South Gyeongsang Province
South Gyeongsang Province is a province in the southeast of South Korea. The provincial capital is at Changwon, it is adjacent to port of Busan. There is UNESCO World Heritage Site Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. Automobile and petrochemical factories are concentrated along the southern part of the province, extending from Ulsan through Busan and Jinju; the name derives from Korean Gyeongsang, meaning'joyous furthermore'. The name derives from the names of the principal cities of Sangju. Before 1895, the area corresponding to modern-day Gyeongsangnam-do was part of Gyeongsang Province, one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. In 1895, southern Gyeongsang was replaced by the districts of Jinju in the west and Dongnae in the east. In 1896, they were merged to form Gyeongsangnam-do; the provincial capital was at Jinju. In 1948, Gyeongsangnam-do became part of South Korea. In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City.
In 1983, the provincial capital moved from Busan to Changwon. In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City, Ulsan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Metropolitan City in 1997; the province is part of the Yeongnam region, on the north by Gyeongsangbuk-do province, on the west Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do provinces, on the south by the Korea Strait far from Japan. Most of the province is drained by its tributaries; the total area of the province is 10,533 square kilometres. The Nakdong delta plain around Gimhae is one of the best granaries in South Korea. Agricultural products form Gyeongsangnam-do include rice, beans and barley; the area is renowned for its cotton and fruits which are grown along the southern seaside. A number of marine products are caught; the province is one of the country's leading fisheries. The largest cities in the region are Busan and Ulsan, which are separately administered as provincial-level Metropolitan Cities. Apart from the capital Changwon, other large or notable cities include Jinju.
Gyeongsangnam-do is the home of Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many tourists. It is in the national park around Jirisan on the border with Jeollabuk-do; the temple was first built in 802. Changnyeong county contains three major tourist attractions for the province: Upo wetland, Bugok natural hotsprings, Hwawang mountain. Gyeongsangnam-do is divided into 10 counties; the names below are given in English and hanja. According to the census of 2005, of the people of South Gyeongsang 40% follow Buddhism and 14.8% follow Christianity. 45.2% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. Yamaguchi Prefecture Maryland Shandong East Java Đồng Nai Province Khabarovsk Krai Jalisco Laguna province Pomeranian Voivodeship Fejér County List of Korea-related topics Igeum-dong site - complex archaeological site in Sacheon-si Tongyeong International Music Festival South Gyeongsang travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, is the largest South Korean chaebol. Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-chul in 1938 as a trading company. Over the next three decades, the group diversified into areas including food processing, insurance and retail. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid-1970s. Following Lee's death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups – Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and Hansol Group. Since 1990, Samsung has globalised its activities and electronics; as of 2017, Samsung has the 6th highest global brand value. Notable Samsung industrial affiliates include Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T. Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Everland and Cheil Worldwide. Samsung has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics and culture and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River".
Its affiliate companies produce around a fifth of South Korea's total exports. Samsung's revenue was equal to 17% of South Korea's $1,082 billion GDP. According to Samsung's founder, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is "tri-star" or "three stars"; the word "three" represents something "big and powerful". In 1938, Lee Byung-chul of a large landowning family in the Uiryeong county moved to nearby Daegu city and founded Samsung Sanghoe. Samsung started out as a small trading company with forty employees located in Su-dong, it dealt in locally-grown groceries and noodles. The company prospered and Lee moved its head office to Seoul in 1947; when the Korean War broke out, he was forced to leave Seoul. He started a sugar refinery in Busan named Cheil Jedang. In 1954, Lee built the plant in Chimsan-dong, Daegu, it was the largest woollen mill in the country. Samsung diversified into many different areas. Lee sought to establish Samsung as leader in a wide range of industries. Samsung moved into lines of business such as insurance and retail.
In 1947, Cho Hong-jai, the Hyosung group's founder, jointly invested in a new company called Samsung Mulsan Gongsa, or the Samsung Trading Corporation, with the Samsung's founder Lee Byung-chull. The trading firm grew to become the present-day Samsung C&T Corporation. After a few years and Lee separated due to differences in management style. Cho wanted a 30 equity share. Samsung Group was separated into Hyosung Group, Hankook Tire and other businesses. In the late 1960s, Samsung Group entered the electronics industry, it formed several electronics-related divisions, such as Samsung Electronics Devices, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Samsung Corning and Samsung Semiconductor & Telecommunications, made the facility in Suwon. Its first product was a black-and-white television set. In 1980, Samsung acquired the Gumi-based Hanguk Jeonja Tongsin and entered telecommunications hardware, its early products were switchboards. The facility was developed into the telephone and fax manufacturing systems and became the center of Samsung's mobile phone manufacturing.
They have produced over 800 million mobile phones to date. The company grouped them together under Samsung Electronics in the 1980s. After Lee, the founder's death in 1987, Samsung Group was separated into four business groups—Samsung Group, Shinsegae Group, CJ Group and the Hansol Group. Shinsegae was part of Samsung Group, separated in the 1990s from the Samsung Group along with CJ Group, the Hansol Group. Today these separated groups are independent and they are not part of or connected to the Samsung Group. One Hansol Group representative said, "Only people ignorant of the laws governing the business world could believe something so absurd", adding, "When Hansol separated from the Samsung Group in 1991, it severed all payment guarantees and share-holding ties with Samsung affiliates." One Hansol Group source asserted, "Hansol, CJ have been under independent management since their respective separations from the Samsung Group". One Shinsegae department store executive director said, "Shinsegae has no payment guarantees associated with the Samsung Group".
In 1980s, Samsung Electronics began to invest in research and development, investments that were pivotal in pushing the company to the forefront of the global electronics industry. In 1982, it built a television assembly plant in Portugal; as of 2012, Samsung has invested more than US$13,000,000,000 in the Austin facility, which operates under the name Samsung Austin Semiconductor. This makes the Austin location the largest foreign investment in Texas and
Kim Moon-soo (politician)
Kim Moon-soo is a Korean conservative politician and the 32nd Governor of Gyeonggi Province in South Korea. A former labor activist, he began his career in politics when he participated in the foundation of the People’s Party in 1990, he was elected to the 15th National Assembly at Sosa-gu, Bucheon, as a candidate for the New Korea Party. After continuing to serve as a member of the assembly in the 16th and the 17th National Assemblies, he became the 4th Governor of Gyeonggi Province to be elected by popular vote in 2006. Born in 1951, Kim is the third son in his family, has three brothers and three sisters. After graduating from Yeongcheon Elementary School in Gyeongsangbuk-do, he moved to Daegu Metropolitan City without his family, where he attended Gyeongbuk Middle School and Gyeongbuk High School. In 1970, Kim Moon-Soo entered the Department of Business Administration, in the College of Business at Seoul National University, but was expelled in 1971 for participating in the October 15 nationwide student protests.
In 1974, he was expelled from university again due to his involvement in the National Democratic Youth and Students Union case. He reentered the Department of Business Administration at Seoul National University in 1994, two years graduated from university, 25 years after his initial acceptance in 1970. In 1974, he served as the assistant cloth cutter at a fabric plant in Cheonggyecheon, acquiring national engineer’s licenses for environmental management and safety management in 1977, he was elected as the Dorco Labor Union Leader of the Federation of Korean Metal Workers Trade Unions in 1978. He was arrested and tortured by the dictatorial government in 1980, but his indictment was suspended so that he could serve for Dorco again. Kim served as the secretary of the Jun Tae-Il Memorial Society in 1985, was arrested again for participating in the Incheon May 3 Protest for Constitutional Amendment for Direct Election System in 1986 when he served as the a member of the direction committee for Seoul Confederation of Labor Movement.
He was imprisoned for two and a half years. In 1990, Kim Moon-Soo participated in the foundation of the People’s Party, served as chair of the Labor Relations Committee; that same year, he ran in Korea’s 14th general election as candidate No. 3 for the People’s Party, but was defeated. After joining the Democratic Liberal Party in 1994, he ran for the 15th general election as a candidate for New Korea Party in 1996, was elected. Following his election, Kim Moon-Soo served as a member of the legislature, focusing on labor and environmental issues, as well as on transportation in the Seoul metropolitan area and childcare. Re-elected to the 16th and the 17th National Assemblies, Kim served for three consecutive terms as a member of the National Assembly, he served as the deputy floor leader for the Grand National Party. After retiring from the National Assembly in 2006 to run for local government, Kim was elected Governor of Gyeonggi Province, taking office as the 4th Governor elected by public vote in July 2006.
In April 2012, Kim Moon-Soo declared his presidential candidacy in the primary election of the Saenuri Party. In announcing his candidacy, Kim asserted that the nomination of Park Geun-hye should not be viewed as axiomatic, despite a decade of preparation for the campaign on her part. Graduated from College of Business, Seoul National University as a major in business administration / Ph. D. 1996~2004 Member of the 15th and 16th National Assembly Member of Environment and Labor Committee, Executive Committee and Account Committee, Special Committee on Economic Reform and Unemployment Deputy floor leader, deputy secretary general, chair of the Planning Committee of the Grand National Party, 2004~2006 Member of the 17th National Assembly 2006~present Governor of Gyeonggi Province 2009. 4.16 Selected by Korea Manifesto as the No. 1 among the leaders of the 4th local governments elected by popular vote in the category of fulfillment of public pledge 2007. 9. 5 Won the 5th Forbes Korea Excellence Award in the category of Public Innovations 2007.
8. 6 Selected by Korea Manifesto as No. 1 among the leaders of the 4th local governments elected by popular vote in the category of fulfillment of public pledges Statements of Appeal of Ten Prisoners of Conscience in the 1980s Report on Workers’ Rights in 1992 Innovation Tasks 20 A Necktie Still Does Not Suit Me National Assemblymen Are the Servants of the Citizens Mr. President, Why Don’t You Take the Subway of Hell? My Way, My Dream I Dream of Freedom in Gyeonggi Province, a Prison of Regulations Official website Kim Moon-soo on Cyworld
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
University of Massachusetts Amherst
The University of Massachusetts Amherst is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts. It is the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system. UMass Amherst has an annual enrollment of 1,300 faculty members and more than 30,000 students and was ranked 27th best public university by U. S. News Report in 2018 in the national universities category; the university offers academic degrees in 77 master's and 48 doctoral programs. Programs are coordinated in colleges; the main campus is situated north of downtown Amherst. In 2012, U. S. News and World Report ranked Amherst among the Top 10 Great College Towns in America, it is a member of the Five College Consortium. The University of Massachusetts Amherst is categorized as a Research University with Highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In fiscal year 2014, UMass Amherst had research expenditures exceeding $200 million. UMass Amherst sports teams are called the Minutemen and Minutewomen, the colors being maroon and white.
All teams participate in NCAA Division I. The university is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, while playing ice hockey in Hockey East and football as an FBS Independent; the university was founded in 1863 under the provisions of the Federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to provide instruction to Massachusetts citizens in "agricultural and military arts." Accordingly, the university was named the Massachusetts Agricultural College, popularly referred to as "Mass Aggie" or "M. A. C." In 1867, the college had yet to admit any students, been through two Presidents, had still not completed any college buildings. In that year, William S. Clark was appointed Professor of Botany, he appointed a faculty, completed the construction plan, and, in the fall of 1867, admitted the first class of 50 students. Clark became the first president to serve longterm after the schools opening and is regarded the primary founding father of the college. Of the school's founding figures, there are a traditional "founding four"- Clark, Levi Stockbridge, Charles Goessmann, Henry Goodell, described as "the botanist, the farmer, the chemist, the man of letters."The original buildings consisted of Old South College, North College, the Chemistry Laboratory known as College Hall, the Boarding House, the Botanic Museum and the Durfee Plant House.
Although enrollment was slow during the 1870s, the fledgling college built momentum under the leadership of President Henry Hill Goodell. In the 1880s, Goodell implemented an expansion plan, adding the College Drill Hall in 1883, the Old Chapel Library in 1885, the East and West Experiment Stations in 1886 and 1890; the Campus Pond, now the central focus of the University Campus, was created in 1893 by damming a small brook. The early 20th century saw great expansion in the scope of the curriculum; the first female student was admitted in 1875 on a part-time basis and the first full-time female student was admitted in 1892. In 1903, Draper Hall was constructed for the dual purpose of a dining female housing; the first female students graduated with the class of 1905. The first dedicated female dormitory, the Abigail Adams House was built in 1920. By the start of the 20th century, the college was thriving and expanded its curriculum to include the liberal arts; the Education curriculum was established in 1907.
In recognition of the higher enrollment and broader curriculum, the college was renamed Massachusetts State College in 1931. Following World War II, the G. I. Bill, facilitating financial aid for veterans, led to an explosion of applicants; the college population soared and Presidents Hugh Potter Baker and Ralph Van Meter labored to push through major construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s with regard to dormitories. Accordingly, the name of the college was changed in 1947 to the "University of Massachusetts." By the 1970s, the University continued to grow and gave rise to a shuttle bus service on campus as well as many other architectural additions. Du Bois Library, the Fine Arts Center. Over the course of the next two decades, the John W. Lederle Graduate Research Center and the Conte National Polymer Research Center were built and UMass Amherst emerged as a major research facility; the Robsham Memorial Center for Visitors welcomed thousands of guests to campus after its dedication in 1989.
For athletic and other large events, the Mullins Center was opened in 1993, hosting capacity crowds as the Minutemen basketball team ranked at number one for many weeks in the mid-1990s, reached the Final Four in 1996. UMass Amherst entered. In 2003, for the first time, the Massachusetts State Legislature designated UMass Amherst as a Research Univ
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. Its name, Gyeonggi means "the area surrounding the capital", thus Gyeonggi-do can be translated as "province surrounding Seoul". The provincial capital is Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is in the heart of the province but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon—South Korea's third-largest city—is on the coast of the province and has been administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981; the three jurisdictions are collectively referred to as Sudogwon and cover 11,730 km2, with a combined population of 25.5 million—amounting to over half of the entire population of South Korea. Gyeonggi-do has been a politically important area since 18 BCE, when Korea was divided into three nations during the Three Kingdoms period. Since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje, founded the government in Wiryeseong of Hanam, the Han River Valley was absorbed into Goguryeo in the mid-fifth century, became Silla's territory in the year 553.
Afterward, the current location of Gyeonggi-do, one of the nine states of Later Silla, was called Hansanju. The Gyeonggi region started to rise as the central region of Goryeo as King Taejo of Goryeo set up the capital in Gaesong. Since 1018, this area has been called "Gyeonggi." During the Joseon, founded after the Goryeo, King Taejo of Joseon set the capital in Hanyang, while restructuring Gyeonggi's area to include Gwangju, Suwon and Anseong, along with the southeast region. Since the period of King Taejong and Sejong the Great, the Gyeonggi region has been similar to the current administrative area of Gyeonggi-do. In 1895 the 23-Bu system, which reorganized administrative areas, was effected; the Gyeonggi region was divided into Hanseong, Chungju and Kaesong. During the Japanese colonial period, Hanseong-bu was incorporated into Gyeonggi-do. On October 1, 1910, it was renamed Keijo and a provincial government was placed in Keijo according to the reorganization of administrative districts. After liberation and the foundation of two Korean governments, Gyeonggi-do and its capital, were separated with partial regions of Gyeonggi-do being incorporated into Seoul thereafter.
Additionally, Kaesong became North Korean territory, the only city to change control after the countries were divided at the 38th parallel, now part of North Korea's North Hwanghae Province. In 1967 the seat of the Gyeonggi provincial government was transferred from Seoul to Suwon. After Incheon separated from Gyeonggi-do in 1981, Gyeonggi regions such as Ongjin County and Ganghwa County were incorporated into Incheon in 1995. Gyeonggi-do is the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, vertically situated in Northeast Asia and is between east longitude of 126 and 127, north latitude of 36 and 38, its dimension is 10 % of 10,171 square kilometres. It is in contact with 86 kilometres of cease-fire line to the north, 413 kilometres of coastline to the west, Gangwon-do to the east, Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do to the south, has Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, in its center, its provincial government is in Suwon, but some of its government buildings are in Uijeongbu for the administrative conveniences of the northern region.
The climate of Gyeonggi-do is the continental climate, which has a severe differentiation of temperature between summer and winter, has distinctions of four seasons. Spring is warm, summer is hot and humid, autumn is cool, winter is cold and snowy; the annual average temperature is between 11–13 °C, where the temperature in the mountainous areas to the northeast is lower and the coastal areas to the southwest is higher. For January's average temperature, the Gyeonggi Bay is −4 °C, the Namhangang Basin is −4 to −6 °C, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Basins are −6 to −8 °C, it becomes higher in temperature differentiation from coastal to inland areas. Summer has a lower local differentiation compared to winter; the inland areas are hotter than the Gyeonggi Bay area, the hottest area is Pyeongtaek, making the average temperature of August 26.5 °C. The annual average precipitation is around 1,100 millimetres, with a lot of rainfall, it is dry during winter. The northeastern inland areas of Bukhangang and the upper stream of Imjingang has a precipitation of 1,300–1,400 millimetres, whereas the coastal area has only 900 millimetres of precipitation.
The topography of Gyeonggi-do is divided into southern and northern areas by the Han River, which flows from east to west. The area north to the Han River is mountainous, while the southern area is plain; the configuration of Gyeonggi-do is represented by Dong-go-seo-jeo, where the Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range spreads from the east and drops in elevation in the west. The fields of Gimpo and Pyeongtaek extend to the west. Gyeonggi-do boasts beautiful nature stocked with rivers, lakes and seas, its representative rivers are the Hangang and Anseongcheon, which flow into the Yellow Sea, with Gyeonggi Plain, Yeonbaek Plain and Anseong Plain forming a fertile field area around the rivers. The Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range stre