Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China. Part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Hubei, Sichuan, Gansu and Inner Mongolia, it covers an area of over 205,000 km2 with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby; the other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Hanzhong, Tongchuan, Yan'an and Yulin. Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qin Mountains and Shannan in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Jin and Tang dynasties in addition to the Qin, it does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.
The name "Shaanxi" is an irregular romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 陕西, meaning " West of the Shan Pass". This pass in Henan, now part of Sanmenxia's Shanzhou District, was considered to be the place where the Yellow River left the Loess Plateau and entered the North China Plain; because the Mandarin pronunciation of Shaanxi and its eastern neighbor Shanxi differs only in tone, their spelling in pinyin romanization differs only by tone marks. The People's Republic of China therefore adopted the special official spelling "Shaanxi"; the first syllable is derived from Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization, which reflects the tones of the words' vowels in their spelling. The second syllable—which would be shi in Gwoyeu Romatzyh—is instead given its usual pinyin spelling xi; when tone marks are noted, it is spelled Shǎnxī rather than Shǎanxī or Shaǎnxī. Before the adoption of pinyin, Shaanxi was romanized as Shensi in the Chinese postal romanization scheme. Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization.
Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou dynasty to the Tang dynasty. The province's principal city and current capital, Xi'an, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa. Under the Han dynasty, the Northern Silk Road was expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west; this Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2,600 kilometres in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgar before linking to ancient Parthia. Under the Ming dynasty, Shaanxi was incorporated into Gansu but was again separated in the Qing dynasty. One of the most devastating earthquakes in history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people.
The end of the short-lived Jiangxi Soviet signalled the beginning of the Long March by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists to the Shaanxi Soviet at Yan'an. The Lantian Man site, with hominin fossils of one million years ago, was found in Lantian County in northwestern Shaanxi province, near the city of Xi'an. Scientists classify Lantian Man as a subspecies of Homo erectus; the fossils are displayed at Xi'an, China. The geography of the area is described as being part of the Ordos Desert in the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qin Mountains running east to west in the south central part, subtropical climate south of the Qinling. In between the Loess Plateau and the Qinling lies the Wei River Valley, or Guanzhong, a cradle of early Chinese civilization. Going clockwise, Shaanxi borders Shanxi, Hubei, Sichuan, Gansu and Inner Mongolia. In terms of number of bordering provincial-level divisions, Shaanxi ties Inner Mongolia. Due to its large span in latitude, Shaanxi has a variety of climates.
Under the Köppen climate classification, the northern parts, including the Loess Plateau, have either a cold arid or cold semi-arid, with cold and dry winters, dry springs and autumns, hot summers. The area known as Guanzhong is semi-arid, though there are a few areas with a humid subtropical climate, with cool to cold winters, hot, humid summers that see early-season heatwaves; the southern portion is much more humid and lies in the humid subtropical zone, with more temperate winters and long, humid summers. Annual mean temperature is between 8 to 16 °C, with January temperatures ranging from −11 to 3.5 °C and July temperatures ranging from 21 to 28 °C. Besides the provincial capital of Xi'an, other cities include: Baoji, Lintong, Xianyang, Yan'an and Ankang. Shaanxi consists of ten prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities: The ten prefecture-level divisions of Shaanxi are subdivided into 107 county-level divisions; the politics of Shaanxi is structured in a triple party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is the main airport serving Xi'an, the capital of China's Shaanxi Province, as well as the whole Guanzhong area. Covering an area of 5 square kilometres, it is the largest airport in Northwest China, the second largest airport in Northern China; the airport was the hub for China Northwest Airlines until the company was merged into China Eastern Airlines in 2002. Xi'an Airport is the hub for Joy Air and Hainan Airlines. Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is a Skytrax 4-star airport. In 2018, the airport handled 44,650,000 passengers, making it the busiest airport in northwest China and the 7th busiest nationwide. Xi'an Xianyang International Airport was the nation's 14th busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic and the 7th busiest airport by traffic movements; the airport is located within the administrative area of Xianyang city, which gives the airport its name. It is 41 kilometres northwest of Xi'an city centre, 13 kilometres northeast of the centre of Xianyang.
Before Xianyang Airport was built, Xi'an was served by Xi'an Xiguan Airport. In 1984, the State Council of China and the Central Military Commission proposed to build a large civil airport on the site of Xianyang's airfield. Phase 1 of the airport commenced construction on August 1987, was finished and opened on 1 September 1991. Xi'an Xiguan Airport was closed at the same time. Phase 2 started in August 2000, was finished on 16 September 2003. Another 7.592-billion-yuan project is scheduled to be completed by 2020. Finnair's service to Helsinki was the first intercontinental route out of Xi'an, launching on 14 June 2013, it is now a seasonal route. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on 3 May 2012, increasing the airport's capacity to more than 33 million passengers a year; the new terminal alone can handle 22 million passengers a year, twice as many as the other two terminals combined. Airlines that moved into the new terminal are China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines.
The second runway is 3,800 meters long and is large enough to handle the Airbus A380. Eight airport bus routes connect the airport well with the Xianyang city. There are long-distance buses which connect the airport with Baoji, Lintong, Hanzhong, Tongchuan, Yan'an, Pingliang. Xi'an Metro Airport line between Bei Kezhan station and the airport is under construction and is expected to open in 2019. On 6 June 1994, China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke up in mid-air and crashed near Xi'an, en route to Guangzhou from Xi'an. A maintenance error was responsible. All 160 people on board died. Xi'an Xiguan Airport List of airports in China List of the busiest airports in China Official website Current weather for ZLXY at NOAA/NWS Accident history for XIY / ZLXY at Aviation Safety Network
Air Macau Company Limited is the flag carrier airline of Macau. It operates services to 24 destinations in Mainland China, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam, as well as regional international services, from its hub at Macau International Airport. In 2014, Air Macau carried 2.12 million passengers with an average load factor of 68.20% and carried 15,900 tonnes of cargo and mail. The airline was established on 13 September 1994, began commercial operations on 9 November 1995, with a flight from Macau to Beijing and Shanghai. Prior to 1995, there was no air service to Macau since 1962 other than the helicopter service. Seaplane service had been provided by Macau Air Transport Company from 1948 to 1961. One-aircraft service between Beijing and Taipei began on 8 December 1995; the first pure-freighter service was launched on 7 October 2002, between Taipei and Shenzhen via Macau. In 1999 the airline had 1.1 million passengers each year, with 80% of them originating from two cities in the Republic of China on Taiwan: Kaohsiung and Taipei.
In 2006 Air Macau was owned by China National Aviation Holding, TAP Portugal, STDM, EVA Air, the government of Macau and Macau investors. It employs 1,245 staff. In 2009 two companies controlled by Edmund Ho, the Chief Executive of Macau sold a combined 1.25% stake to Air China for a sum undisclosed by the parties. In 2010 TAP sold its share to Air China; the head office is in the Edifício CNAC in Sé on the Macau Peninsula. It was in the Edifício Tai Wah in Sé; the airline operates its own aircraft to 24 destinations including 15 destinations in mainland China. Air Macau has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Air Macau and All Nippon Airways launch frequent flyer program cooperation from July 1, 2010. Air Macau Privileges members will earn mileages on all scheduled flights operated by All Nippon Airways and marketed by All Nippon Airways or Air Macau, redeem Award Travel on all scheduled flights operated and marketed by All Nippon Airways; as of February 2019, the Air Macau fleet consists of the following aircraft: Two Boeing 727-100Fs were rented to provide air cargo service to Shenzhen and Taiwan from 2002 to 2006.
Both aircraft were replaced with two A300-600RFs owned by Air Macau. These two Airbus A300 left the company in 2012. Two old A321-100 were replaced by two new A321-200 in 2013. Although Air Macau serves as Macau's flag carrier, the Special Administrative Region of Macau flag has never appeared on any of its aircraft. Neither did. Macau Asia Express was a failed low-cost airline project, to be based in Macau and to be launched in 2007, offering scheduled flights to China, it was founded on 24 January 2006 with an initial funding of $30 million. It was owned by Air Macau and ST-CNAC; the aircraft fleet would have consisted of 6 Airbus A320 short-medium haul jet aircraft, planned to be expanded to 15-20 aircraft over the first years in operation. In November 2007, the Macau Daily News reported that Macau Asia Express was suffering funding problems, which led to a delay at the taking-over of the ordered aircraft, the revocal of the Air Operator's Certificate in 2008. Transport in Macau Media related to Air Macau at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Sichuan Airlines Co. Ltd. is a Chinese airline based in Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport in Chengdu, Sichuan Province and it is the largest airline in western China, operating scheduled domestic and international flights out of Chengdu Shuangliu Airport, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and Kunming Changshui International Airport. The airline was established on 19 September 1986 as Sichuan Airlines Company, with operations starting on 14 July 1988 with flights between Chengdu and Wanzhou; the airline was restructured as Sichuan Airlines Co. Ltd. on 29 August 2002, in which the Sichuan Airlines Co. Ltd. Group became the major shareholder; the other shareholders are China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Air China Group and Chengdu Gingko Restaurant Co.. Sichuan Airlines' corporate headquarters is located in its hub Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport in Chengdu, Sichuan. Sichuan Airlines uses secondary hubs at Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport and Kunming Changshui International Airport.
Sichuan Airlines owns Chengdu Airlines as its subsidiary, which has its hub at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport. Chengdu Airlines was named as United Eagle Airlines, was changed to Chengdu Airlines to help lift the image of Chengdu on behalf of the city's government, according to an anonymous official of Sichuan Airlines. In late 2009, Sichuan Airlines sold some of its share of Chengdu Airlines to aircraft manufacturer Comac and the Chengdu Communications Investment Group. Chengdu Airlines is planned to become the first operator of the Comac ARJ21. Sichuan Airlines' logo is a haiyan, soaring with high temperament, symbolizing the company's entrepreneurial spirit; the circle represents the earth and the four wave patterns represents a hundred rivers going into the sea and carrying back virtues, corresponding to the core values of Sichuan Airlines' "truthfulness, beauty, love", symbolizing that Sichuan Airlines takes off from the inland and connects the stability of land civilization and the outward development of marine civilization.
In addition to the logo, Sichuan Airlines gives emphasis to the Chinese character chuan in which not only the character means river or a shortened name of Sichuan, but that the character is defined as running through and gathering. It means that Sichuan Airlines is engaged in aviation flight and had built a world-class fleet that connects five continents, improving its network radiation capability and opening more international routes to build a bridge between Western China and the world and to integrate the world's corporate vision. Sichuan Airlines is operating flights in East Asia. Others destinations include Australia, New Zealand, Western Asia, Southeast Asia and North America, etc; the airline launched its first long-haul overseas route in June 2012 with flights from its Chengdu hub to Vancouver, Canada. Its second long-haul flight, from Chengdu to Melbourne, was launched in February 2013 with three weekly services. On 17 October 2016 the airline launched twice-a-week service from Chengdu via Hangzhou to Los Angeles.
In 2016, Sichuan Airlines started twice-a-week flights to Prague. On June 23, 2018, Sichuan Airlines launched service from Chengdu to Zurich via Prague, it was the first fifth freedom flight for the airline. It was the only airline operating this route with Airbus A330 wide body aircraft. Sichuan Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Air China Chengdu Airlines China Eastern Airlines China Express Airlines China Southern Airlines Kunming Airlines Shandong Airlines Shanghai Airlines Shenzhen Airlines Tibet Airlines XiamenAir As of March 2019, Sichuan Airlines operates an all-Airbus fleet consisting of the following aircraft: The Golden Panda Club is a frequent-flyer program launched by Sichuan Airlines, it can enjoy free tickets and other product rewards. When the mileage reaches a certain standard, it can be upgraded to a VIP member and enjoy free upgrades. Free first class lounge waiting, free baggage allowance and other value-added services. On 24 January 2003, Sichuan Airlines Flight 434, a Embraer EMB-145 from Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport to Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, one man attempted to hijack the airplane and ignited home-made explosives, which injured a passenger and himself.
He was subdued by a security officer. On 14 May 2018, Sichuan Airlines Flight 8633, an Airbus A319 from Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport to Lhasa Gonggar Airport, diverted to Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport after a windshield on the copilot's side of the cockpit blew off, intrinsically similar to the 1990 British Airways Flight 5390 Incident, resulting in a loss of a part of the flight control panel; the flight crew made a difficult landing with decompression failure and low temperature. The copilot and a flight attendant were reported injured. Civil aviation in China List of airlines of China List of airports in China List of companies of China Transport in China Media related to Sichuan Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
China Northwest Airlines Flight 2119
China Northwest Airlines Flight 2119 was a flight from Yinchuan Xihuayuan Airport, Ningxia to Beijing Capital International Airport, People's Republic of China. On July 23, 1993, the aircraft crashed into a lake after it was unable to get airborne while attempting to take off at Yinchuan Airport, killing 54 passengers and 1 crew member on board. Just before rotation on takeoff, the right-side flap actuator failed. Unable to get the aircraft into the air, the crew had no other option; the aircraft crashed into a lake. List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft Accident database from airdisaster.com
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport (former)
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport or Pai Yuen Airport was the main airport in Guangzhou, until August 5, 2004, when it was replaced by the identically named Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, some 25 kilometres to the north. Opened in 1932, "Baiyun" means "white clouds" in Chinese, while the airport took its name from the adjacent Baiyun Mountain. Aerial views of the old airport show redevelopment is complete with covered with parks and commercial developments; the terminal building is being converted as G5 Mall. The old airport opened in 1932. Due to the expansion of Guangzhou, the airport could not expand to meet passengers needs. On August 5, 2004, the new Baiyun airport opened and the old airport was closed; the former terminal of the airport is being converted into a large shopping mall. Other plans are converting the northern portion of the former airport into a provincial-and city-level functional area integrating conference services; the southern portion will be converted into Guangzhou's secondary center integrating retail business, sports and commercial activities.
On the 24 December 1982, an Ilyushin Il-18 on CAAC Flight 2311 was destroyed by fire after landing at the airport. 25 passengers were killed. On 2 October 1990, Xiamen Airlines Flight 8301 from Xiamen to Guangzhou, a Boeing 737-247 jetliner, hijacked shortly after it took off from Xiamen, landed at the airport, sideswiped a China Southwest Airlines Boeing 707, crashed into a China Southern Airlines Boeing 757, causing a total of 128 fatalities; the three other aircraft on the apron were destroyed. List of defunct international airports
British Aerospace 146
The British Aerospace 146 is a short-haul and regional airliner, manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace part of BAE Systems. Production ran from 1983 until 2002. Manufacture of an improved version known as the Avro RJ began in 1992. A further-improved version with new engines, the Avro RJX, was announced in 1997, but only two prototypes and one production aircraft were built before production ceased in 2001. With 387 aircraft produced, the Avro RJ/BAe 146 is the most successful British civil jet airliner programme; the BAe 146/Avro RJ is a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a T-tail. It has four turbofan engines mounted on pylons underneath the wings, has retractable tricycle landing gear; the aircraft has quiet operation, has been marketed under the name Whisperjet. It sees wide usage at city-based airports such as London City Airport. In its primary role, it serves as a regional jet, short-haul airliner, or regional airliner, while examples of the type are in use as private jets.
The BAe 146/Avro RJ is in wide use with several European-based carriers such as CityJet. The largest operator of the type, Swiss Global Air Lines, retired its last RJ100 in August 2017; the BAe 146 was produced in -200 and -300 models. The equivalent Avro RJ versions are designated RJ70, RJ85, RJ100; the freight-carrying version carries the designation "QT", a convertible passenger-or-freight model is designated as "QC". A "gravel kit" can be fitted to aircraft to enable operations from unprepared airstrips. In August 1973, Hawker Siddeley launched a new 70-seat regional airliner project, the HS.146, to fill the gap between turboprop-powered airliners such as the Hawker Siddeley HS.748 and the Fokker F.27 and small jet airliners such as the BAC One-Eleven and Boeing 737. The chosen configuration had a high wing and a T-tail to give good short-field performance, while the aircraft was to be powered by four 6,500 lbf thrust Avco Lycoming ALF 502H turbofan engines. There were several reasons. A major factor would have been that no manufacturer was producing a 13,000-lbf-thrust-class high-bypass ratio turbofan engine at the time.
The programme was launched with backing from the UK government, which agreed to contribute 50% of the development costs in return for a share of the revenues from each aircraft sold. In October 1974, all work on the project was halted as a result of the world economic downturn resulting from the 1973 oil crisis. Low-key development proceeded, in 1978, British Aerospace, Hawker Siddeley's corporate successor, relaunched the project. British Aerospace marketed the aircraft as a quiet, low-consumption, turbofan aircraft, which would be effective at replacing the previous generation of turboprop-powered feeder aircraft; the first order for the BAe 146 was placed by Líneas Aéreas Privadas Argentinas in June 1981. Prior to the first flight, British Aerospace had forecast that the smaller 146-100 would outsell the 146-200 variant. By 1981, a large assembly line had been completed at British Aerospace's Hatfield site, the first completed aircraft flew that year followed by two more prototypes. Initial flight results showed climb performance.
In 1982, British Aerospace stated that the sale of a total 250 aircraft was necessary for the venture to break even. The BAe 146 received its Certificate of Airworthiness on 8 February 1983. Upon its launch into service, it was hailed as being "the world's quietest jetliner". Early production aircraft were built at Hatfield, a de Havilland factory; the Avro RJ family of aircraft was assembled at the Avro International BAE Systems Regional Aircraft Centre, at Woodford Aerodrome in Greater Manchester, England. Production of various sections of the aircraft was carried out at different BAE plants; the rear fuselage section was manufactured at BAE Systems' former Avro site at Chadderton, Greater Manchester. The centre fuselage section was manufactured at the Filton BAE site; the vertical stabilizer came from Brough, the engine pylons were made at Prestwick. The nose section was manufactured at Hatfield, where the assembly line for the early aircraft was located; some manufacturing was subcontracted outside the UK.
Due to the sales performance of the BAe 146, British Aerospace announced a development project in early 1991 to produce a new variant of the type, powered by two turbofan engines instead of four, offered to airlines as a regional jet aircraft. Dubbed the new regional aircraft, other proposed alterations from the BAe 146 included the adoption of a new enlarged wing and a lengthened fuselage. In 1993, the upgraded Avro RJ series superseded the BAe 146. Changes included the replacement of the original Lycoming ALF 502 turbofan engines by higher-thrust LF 507 turbofan engines, which were housed in redesigned nacelles; the Avro RJ series featured a modernised cockpit with EFIS replacing the analogue ADI, HSI, engine instrumentation. An arrangement between British Aerospace and Khazanah Nasional would have opened an Avro RJ production line in Malaysia, but this deal collapsed in 1997. In 2000, British Aerospace announced that it was to replace the Avro RJ series with a further-improved Avro RJX series.
Production of the Avro RJ ended with the final four aircraft being delivered in late 2003. British Ae