tyumen covers an area of 235 square kilometers, its primary geographical feature is the Tura River, which crosses the city from northwest to southeast.
The river is navigable downstream of the city. The left bank of the Tura is a floodplain surrounded by rolling hills; the Tura is a shallow river with extensive marshlands. The river floods during the snow melting season in the spring; the spring flood peaks in the second half of May, when the river becomes 8–10 times wider than during the late-summer low water season. The city is protected from flooding by a dike; the highest flood water level in Tyumen was 9.15 meters, recorded in 1979. More in 2007, a water level of 7.76 was recorded. In spring 2005, a flood did not appear. Tyumen has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters; the weather in the region is changeable, the temperature in town is always higher than in the surrounding area by a few degrees. The town area attracts more precipitation; the average temperature in January is −16.7 °C, with a record low of −50 °C measured in February 1951. The average temperature in July is +18.6 °C, with a record high of +38 °C. The average annual precipitation is 457 millimeters.
The wettest year on record was 1943, with 581 millimeters, the driest was 1917, with only 231 millimeters. The Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeyevich annexed the Tyumen area part of the Siberia Khanate, to the Tsardom of Russia in 1585. Both capitals of Siberia Khanate, Sibir/Qashliq and Tyumen/Chimgi-Tura, were destroyed. Sibir was never restored, while it gave its name to all concurrent and future lands, annexed in the Northern Asia by Moscow state, but Tyumen was founded again. On July 29, 1586, Tsar Feodor I ordered two regional commanders, Vasily Borisov-Sukin and Ivan Myasnoy, to construct a fortress on the site of the former Siberian Tatar town of Chingi-Tura known as Tyumen, from the Turkish and Mongol word for "ten thousand" – tumen. Tyumen stood on the "Tyumen Portage", part of the historical trade route between Central Asia and the Volga region. Various South Siberian nomads had continuously contested control of the portage in the preceding centuries; as a result, Siberian Tatar and Kalmyk raiders attacked early Russian settlers.
The military situation meant that streltsy and Cossack garrisons stationed in the town predominated in the population of Tyumen until the mid-17th century. As the area became less restive, the town began to take on a less military character. By the beginning of the 18th century Tyumen had developed into an important center of trade between Siberia and China in the east and Central Russia in the west. Tyumen had become an important industrial center, known for leather-goods makers and other craftsmen. In 1763, 7,000 people were recorded as living in the town. In the 19th century the town's development continued. In 1836, the first steam boat in Siberia was built in Tyumen. In 1862, the telegraph came to the town, in 1864 the first water mains were laid. Further prosperity came to Tyumen after the construction, in 1885, of the Trans-Siberian Railway. For some years, Tyumen was Russia's easternmost railhead, the site of transhipment of cargoes between the railway and the cargo boats plying the Tura, Irtysh, Ob Rivers.
By the end of the 19th century Tyumen's population exceeded 30,000, surpassing that of its northern rival Tobolsk, beginning a process whereby Tyumen eclipsed the former regional capital. The growth of Tyumen culminated on August 14, 1944 when the city became the administrative center of the extensive Tyumen Oblast. At the outbreak of the Russian Civil War in 1917, forces loyal to Admiral Alexander Kolchak and his Siberian White Army controlled Tyumen. However, the city fell to the Red Army on January 5, 1918. During the 1930s, Tyumen became a major industrial center of the Soviet Union. By the onset of World War II, the city had several well-established industries, including shipbuilding, furniture manufacture, the manufacture of fur and leather goods. World War II saw rapid development in the city. In the winter of 1941, twenty-two major industrial enterprises evacuated to Tyumen from the European part of the Soviet Union; these enterprises went into operation the following spring. Additionally, war-time Tyumen became a "hospital city", where thousands of wounded soldiers were treated.
During Operation Barbarossa, when it seemed possible that Moscow would fall to the advancing German Army, Tyumen became a refuge for the body of the Soviet leader
Qashliq, Isker or Sibir was a medieval Siberian Tatar fortress, in the 16th century the capital of the Khanate of Sibir, located on the right bank of the Irtysh River at its confluence with the Sibirka rivulet, some 17 km from the modern city of Tobolsk. The fortress is first mentioned in Russian sources of the 14th century; the period of the most development was in the first half of the 16th century. In 1582 the troops of Cossack ataman Yermak seized and ruined Qashliq; the ruined city was retaken by the Siberian Tatars in 1584 only to be lost forever in 1586. The nearby city of Tobolsk was founded in 1587. Sources differ on the exact location of the fortress. Most give the distance upriver from Tobolsk as 17 or 18 km, or versts, or ten to eleven miles, but others give 23 km. Sources of the early 19th century claim that the ruins of the fortress could still be made out with difficulty; the ruins of Qashliq, when they were still visible, were referred to as The Fort of Kuchum by Russians. The modern village of Sibiryak is located close to the site.
Photograph of the approximate site