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China Burma India Theater

China Burma India Theater was the United States military designation during World War II for the China and Southeast Asian or India–Burma theaters. Operational command of Allied forces in the CBI was the responsibility of the Supreme Commanders for South East Asia or China. However, US forces in practice were overseen by General Joseph Stilwell, the Deputy Allied Commander in China. Well-known Allied units in the CBI included the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the Flying Tigers and bomber units flying the Hump, the 1st Air Commando Group, the engineers who built Ledo Road, the 5307th Composite Unit, popularly known as "Merrill's Marauders", the 5332d Brigade, Provisional or'Mars Task Force', which assumed the Marauders' mission. Japanese policy towards China had long been a source of international controversy. Western powers had exploited China through the open door policy, advocated by United States diplomat William Woodville Rockhill, while Japan intervened more directly, creating the puppet-state of Manchukuo.

By 1937, Japan was engaged in a full-scale war of conquest in China. The infamous Rape of Nanking galvanized Western opinion and led to direct financial aid for the Nationalists and increasing economic sanctions against Japan. In 1941, the U. S. made a series of decisions to support China in its war with Japan: Lend Lease supplies were provided after President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the defense of China to be vital to the defense of the United States. Over the summer, as Japan moved south into French Indo-China, the U. S. Britain and the Netherlands instituted an oil embargo on Japan; the embargo threatened the operations of the Kwantung Army, which had over a million soldiers deployed in China. Japan responded with a co-ordinated offensive on December 7/8 attacking Pearl Harbor, the Philippines, Singapore, Hong Kong, Wake Island, Thailand. Japan cut off Allied supplies to China, coming through Burma. China could be supplied only by flying over the Himalaya mountains from India, or capturing territory in Burma and building a new road—the Ledo Road.

In 1941 and 1942, Japan was overextended. Its naval base could not defend its conquests, its industrial base could not strengthen the navy. To cut off China from Allied aid, it went into Burma, captured Rangoon on 8 March 1942, cutting the Burma Road lifeline to China. Moving north the Japanese took Tounggoo, Burma captured Lashio in upper Burma on 29 April; the British concerned with India, looked to Burma as the main theater of action against Japan and wanted Chinese troops to fight there. The United States conjured up visions of millions of Chinese soldiers who would hold the Japanese throw them back, while providing close-in airbases for a systematic firebombing of Japanese cities; the overland supply route from India to China had to go through Burma. Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek realized. On the other hand, there were vast sums of American dollars available, he did so and managed to feed his starving soldiers, but they were so poorly equipped and led that offensive operations against the Japanese in China were impossible.

However, Chiang did release two Chinese armies for action in Burma under Stilwell. They were smashed by the Japanese and Stilwell, on foot escaped to India. On April 14, 1942, William Donovan, as Coordinator of Information, activated Detachment 101 for action behind enemy lines in Burma; the first unit of its kind, the Detachment was charged with gathering intelligence, harassing the Japanese through guerrilla actions, identifying targets for the Army Air Force to bomb, rescuing downed Allied airmen. Because Detachment 101 was never larger than a few hundred Americans, it relied on support from various tribal groups in Burma. In particular, the vigorously anti-Japanese Kachin people were vital to the unit's success. Detachment 101's efforts opened the way for Stilwell's Chinese forces, Wingate's Raiders, Merrill's Marauders, the counter-attack against the Japanese Imperial life-line. US forces in the CBI were grouped together for administrative purposes under the command of General Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell.

However, unlike other combat theaters, for example the European Theater of Operations, the CBI was never a "theater of operations" and did not have an overall operational command structure. U. S. land units were split between those who came under the operational command of the India Command under General Sir Archibald Wavell, as the Commander-in-Chief in India, those in China, which were commanded by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, as the Supreme Allied Commander in China. However, Stilwell broke the chain of command and communicated directly with the US Joint Chiefs of Staff on operational matters; this continued after the formation of the South East Asia Command and the appointment of Admiral Lord Mountbatten as Supreme Allied Commander. When joint allied command was agreed upon, it was decided that the senior position should be held by a member of the British military because the British dominated Allied operations on the South-East Asian Theatre by weight of numbers. Admiral Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the Supreme Allied Commander of South-East Asia forces in October 1943.

Gen. Stilwell, who

Renju

Renju is the professional variant of Gomoku. It was named Renju by Japanese journalist Ruikou Kuroiwa on December 6, 1899 in a Japanese newspaper Yorozu chouhou; the name "Renju" comes from the Japanese language, means connected pearls in Japanese literally. The game is played with white stones on a 15 × 15 gridded Go board; the rule of Renju weakens the advantages for the first player in Gomoku by adding special restrictions for Black. Unlike Gomoku, Renju has a unique sequence of opening moves called an "opening rule". There are several certified opening rules; the list of requirements for new opening rules as approved by the RIF General Assembly in 2003 was:I. Traditions The basic Renju rules must be kept; the opening stage must not exceed 5 moves. All 26 canonical openings must be possible and only 26 canonical openings can be possible. All present realistic variants must be possible; the moves located closely near the edges of a board during the opening stage are not preferable. II. Simplicity and attraction New rules must be simple to study.

New rules must be simple to play for beginners. The situation when in significant part of cases a beginner will have the lost position after the first 5 moves is not good; the rules must be attractive. III. Creativity The number of possible creative variants must be greater than now; these variants must be achieved under the optimal strategy of both players. The chances of sides to win must be equal; the situation when during the opening stage the player who make a move does not interested in the forming of equal and creative position is not preferable.. The rules must give the chance for both players to avoid the position after the opening stage well known for the opponent; the knowledge of theory and deep own analyses must give an advantage but the player with a good imagination must have chances against this. An example of such opening rule follows; the first player places 1 white stone on the board thus forming opening pattern. The second player now chooses whether to play white. White places one more stone on the board.

Black places 2 stones on the board. White removes one of the two black stones from the previous move. White places a white stone. After this sequence is complete and White continue to take turns to place their stones; the Extra General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2008 created three new sets of rules for openings that are to replace the above old sequence of moves: Soosõrv, Yamaguchi. A rejection system for their use was approved; the General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2009 certified Sakata opening rule as proposed by Russia. The General Assembly of Renju International Federation in 2011 certified modified opening rules such as Taraguchi-N and Soosõrv-N. There are certain moves that Black is not allowed to make: Double three – Black cannot place a stone that builds two separate lines with three black stones in unbroken rows. Double four – Black cannot place a stone that builds two separate lines with four black stones in a row. Overline – six or more black stones in a row.

Black can win the game only by placing five black stones in a row. White can win by either: getting five white stones in a row forcing Black to make a forbidden move; the Renju International Federation is an international organization, founded in Stockholm, Sweden on August 8, 1988. The main purpose of the Renju International Federation is to unite all the renju and gomoku national federations all over the world, organize international tournaments and other activities in renju and gomoku, spread renju activities in the world; the federation carry out the General Assembly every two years. There are several world championships organized by the Renju International Federation, including World Championship, Women World Championships, Team World Championships, Youth World Championships and Correspondence World Championships. Renju World Championships have occurred every second year, since 1989; the opening rule was Yamaguchi from 2009 to 2015, has been changed to Soosõrv-8 since 2017. The Women World Championships started in 1997 and are played every second year, at the same time and place with the World Championships.

Team World Championships in Renju have occurred every second year since 1996. From 2010 to 2016, the opening rule was played is Yamaguchi, since 2018 the rule has been changed to Soosõrv-8. World Championships in Renju via Correspondence were held in 1982 to 1993, now are played every year since 1996 with an exception in 2009, 2010 and 2016. Free Renju was solved in 2001 as a win for the first player. However, Renju with modern opening rules such as Yamaguchi and Soosõrv-N have not been solved; the Renju World Computer Championship was started in 1991, held for 4 times until 2004. From 2016, Renju was added to the Gomocup tournament; the first program playing with human players in public competitions is Meijin-2000 developed by Oleg Stepanov, Russia. In 2000, Meijin-2000 played against human players in Moscow Open Tournament. However, not until 2017 were the computer programs proved to be able to outperform top human players in public competitions. In 2017, there was a match between the world champion program Yixin and the Taiwan's Meijin title holder Lin Shu-Hsuan, Yixin won the match with 3-1.

In 2018, there was a match between Yixin and the former world champion Qi Guan, the match ended in a draw with 2.5-2.5. Gomoku Renju International Federation Worl

Marcos Knight

Marcos Shyderrick Knight is an American professional basketball player for MHP Riesen Ludwigsburg of the easyCredit Basketball Bundesliga. After attending West Laurens High School in Dublin, Knight spent one year each at junior colleges Middle Georgia and Chipola. For his sophomore year, he transferred to Middle Tennessee State University. In his two years with the Blue Raiders, Knight saw the court in a total of 68 games to average 12.2 points, 5.5 rebounds, 2.7 assists as well as 1.2 steals per outing. He garnered All-Sun Belt 1st Team honors and NABC Division I All-District 24 1st Team distinction as a senior. Coming out of college, Knight worked out with NBA teams Charlotte Brooklyn Nets, he signed with Baunach Young Pikes of the German third-tier league ProB in November 2013. Averaging 17.5 points, 6.0 rebounds and 2.6 assists per game, he led the team to the ProB finals and to promotion to the ProA, the second highest level of basketball in Germany. After being handed a contract extension for the 2014-15 season, he continued producing for the Baunach team, scoring 15.3 points to go along with 5.9 boards and 2.6 assists per contest on the season.

He started the 2015-16 campaign playing for USC Heidelberg and took up an offer from fellow ProA side Science City Jena. The move did not happen without controversy, as the Heidelberg team accused him of trying to force the transfer by staying away from practice. After an agreement had been reached, Knight signed with Jena in January 2016. In the following months, he helped the Jena squad win the ProA championship, which earned them promotion to the German top-flight Basketball Bundesliga and was named ProA Player of the Year. In the 2016–17, he stood out as Jena's leading scorer, averaging 18.1 points a game in 25 Bundesliga contests, while pulling down 6.4 rebounds and dishing out 3.0 assists a game. In April 2017, he signed to finish the season with Spanish Liga ACB side Basket Zaragoza 2002. Featuring in six ACB contests until the end of the 2016-17 campaign, he scored 11.2 points a game, while pulling down 6.2 rebounds and handing out 2.2 assists per outing. On July 10, 2017, Knight signed with Afyon Belediye of the Turkish Basketball First League.

With Afyon, he promoted to the first-tier Basketbol Süper Ligi after winning the promotion playoffs. He re-signed for the 2018–19 season. In 2017, Knight participated in The Basketball Tournament for Blue Zoo, a team of Middle Tennessee alumni; the team lost in the first round of the tournament. The Basketball Tournament is an annual $2 million winner-take-all tournament broadcast on ESPN. ACB profile Middle Tennessee State bio Basketball Bundesliga profile

Memory of the World Register – Africa

The first inscriptions on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register were made in 1997. By creating a compendium of the world’s documentary heritage—manuscripts, oral traditions, audio-visual materials and archive holdings—the program aims to tap on its networks of experts to exchange information and raise resources for the preservation and dissemination of documentary materials; as of 2013, 193 documentary heritages have been included in the Register, among them recordings of folk music, ancient languages and phonetics, aged remnants of religious and secular manuscripts, collective lifetime works of renowned giants of literature and music, copies of landmark motion pictures and short films, accounts documenting changes in the world’s political and social stage. Of these, 12 properties were nominated by countries from the region of Africa. Unesco Memory of the World Register – Arab States Official site Memory of the World Programme official website Memory of the World Register - Africa

Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing

Reasonable and non-discriminatory terms known as fair and non-discriminatory terms, denote a voluntary licensing commitment that standards organizations request from the owner of an intellectual property right that is, or may become, essential to practice a technical standard. Put differently, a F/RAND commitment is a voluntary agreement between the standard-setting organization and the holder of standard-essential patents. U. S. courts, as well as courts in other jurisdictions, have found that, in appropriate circumstances, the implementer of a standard—that is, a firm or entity that uses a standard to render a service or manufacture a product—is an intended third-party beneficiary of the FRAND agreement, and, as such, is entitled to certain rights conferred by that agreement. A standard-setting organization is an industry group that sets common standards for its particular industry to ensure compatibility and interoperability of devices manufactured by different companies. A patent becomes standard-essential when a standard-setting organization sets a standard that adopts the technology that the patent covers.

Because a patent, under most countries' legal regimes, grants its inventor an exclusive right to exclude others from making, selling, or importing the invention, a standard-setting organization must obtain permission from the patent holder to include a patented technology in its standard. So, it will request that a patent holder clarify its willingness to offer to license its standard-essential patents on FRAND terms. If the patent holder refuses upon request to license a patent that has become essential to a standard the standard-setting organization must exclude that technology; when viewed in this light, the FRAND commitment serves to harmonize the private interests of patent holders and the public interests of standard-setting organizations. Many scholars have written about these topics, as well as a variety of other legal and economic issues concerning licensing on F/RAND terms. Standard-setting organizations adopt policies that govern the ownership of patent rights that apply to the standards they adopt.

In the United States, the patent holder's agreement to adhere by the patent policy creates a binding contract, as the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled in Microsoft v. Motorola. One of the most common policies is to require a patent holder that voluntarily agrees to include its patented technology in the standard to license that technology on "reasonable and non-discriminatory terms" or on "fair and non-discriminatory terms"; the two terms are interchangeable. S; some commentators argue that standard-setting organizations include the FRAND obligation in their bylaws as a means of enhancing the pro-competitive character of their industry. They are intended to prevent members from engaging in licensing abuse based on the monopolistic advantage generated as a result of having their intellectual property rights included in the industry standards. Once an organization is offering a FRAND license they are required to offer that license to anyone, not only members of the organization. Without such commitment, members could use monopoly power inherent in a standard to impose unfair and discriminatory licensing terms that would damage competition and inflate their own relative position.

On the other hand, commentators stress that the FRAND commitment serves to ensure that the holder of a patent that becomes essential to the standard will receive royalties from users of the standard that adequately compensate the patent holder for the incremental value that its technology contributes to the standard. The development of a patented technology requires significant investment in research, contributing that technology to a standard is not the only option by which a patent holder can recoup that investment and thus monetize its invention. For example, a patent holder has the option to monetize that invention through exclusive use or exclusive licensing. Technology owners might have insufficient incentives to contribute their technologies to a standard-setting organization without the promise of an adequate royalty; the promise of a F/RAND royalty address that problem: the patent holder will agree to contribute its technology to the standard, thus forgoing the exclusive use or the exclusive licensing of its technology, in exchange for the assurance that it will receive adequate compensation in reasonable royalties.

In 2013, court decisions and scholarly articles cited FRAND commitments 10 times more than in 2003. While there are no legal precedents to spell out what the actual terms mean, it can be interpreted from the testimony of people like Professor Mark Lemley from Stanford University, in front of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary that the individual terms are defined as follows: Fair relates to the underlying licensing terms. Drawing from anti-trust/competition law. Examples of terms that would breach this commitment are: requiring licensees to buy licenses for products that they do not want in order to get a license for the products they do want or requiring licensees to take licenses to certain unwanted or unneeded patents to obtain licenses to other desired patents.

List of banana cultivars

The following is a list of banana cultivars and the groups into which they are classified. All modern cultivated varieties of edible bananas and plantains are hybrids and polyploids of two wild, seeded banana species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Cultivated bananas are always seedless and hence sterile, so they are propagated vegetatively, they are classified into groups according to a genome-based system introduced by Ernest Cheesman, Norman Simmonds, Ken Shepherd, which indicates the degree of genetic inheritance from the two wild parents and the number of chromosomes. Cultivars derived from Musa acuminata are more to be used as dessert bananas, while those derived from Musa balbisiana and hybrids of the two are plantains or cooking bananas. Banana plants were classified by Linnaeus into two species, which he called Musa paradisiaca – those used as cooking bananas, M. sapientum – those used as dessert bananas. The primary center of diversity of cultivated bananas is Southeast Asia. Botanical exploration of this area led to many more species being named, along with subspecies and varieties.

However, this approach proved inadequate to deal with the large number of cultivated varieties which were discovered, many of the names proved to be synonyms. Furthermore, it was discovered that most cultivated bananas are hybrids between two wild species, M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, both first described in 1820 by the Italian botanist Luigi Aloysius Colla, that Linnaeus' two "species" were both this hybrid, now called M. × paradisiaca. Unlike the wild species, which have seeds, cultivated bananas are always seedless and hence sterile, so they have to be propagated vegetatively. In 1955, researchers Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd proposed abandoning traditional Latin-based botanical names for cultivated bananas; this approach foreshadowed the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants which, in addition to using Latin names based on the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, gives cultivars names in a spoken language, enclosed in single quotes, organizes them into "cultivar groups" not given Latin names.

Banana cultivars derived from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana can be classified into cultivar groups using two criteria. The first is the number of chromosomes: whether the plant is triploid or tetraploid; the second is relationship to the two ancestral species, which may be determined by genetic analysis or by a scoring system devised by Simmonds and Shepherd. A cultivar is scored on 15 characters, chosen; each character is given a score between one and five according to whether it is typical of M. acuminata or of M. babisiana or is in between. Thus the total score for a cultivar will range from 15 if all characters agree with M. acuminata to 75 if all characters agree with M. balbisiana. Intermediate scores suggest mixed ancestry: for example, 45 would be expected for diploids with equal genetic contributions from both species. Groups are named using a combination of the letters "A" and "B"; the number of letters shows the ploidy. The AAB Group, for example, comprises triploid cultivars with more genetic inheritance from M. acuminata than M. balbisiana.

A character score of around 35 is expected for members of this group. Within groups, cultivars may be divided into subgroups and given a cultivar name, e.g. Musa AAA Group'Robusta'. In practice, the scoring system and the associated grouping is not as straightforward as the Simmonds and Shepherd naming system implies. For example, a member of the AAB Group should have a score about one third of the way between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana if one third of its chromosomes come from M. balbisiana. However, the cultivars'Silk' and'Pome', both classified in the AAB Group, scored 26 and 46 respectively; the cultivar'Pelipita' is placed in the ABB group, so should have 11 of its 33 chromosomes derived from M. acuminata. However, a technique called "genomic in situ hybridization" showed that only 8 chromosomes were of this origin. Other lines of evidence suggest a more complex genome structure is present in other banana cultivars, so the group names should not be taken at face value; the total number of cultivars of bananas and plantains has been estimated to be anything from around 300 to more than 1000.

Names are confused within a single country. Many common names do not refer to clone. Many other names are synonyms of cultivars grown in the different countries. Attempts have been made to create lists of synonyms. In 2000, Valmayor et al. listed equivalent local names for 68 cultivars across five Southeast Asian countries, together with their internationally used names. They considered a further 81 cultivars to be unique to one country. In 2007, Ploetz et al. listed more cultivar names and synonyms, with an emphasis on those grown in the islands of the Pacific, but including some grown in areas such as India and South America. As an example, for the grown cultivar'Dwarf Cavendish', they gave 58 synonyms from 29 different countries or geographical areas. ProMusa has created a checklist of banana cultivar names based on available literature. A recent development is the use of "somaclones" in banana cultivation. Micropropagation involves growing plants from small amounts of so