A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used for decoration; the term flag is used to refer to the graphic design employed, flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner". National flags are patriotic symbols with varied interpretations that include strong military associations because of their original and ongoing use for that purpose. Flags are used in messaging, advertising, or for decorative purposes; some military units are called "flags" after their use of flags. A flag is equivalent to a brigade in Arab countries. In Spain, a flag is a battalion-equivalent in the Spanish Legion. In antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare that can be categorised as vexilloid or'flag-like'; this is considered originated in Assyria. Examples include the Sassanid battle standard Derafsh Kaviani, the standards of the Roman legions such as the eagle of Augustus Caesar's Xth legion, or the dragon standard of the Sarmatians.
Flag as recognized today, made of a piece of cloth representing a particular entity, is considered invented in the Indian subcontinent or Chinese Zhou dynasty. Chinese flags depicted animals decorated in certain colors. A royal flag is considered being used as well, required to be treated with a similar level of respect attributed to the ruler. Indian flags were triangular shaped and decorated with attachments such as yak's tail and the state umbrella; these usages spread to Southeast Asia as well, considered transmitted to Europe through the Muslim world where plainly colored flags were being used due to Islamic prescriptions. In Europe, during the High Middle Ages, flags came to be used as a heraldic device in battle, allowing more to identify a knight than only from the heraldic device painted on the shield. During the high medieval period, during the Late Middle Ages, city states and communes such as those of the Old Swiss Confederacy began to use flags as field signs. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period.
During the peak of the age of sail, beginning in the early 17th century, it was customary for ships to carry flags designating their nationality. Flags became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals. Use of flags outside of military or naval context begins only with the rise of nationalist sentiment by the end of the 18th century. One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolise a country; some national flags have been inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include: The flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, is the oldest national flag still in use, it inspired the cross design of the other Nordic countries: Norway, Finland and regional Scandinavian flags for the Faroe Islands, Åland and Bornholm, as well as flags for the non-Scandinavian Shetland and Orkney. The flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour, its three colours of red and blue go back to Charlemagne's time, the 9th century.
The coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was known for its cloth in these colours. Maps from the early 16th century put flags in these colours next to this region, like Texeira's map of 1520. A century before that, during the 15th century, the three colours were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the three bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled; as state flag it first appeared around 1572 as the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue. Soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing, becoming the prevalent version from around 1630. Orange made a comeback during the civil war of the late 18th century, signifying the orangist or pro-stadtholder party. During World War II the pro-Nazi NSB used it. Any symbolism has been added to the three colours, although the orange comes from the House of Orange-Nassau; this use of orange comes from Nassau, which today uses orange-blue, not from Orange, which today uses red-blue. However, the usual way to show the link with the House of Orange-Nassau is the orange pennant above the red-white-blue.
It is said that the Dutch Tricolour has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, New York City, South Africa. As the probable inspiration for the Russian flag, it is the source too for the Pan-Slavic colours red and blue, adopted by many Slavic states and peoples as their symbols; the national flag of France was designed in 1794. As a forerunner of revolution, France's tricolour flag style has been adopted by other nations. Examples: Italy, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Mexico; the Union Flag of the United Kingdom is the most used. British colonies flew a flag bas
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Beliefs about dragons vary drastically by region, but dragons in western cultures since the High Middle Ages have been depicted as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire. Dragons in eastern cultures are depicted as wingless, four-legged, serpentine creatures with above-average intelligence; the earliest attested dragons resemble giant snakes. Dragon-like creatures are first described in the mythologies of the ancient Near East and appear in ancient Mesopotamian art and literature. Stories about storm-gods slaying giant serpents occur throughout nearly all Indo-European and Near Eastern mythologies. Famous prototypical dragons include the mušḫuššu of ancient Mesopotamia; the popular western image of a dragon as winged, four-legged, capable of breathing fire is an invention of the High Middle Ages based on a conflation of earlier dragons from different traditions. In western cultures, dragons are portrayed as monsters to be tamed or overcome by saints or culture heroes, as in the popular legend of Saint George and the Dragon.
They are said to have ravenous appetites and to live in caves, where they hoard treasure. These dragons appear in western fantasy literature, including The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin; the word "dragon" has come to be applied to the Chinese lung, which are associated with good fortune and are thought to have power over rain. Dragons and their associations with rain are the source of the Chinese customs of dragon dancing and dragon boat racing. Many East Asian deities and demigods have dragons as their personal companions. Dragons were identified with the Emperor of China, during Chinese imperial history, was the only one permitted to have dragons on his house, clothing, or personal articles; the word dragon entered the English language in the early 13th century from Old French dragon, which in turn comes from Latin: draconem meaning "huge serpent, dragon", from Ancient Greek δράκων, drákōn "serpent, giant seafish".
The Greek and Latin term referred to any great serpent, not mythological. The Greek word δράκων is most derived from the Greek verb δέρκομαι meaning "I see", the aorist form of, ἐδρακόμην. Dragon-like creatures appear in all cultures around the globe. Nonetheless, scholars dispute where the idea of a dragon originates from and a wide variety of theories have been proposed. In his book An Instinct for Dragons, anthropologist David E. Jones suggests a hypothesis that humans, just like monkeys, have inherited instinctive reactions to snakes, large cats, birds of prey, he cites a study which found that 39 people in a hundred are afraid of snakes and notes that fear of snakes is prominent in children in areas where snakes are rare. The earliest attested dragons all bear snakelike attributes. Jones therefore concludes that the reason why dragons appear in nearly all cultures is because of humans' innate fear of snakes and other animals that were major predators of humans' primate ancestors. Dragons are said to reside in "dank caves, deep pools, wild mountain reaches, sea bottoms, haunted forests", all places which would have been fraught with danger for early human ancestors.
In her book The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs and Myth in Greek and Roman Times, Adrienne Mayor argues that some stories of dragons may have been inspired by ancient discoveries of fossils belonging to dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. She argues that the dragon lore of northern India may have been inspired by "observations of oversized, extraordinary bones in the fossilbeds of the Siwalik Hills below the Himalayas" and that ancient Greek artistic depictions of the Monster of Troy may have been influenced by fossils of Samotherium, an extinct species of giraffe whose fossils are common in the Mediterranean region. In China, a region where fossils of large prehistoric animals are common, these remains are identified as "dragon bones" and are used in Chinese traditional medicine. Mayor, however, is careful to point out that not all stories of dragons and giants are inspired by fossils and notes that Scandinavia has many stories of dragons and sea monsters, but has long "been considered barren of large fossils."
In one of her books, she states that "Many dragon images around the world were based on folk knowledge or exaggerations of living reptiles, such as Komodo dragons, Gila monsters, alligators, or, in California, alligator lizards." Ancient peoples across the Near East believed in creatures similar to what modern people call "dragons". These ancient peoples were unaware of the existence of dinosaurs or similar creatures in the distant past. References to dragons of both benevolent and malevolent characters occur throughout ancient Mesopotamian literature. In Sumerian poetry, great kings are compared to the ušumgal, a gigantic, serpentine monster. A dragon-like creature with the foreparts of a lion and the hind-legs and wings of a bird appears in Mesopotamian artwork from the Akkadian Period until the Neo-Babylonian Period; the dragon is shown with its mouth open. It may have been known as the nā’iru, which means "roaring weather beast", may ha
A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material cloth but plastic or sometimes metal, used as decorative binding and tying. Cloth ribbons are made of natural materials such as silk, velvet and jute and of synthetic materials, such as polyester and polypropylene. Ribbon is used for innumerable useful and symbolic purposes. Cultures around the world use ribbon in their hair, around the body, as ornamentation on non-human animals and packaging; some popular fabrics used to make ribbons are satin, sheer, silk and grosgrain. The word ribbon comes from Middle English ribban or riban from Old French ruban, of Germanic origin. Along with that of tapes and other smallwares, the manufacture of cloth ribbons forms a special department of the textile industries; the essential feature of a ribbon loom is the simultaneous weaving in one loom frame of two or more webs, going up to as many as forty narrow fabrics in modern looms. To affect the conjoined throwing of all the shuttles and the various other movements of the loom, the automatic action of the power-loom is necessary, it is a remarkable fact that the self-acting ribbon loom was known and extensively used more than a century before the famous invention of Cartwright.
A loom in which several narrow webs could be woven at one time is mentioned as having been working in Dantzig towards the end of the 16th century. Similar looms were at work in Leiden in 1620, where their use gave rise to so much discontent and rioting on the part of the weavers that the states-general had to prohibit their use; the prohibition was renewed at various intervals throughout the century, in the same interval the use of the ribbon loom was interdicted in most of the principal industrial centres of Europe. In 1676, under the name of the Dutch loom or engine loom, it was brought to London, although its introduction there caused some disturbance, it does not appear to have been prohibited. In 1745, John Kay, the inventor of the fly-shuttle, conjointly with Joseph Stell, a patent for improvements in the ribbon loom. Since that period, it has benefited by the inventions applied to weaving machinery generally. Ribbon-weaving is known to have been established near St. Etienne as early as the 11th century, that town has remained the headquarters of the industry in Europe.
During the Huguenot troubles, ribbon-weavers from St. Etienne settled at Basel, there, established an industry which in modern times has rivalled that of the original seat of the trade. In the late 19th century a Frenchman known as C. M. Offray— himself from St. Etienne— moved his ribbon business to the United States and set up a company called "C. M. Offray & Sons, Inc" which went on to become a huge manufacturer of ribbons in North America. In Germany, Krefeld is the centre of the ribbon industry. In England. Coventry is the most important seat of ribbon-making, prosecuted at Norwich and Leicester. While satin and other sorts of ribbon have always been used in lingerie, the usage of ribbon in the garment industry, while subject to fashion trends, saw an upsurge in the mid to late 90's; this upsurge led to increased ribbon manufacturing as well as new and improved manufacturing techniques. Due to more competitive production rates, as well as past experience in this field, companies in the Far East – those in China – secured themselves to be the major ribbon suppliers in the world and improved both the quality and the variety of their merchandise to match those of their established European and North American competitors.
Presently, the North American continent remains the largest importer of ribbon and ribbon derivative products. However, due to outsourcing of production of garments by North American garment manufacturers, countries in Asia and South America have started to contribute to the change of the statistical figures of ribbon imports. Inspired by European silk ribbons obtained through trade, Great Lakes and Prairie Native American tribes created art form of appliqué ribbon work. Typewriters and dot matrix printers use a plastic ribbon to hold the ink. Pieces of ribbon are used as symbols of support or awareness for various social causes and are called "awareness ribbons". Ribbons are used such as in a ribbon cutting ceremony. Award ribbon Card printer Dye-sublimation printer Ribbon bar Ribbon cable This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ribbons". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 283
Battle of Yangcun
The Battle of Yangcun was a battle during the march of Eight-Nation Alliance forces from Tianjin to Beijing during the Boxer Rebellion. The Alliance forces were able to continue their march towards Peking. On August 4, 1900, the soldiers of the Eight-Nation Alliance left the city of Tianjin to march to Beijing to relieve the Siege of the Legations; the army consisted of 20,000 troops from the following countries: United States, 2,000. The Alliance defeated the Chinese army at Beicang on August 5; the Chinese retreated 12 miles to Yangcun, where they took up prepared positions between the east bank of the Hai River and a railroad embankment. Yangcun was the strongpoint at which the Chinese army hoped to stop the advance of the Alliance army; the country was flat, with little cover for the attackers except for fields of millet and corn, the 30-foot-high railroad embankment gave shelter to the Chinese forces. The Americans and British were in the forefront of the Alliance column advancing on Yangcun on August 6.
The Japanese would not be part of the battle. The Chinese numbered about 10,000, although it is unknown how many were on the battlefield itself. A serious problem for Alliance troops was the tremendous heat. About 20% of the men fell out of the ranks during the march to Yangcun and several deaths from sunstroke were recorded. Many more men would be incapacitated by the heat during the battle; the Alliance deployed about 5,000 yards from the Chinese positions. Its battle line stretching east from the river consisted of the Russians first, next the British the Americans 14th Infantry, on the right flank the 9th Infantry supported by U. S. Marines; the British Bengal Lancers anchored the right flank. The attack began at 11:00 a.m. than a battle. Most of the men had exhausted the water in their canteens. "There were no streams of water in the country over which the advance was made. The men were famishing of thirst, they fell by scores with heat exhaustion". The Americans bore the brunt of the Chinese resistance as they advanced on the strongest Chinese positions behind the railroad embankment.
"The plain in front of us was a furnace. Dust rose in thick clouds". Men collapsed of heat exhaustion. Chinese artillery and rifle fire became "moderately severe" and the Americans, now in open country with no cover, advanced in a rush to dislodge the Chinese. However, as they charged over the embankment they found; the remainder of the battle consisted of rear-guard actions. The American advance had been so rapid that the British artillery mistook the Americans for the retreating Chinese and lobbed shells into the 14th Infantry, killing four American soldiers and wounding 11; the Americans frantically sent out messengers to signal the British and Russians to stop the shelling. In addition, American forces were fired upon by French forces during the battle; the Battle of Yangcun was over by late afternoon, with the victorious but exhausted Alliance soldiers in control of the battlefield. The Chinese army had escaped with few casualties, abandoning strong positions as the Alliance troops advanced.
American casualties were 9 dead and 64 wounded. In addition, two American soldiers died of sunstroke; the British had one dead of sunstroke. The Russians had 20 wounded; the Alliance had defeated the Chinese at both Yangcun. Although still intact and damaged, the Chinese army did not challenge the Alliance again and the Alliance troops continued their march unopposed, to Beijing. On August 14 they would force their way into the city, raise the Siege of the Legations and occupy the city and the surrounding countryside, wiping out the last vestiges of the Boxer movement. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China and of the Kuomintang party praised the Boxers for fighting against Western Imperialism, he said the Boxers were courageous and fearless, fighting to the death against the Western armies, Dr. Sun cited the Battle of Yangcun, although referring to a battle earlier in the Boxer Rebellion between the Boxers and the army of the Seymour Expedition. Д.Г.Янчевецкий "У стен недвижного Китая".
Санкт-Петербург - Порт-Артур, 1903 В. Г. Дацышен «Русско-китайская война 1900 года. Поход на Пекин» — СПБ, 1999. ISBN 5-8172-0011-2 Thompson, Larry Clinton. William Scott Ament and the Boxer Rebellion: Heroism and the Ideal Missionary
Campaign streamers are decorations attached to military flags to recognize particular achievements or events of a military unit or service. Attached to the headpiece of the assigned flag, the streamer is an inscribed ribbon with the name and date denoting participation in a particular battle, military campaign, or theater of war, they are physical manifestations of battle honours, though this does not mean all streamers are battle honours. They should not be confused with a tassel, purely decorative in nature; the armed forces of Germany, the United States and others have engaged in awarding streamers. Prussia, Austria-Hungary and the Soviet Union have used streamers in this manner; the United States Army established campaign streamers in 1920, the United States Marine Corps in 1939, the United States Air Force in 1956. The United States Coast Guard adopted battle streamers in 1968, with the United States Navy following suit in 1971. Many of the practices relative to their display are similar among the services.
There are, differences regarding the number of streamers and use of embroidered devices. The Army carries a separate streamer for each important action in all wars in which that service has participated, each embroidered with the name of the action commemorated; the Army allows 190 streamers, the Air Force, employing the Army system, carries more than 60. Unlike the Army-Air Force practice, the Marines and Navy use one ribbon for each war, campaign, or theater of operations. Specific actions or battles are highlighted by silver stars embroidered on the ribbon; the Marine Corps has 50 streamers, the Navy 36, the Coast Guard uses 43, unadorned by either stars or lettering. Stars on the Marines and Navy streamers follow the practice initiated during the World War II period for ribbons and medals—that is, a bronze service star for each action, a silver star in lieu of five bronze stars; the Navy applies stars to appropriate ribbons throughout its history, whereas the Marine Corps uses stars to commemorate service starting from 1900.
The Navy's Presidential Unit Citation, Navy Unit Commendation, Meritorious Unit Commendation streamers each carry a red number rather than stars, representing the number of times that the respective award has been conferred upon Navy units. U. S. streamers tend to have a flat end, with writing, with the sole exception being those of the USMC, whose streamers have a pointed end with no writing. U. S. streamers' sizes vary based upon the military branch that uses them and the size of the flag that they are attached to. They are 3 feet long and 2.75 inches wide. Where a medal has been awarded for a particular war or service, the coloring and design of the streamer are the same as the ribbon from which the medal is suspended. Conflicts and operations for which no medal was issued have ribbons specially designed for use as streamers. Campaigns Additionally, units that have been awarded citation or decoration may carry the associated streamer. Foreign awards are last in precedence. Current US Army policy allows the display of fourrageres and lanyards during ceremonial occasions on the flagstaff of those units authorized.
A foreign unit award medal may be pinned to the applicable foreign award streamer during ceremonial occasions. GeneralAwards and decorations of the United States militaryOther campaign related itemsCampaign medal Campaign clasp U. S. Army campaign streamers U. S. Navy campaign streamers U. S. Marine Corps campaign streamers U. S. Air Force campaign streamers U. S. Coast Guard campaign streamers
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War called the War Department, was the United States Cabinet department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence; the War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment, renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949. Shortly after the establishment of a strong government under President George Washington in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president and the secretary of war.
Retired senior General Henry Knox in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War. Forming and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. Direct field command of the small Regular Army by President Washington leading a column of troops west through Pennsylvania to Fort Cumberland in Maryland in 1794 to combat the incipient Whiskey Rebellion on the frontier was an occasion never since used by American Presidents; the Possibility of re-organizing a "New Army" under nominal command of retired President and Major General George Washington and his aide, former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to deal with the rising tide of maritime incidents between American commerce ships and the new French Republic was authorized by second President John Adams in 1798 and the remote possibility of land invasion was an interesting adventure. On November 8, 1800 the War Department building with its records and files was consumed by fire. Foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army.
In August 1814 during the Burning of Washington, the United States Department of War building was burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and record had been saved. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary. Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun reorganized the department into a system of bureaus, whose chiefs held office for life, a commanding general in the field, although the Congress did not authorize this position. Winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861; the bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops and field installations. The bureaus conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War supported the bureaus. Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, their chiefs looked to that body for support. Calhoun set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824, the main agency within the War Department for dealing with Native Americans until 1849, when the Congress transferred it to the newly founded Department of the Interior.
During the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care and pay of two million soldiers, comprising both the regular army and the much larger temporary volunteer army. A separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. During Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states; when military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, the last Republican state governments in the region ended; the Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, in coastal artillery units in port cities, dealing with the threat of a naval attack. The United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century.
By contrast, France had an army of 542,000. Temporary volunteers and state militia units fought the Spanish–American War of 1898; this conflict demonstrated the need for more effective control over its bureaus. Secretary of War Elihu Root sought to appoint a chief of staff as general manager and a European-type general staff for planning, aiming to achieve this goal in a businesslike manner, but General Nelson A. Miles stymied his efforts. Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and the General Staff, he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War, Root worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, wrote the charter of government for the Philippines, eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico.
Root's successor as Secretary