Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
The Liberty Times is a newspaper published in Taiwan in Traditional Chinese. Founded by Lin Rong-San, it is published by the Liberty Times Group, which publishes the English language newspaper the Taipei Times; the newspaper was first published on 17 April 1980, as Liberty Daily, before adopting its current name in 1987. It is one of the four major newspapers in Taiwan, the other three being the Apple Daily, the China Times, the United Daily News. While the United Daily News is regarded as taking an editorial line that supports unification, the Liberty Times is thought to take a Pan Green pro-independence political stance. Official website
Time in Taiwan
National Standard Time is the official time zone in Taiwan defined by an UTC offset of +08:00. This standard is known as Taiwan Time, Taipei Time and as Chungyuan Standard Time until the early 2000s; the first time zone standard in Taiwan was enforced in 1 January 1896, the second year of Taiwan under Japanese rule. The standard is called Western Standard Time with time offset of UTC+08:00, based on 120°E longitude. In 1 October 1937, the Western Standard Time zone is abolished and the Central Standard Time, with time offset of UTC+09:00, was enforced in the entire country of Japan including Taiwan; this time was used until the end of the Second World War. In 21 September 1945, the Governor-General of Taiwan announced to revoke the order in 1937. After the war's end, Taiwan was annexed to the five time zones system of the Republic of China and was classified in the Chungyuan Standard Time with time offset of UTC+08:00. After the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Central Government of the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and lost nearly all the territory of mainland China.
From this time, the five time zones system was no longer implemented except Chungyuan Standard Time on Taiwan. After the 1990s, the democratization movement brought more localization thinking in Taiwan; the term Chungyuan, which means the Central Plain of China, is considered as Sinocentrism. Thus the government on Taiwan now favors the term National Standard Time as official use. Along with the governmental standard, popular alternatives include Taiwan Standard Time, TST, Taipei Time and Formosan Time. Daylight saving time was implemented in Taiwan after the Second World War on the summer of 1946–1961, 1974, 1975, 1979. In October 2017, a petition took place to change the offset to UTC+09:00, responded by an assessment of potential impact by the government. National Standard Time is now managed by the Bureau of Standards and Inspection under the Ministry of Economic Affairs; the time is released according to the caesium atomic clocks aggregated by National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory under Chunghwa Telecom after consulting the data provided by Bureau International des Poids et Measures.
National Standard Time used in Taiwan is the same as Brunei, P. R. China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore; the IANA time zone database contains one zone for Taiwan, named Asia/Taipei. Bureau of Standards and Inspection, Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Republic of China National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory
An aircraft registration is a code unique to a single aircraft, required by international convention to be marked on the exterior of every civil aircraft. The registration indicates the aircraft's country of registration, functions much like an automobile license plate; this code must appear in its Certificate of Registration, issued by the relevant National Aviation Authority. An aircraft can only have one registration, in one jurisdiction, though it is changeable over the life of the aircraft. In accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation, all civil aircraft must be registered with a national aviation authority using procedures set by each country; every country those not party to the Chicago Convention, has an NAA whose functions include the registration of civil aircraft. An aircraft can only be registered once, at a time; the NAA allocates a unique alphanumeric string to identify the aircraft, which indicates the nationality of the aircraft, provides a legal document called a Certificate of Registration, one of the documents which must be carried when the aircraft is in operation.
The registration identifier must be displayed prominently on the aircraft. Most countries require the registration identifier to be imprinted on a permanent fireproof plate mounted on the fuselage in case of a post-fire/post-crash aircraft accident investigation. Most nations' military aircraft use tail codes and serial numbers. Military aircraft most are not assigned civil registration codes. However, government-owned non-military civil aircraft are assigned civil registrations. Although each aircraft registration identifier is unique, some countries allow it to be re-used when the aircraft has been sold, destroyed or retired. For example, N3794N is assigned to a Mooney M20F, it had been assigned to a Beechcraft Bonanza. Note that an individual aircraft may be assigned different registrations during its existence; this can be because the aircraft changes ownership, jurisdiction of registration, or in some cases for vanity reasons. Most aircraft are registered in the jurisdiction in which the carrier is resident or based, may enjoy preferential rights or privileges as a flag carrier for international operations.
Carriers in emerging markets may be required to register aircraft in an offshore jurisdiction where they are leased or purchased but financed by banks in major onshore financial centres. The financing institution may be reluctant to allow the aircraft to be registered in the carrier's home country, the carrier is reluctant to have the aircraft registered in the financier's jurisdiction either because of personal or political reasons, or because they fear spurious lawsuits and potential arrest of the aircraft; the first use of aircraft registrations was based on the radio callsigns allocated at the London International Radiotelegraphic Conference in 1913. The format was a single letter prefix followed by four other letters; the major nations operating aircraft were allocated a single letter prefix. Smaller countries had to share a single letter prefix, but were allocated exclusive use of the first letter of the suffix; this was modified by agreement by the International Bureau at Berne and published on April 23, 1913.
Although initial allocations were not for aircraft but for any radio user, the International Air Navigation Convention held in Paris in 1919 made allocations for aircraft registrations, based on the 1913 callsign list. The agreement stipulated that the nationality marks were to be followed by a hyphen a group of four letters that must include a vowel; this system operated until the adoption of the revised system in 1928. The International Radiotelegraph Convention at Washington in 1927 revised the list of markings; these were adopted from 1928 and are the basis of the used registrations. The markings have been amended and added to over the years, the allocations and standards have since 1947 been managed by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed in 1944, requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bears its appropriate nationality and registration marks. Upon registration, the aircraft receives its unique "registration", which must be displayed prominently on the aircraft.
Annex 7 to the Chicago Convention describes the definitions and measurement of nationality and registration marks. The aircraft registration is made up of a prefix selected from the country's callsign prefix allocated by the International Telecommunication Union and the registration suffix. Depending on the country of registration, this suffix is a numeric or alphanumeric code, consists of one to five characters. A supplement to Annex 7 provides an updated list of approved nationality and common marks used by various countries. While the Chicago convention sets out the country-specific prefixes used in registration marks, makes provision for the ways they are used in international civil aviation and displayed on aircraft, individual countries make further
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
American Airlines Flight 587
American Airlines Flight 587 was a scheduled international passenger flight from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport to Las Américas International Airport in Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic. On November 12, 2001, the Airbus A300B4-605R flying the route crashed shortly after takeoff into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens, a borough of New York City. All 260 people aboard the plane were killed, along with 5 people on the ground; the location of the accident and the fact that it took place two months and one day after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in Manhattan spawned fears of another terrorist attack. Terrorism was ruled out as the cause by the National Transportation Safety Board, which instead attributed the disaster to the first officer's overuse of rudder controls in response to wake turbulence, or jet wash, from a Japan Airlines Boeing 747-400 that took off minutes before it. According to the NTSB, the aggressive use of the rudder controls by the co-pilot caused the vertical stabilizer to snap off the plane, along with the plane's two engines separating from intense forces before impact.
The accident aircraft, registration N14053, was an Airbus A300B4-605R delivered to American Airlines new in 1988. On the day of the accident the aircraft was in a two-class seating configuration with space for 251 passengers, with 16 business-class seats and 235 coach-class seats; the aircraft was powered by two General Electric CF6-80C2A5 engines. On-board were two flight crew members, 42 year-old Captain Ed States and 34 year-old First Officer Sten Molin; the aircraft taxied to Runway 31L behind a Japan Airlines Boeing 747-400 preparing for takeoff. The JAL flight was cleared for takeoff at 9:11:08. Around 9:11:36, the tower controller cautioned the Flight 587 pilots about potential wake turbulence from the 747 JAL flight. At 9:13:28, the A300 was cleared for takeoff and left the runway at 9:14:29, about 1 minute and 40 seconds after the JAL flight. After takeoff, the plane climbed to an altitude of 500 feet above mean sea level and entered a climbing left turn to a heading of 220°. At 9:15:00, the pilot made initial contact with the departure controller, informing him that the airplane was at 1,300 feet and climbing to 5,000 feet.
The departure controller instructed the aircraft to maintain 13,000 feet. Data from the flight data recorder showed that the events leading into the crash began at 9:15:36, when the aircraft hit wake turbulence from the JAL flight in front of it. In response to the turbulence, the first officer alternated between moving the rudder from the left to the right and back again in quick succession for at least 20 seconds, until 9:15:56, when the stress caused the lugs that attached the vertical stabilizer and rudder to fail; the stabilizer separated from the aircraft and fell into Jamaica Bay, about one mile north of the main wreckage site. Eight seconds the stall warning sounded on the cockpit voice recorder; the aircraft pitched downwards after the stabilizer separated from the aircraft. As the pilots struggled to control the aircraft, it went into a flat spin; the resulting aerodynamic loads sheared both engines from the aircraft seconds before impact. The engines landed several blocks east of the main wreckage site.
The engines caused minor damage to major damage to one home and a boat. The loss of engines cut power to the FDR at 9:16:00, while the CVR, using a battery backup, cut off at 9:16:15, moments before impact with the ground; the last recorded words of the pilots were Molin saying, "What the hell are we into, we're stuck in it" with States replying, "Get out of it, get out of it." The aircraft crashed into the intersection of Beach 131st Street. Because the crash occurred just two months and one day after the September 11 attacks in New York, several major buildings including the Empire State Building and the United Nations Headquarters were evacuated. In the months after the crash, rumors circulated that the plane had been destroyed in a terrorist plot, with a shoe bomb similar to the one found on Richard Reid. In May 2002, a Kuwaiti national named Mohammed Jabarah agreed to cooperate with investigators as part of a plea bargain. Among the details Jabarah gave authorities was a claim made to Jabarah by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's lieutenant, who told Jabarah that Reid and Abderraouf Jdey had both been enlisted by the al-Qaeda chief to carry out identical shoe-bombing plots as part of a second wave of attacks against the United States.
According to this lieutenant, Jdey's bomb had blown up Flight 587, while Reid's attempt had been foiled. In May 2002, a Canadian government memo was written that repeated the claims suggesting that Jdey had a role in the crash, while conceding that the reliability of the source of that information — Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's lieutenant — was unknown. According to information contained in the memo, Jdey — a naturalized Canadian citizen — was to use his own Canadian passport to board the flight. While American Airlines' passenger manifest did indicate citizens boarding with passports from the United States, the Dominican Republic, France and Israel, no passengers boarded using a Canadian passport. According to NTSB spokesman Ted Lopatkiewicz, the weight of the memo's veracity was put into question, as no evidence of a terrorist traveling on board was found; the evidence suggested that the aircraft was brought down after a piece of the empennage, "the vertical fin, came off", while it did not indicate "any kind of event in the cabin."
On the afternoon of the crash, the NTSB launched an inv
Aeroflot Flight 593
Aeroflot Flight 593 was a regular passenger flight from Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow, to Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong. On 23 March 1994, the aircraft operating the route, an Airbus A310-304 flown by Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines, crashed into a mountain range in Kemerovo Oblast, killing all 63 passengers and 12 crew members on board. No evidence of a technical malfunction was found. Cockpit voice and flight data recorders revealed the presence of the relief pilot's 12-year-old daughter and 16-year-old son on the flight deck. While seated at the controls, the pilot's son had unknowingly disengaged the A310's autopilot control of the aircraft's ailerons; the autopilot disengaged causing the aircraft to roll into a steep bank and a near-vertical dive. Despite managing to level the aircraft, the first officer over-corrected when pulling up, causing the plane to stall and enter into a corkscrew dive; the aircraft involved in the accident was a leased Airbus A310-304, registration F-OGQS, serial number 596, delivered new to Aeroflot on 11 December 1992.
Powered with two General Electric CF6-80C2A2 engines, the airframe had its maiden flight as F-WWCS on 11 September 1991, was one of five operating for Russian Airlines, an autonomous division of Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines, set up for serving routes to the Russian Far East and Southeast Asia. On average, the crew of three operating the aircraft had logged 900 hours on the type; the captain of Flight 593 was Andrey Viktorovich Danilov, 40, hired by Aeroflot in November 1992. He had accrued over 9,675 hours of flight time, including 950 hours in the A310, of which 895 hours were as captain; the first officer was Igor Vasilyevich Piskaryov, 33, hired by Aeroflot in October 1993, who had 5,885 hours of flight time, including 440 hours in the A310. The relief pilot was Yaroslav Vladimirovich Kudrinsky, 39, hired by Aeroflot in November 1992. Kudrinsky had experience in the Yakovlev Yak-40, Antonov An-12, Ilyushin Il-76. There were nine flight attendants on board the plane. On 23 March 1994, the jet aircraft was en route from Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow to Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong with 75 occupants aboard, of whom 63 were passengers.
Most of the passengers were businessmen from Hong Kong and Taiwan who were looking for economic opportunities in Russia. Relief pilot Kudrinsky was taking his two children on their first international flight, they were brought to the cockpit while he was on duty. Five people were thus on the flight deck: Kudrinsky, co-pilot Piskaryov, Kudrinsky's children Eldar and Yana, another pilot, Vladimir Makarov, flying as a passenger. With the autopilot active, against regulations, let the children sit at the controls. First, his daughter Yana took the pilot's left front seat. Kudrinsky adjusted the autopilot's heading to give her the impression that she was turning the plane, though she had no control of the aircraft. Shortly thereafter, Kudrinsky's son Eldar occupied the pilot's seat. Unlike his sister, Eldar applied enough force to the control column to contradict the autopilot for 30 seconds; this caused the flight computer to switch the plane's ailerons to manual control while maintaining control over the other flight systems.
A silent indicator light came on to alert the pilots to this partial disengagement. The pilots, who had flown Russian-designed planes that had audible warning signals failed to notice it. Eldar was the first to notice a problem. Shortly after, the flight path indicator changed to show the new flight path of the aircraft as it turned. Since the turn was continuous, the resulting predicted flight path drawn on screen was a 180-degree turn; this indication is similar to those shown when in a holding pattern, where a 180-degree turn is required to remain in a stable position. This confused the pilots for nine seconds, during which time the plane banked past a 45-degree angle to 90 degrees, steeper than the design allowed; the A310 cannot turn this steeply while maintaining height, the plane started to lose altitude quickly. The increased g-forces on the pilots and crew made it difficult for them to regain control; the autopilot, which no longer controlled the ailerons, used its other controls in order to compensate, pitching the nose up and increasing thrust.
A second, larger indicator light came on to alert the pilots of the complete disengagement, this time they did notice it. At the same time, the autopilot's display screen went blank. To recover from the stall, an automatic system put the plane into a nosedive; the reduced g-forces enabled Kudrinsky to re-take his seat. Piskaryov managed to pull out of the dive, but over-corrected, putting the plane in an vertical ascent, again stalling the plane, which fell out of the sky into a corkscrew dive. Although Kudrinsky and Piskaryov regained control and leveled out the wings, they did not know how far they had descended during the crisis and their altitude by was too low to recover; the plane crashed at high vertical speed, estimated at 70 m/s. All 75 occupants died from impact; the aircraft crashed with its landing gear up, all passengers had been prepared for an emergency, as they were strapped into their seats. No distress calls were made prior to the crash. Despite the struggles of both pilots to save the aircraft, it w